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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5504, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127880

RESUMO

Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-Seq) is a compelling approach to directly and simultaneously measure cellular composition and state, which can otherwise only be estimated by applying deconvolution methods to bulk RNA-Seq estimates. However, it has not yet become a widely used tool in population-scale analyses, due to its prohibitively high cost. Here we show that given the same budget, the statistical power of cell-type-specific expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping can be increased through low-coverage per-cell sequencing of more samples rather than high-coverage sequencing of fewer samples. We use simulations starting from one of the largest available real single-cell RNA-Seq data from 120 individuals to also show that multiple experimental designs with different numbers of samples, cells per sample and reads per cell could have similar statistical power, and choosing an appropriate design can yield large cost savings especially when multiplexed workflows are considered. Finally, we provide a practical approach on selecting cost-effective designs for maximizing cell-type-specific eQTL power which is available in the form of a web tool.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Sequência de Bases , Biologia Computacional , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Genômica , Humanos
2.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1008934, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870927

RESUMO

Significant association signals from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) point to genomic regions of interest. However, for most loci the causative genetic variant remains undefined. Determining expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in a disease relevant tissue is an excellent approach to zoom in on disease- or trait-associated association signals and hitherto on relevant disease mechanisms. To this end, we explored regulation of gene expression in healthy retina (n = 311) and generated the largest cis-eQTL data set available to date. Genotype- and RNA-Seq data underwent rigorous quality control protocols before FastQTL was applied to assess the influence of genetic markers on local (cis) gene expression. Our analysis identified 403,151 significant eQTL variants (eVariants) that regulate 3,007 genes (eGenes) (Q-Value < 0.05). A conditional analysis revealed 744 independent secondary eQTL signals for 598 of the 3,007 eGenes. Interestingly, 99,165 (24.71%) of all unique eVariants regulate the expression of more than one eGene. Filtering the dataset for eVariants regulating three or more eGenes revealed 96 potential regulatory clusters. Of these, 31 harbour 130 genes which are partially regulated by the same genetic signal. To correlate eQTL and association signals, GWAS data from twelve complex eye diseases or traits were included and resulted in identification of 80 eGenes with potential association. Remarkably, expression of 10 genes is regulated by eVariants associated with multiple eye diseases or traits. In conclusion, we generated a unique catalogue of gene expression regulation in healthy retinal tissue and applied this resource to identify potentially pleiotropic effects in highly prevalent human eye diseases. Our study provides an excellent basis to further explore mechanisms of various retinal disease etiologies.


Assuntos
Retina/metabolismo , Retina/fisiologia , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Autopsia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
3.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1009019, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915782

RESUMO

Loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can include multiple distinct association signals. We sought to identify the molecular basis of multiple association signals for adiponectin, a hormone involved in glucose regulation secreted almost exclusively from adipose tissue, identified in the Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study. With GWAS data for 9,262 men, four loci were significantly associated with adiponectin: ADIPOQ, CDH13, IRS1, and PBRM1. We performed stepwise conditional analyses to identify distinct association signals, a subset of which are also nearly independent (lead variant pairwise r2<0.01). Two loci exhibited allelic heterogeneity, ADIPOQ and CDH13. Of seven association signals at the ADIPOQ locus, two signals colocalized with adipose tissue expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for three transcripts: trait-increasing alleles at one signal were associated with increased ADIPOQ and LINC02043, while trait-increasing alleles at the other signal were associated with decreased ADIPOQ-AS1. In reporter assays, adiponectin-increasing alleles at two signals showed corresponding directions of effect on transcriptional activity. Putative mechanisms for the seven ADIPOQ signals include a missense variant (ADIPOQ G90S), a splice variant, a promoter variant, and four enhancer variants. Of two association signals at the CDH13 locus, the first signal consisted of promoter variants, including the lead adipose tissue eQTL variant for CDH13, while a second signal included a distal intron 1 enhancer variant that showed ~2-fold allelic differences in transcriptional reporter activity. Fine-mapping and experimental validation demonstrated that multiple, distinct association signals at these loci can influence multiple transcripts through multiple molecular mechanisms.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Alelos , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
4.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1008780, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925905

RESUMO

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) in large human cohorts have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits and diseases. For identifying the genes and gene-associated variants that underlie complex traits in livestock, especially where sample sizes are limiting, it may help to integrate the results of GWAS for equivalent traits in humans as prior information. In this study, we sought to investigate the usefulness of results from a GWAS on human height as prior information for identifying the genes and gene-associated variants that affect stature in cattle, using GWAS summary data on samples sizes of 700,000 and 58,265 for humans and cattle, respectively. Using Fisher's exact test, we observed a significant proportion of cattle stature-associated genes (30/77) that are also associated with human height (odds ratio = 5.1, p = 3.1e-10). Result of randomized sampling tests showed that cattle orthologs of human height-associated genes, hereafter referred to as candidate genes (C-genes), were more enriched for cattle stature GWAS signals than random samples of genes in the cattle genome (p = 0.01). Randomly sampled SNPs within the C-genes also tend to explain more genetic variance for cattle stature (up to 13.2%) than randomly sampled SNPs within random cattle genes (p = 0.09). The most significant SNPs from a cattle GWAS for stature within the C-genes did not explain more genetic variance for cattle stature than the most significant SNPs within random cattle genes (p = 0.87). Altogether, our findings support previous studies that suggest a similarity in the genetic regulation of height across mammalian species. However, with the availability of a powerful GWAS for stature that combined data from 8 cattle breeds, prior information from human-height GWAS does not seem to provide any additional benefit with respect to the identification of genes and gene-associated variants that affect stature in cattle.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Gado/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
5.
Plant Dis ; 104(11): 2875-2884, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954987

RESUMO

Powdery mildew infections are among the most severe foliar biotrophic fungal diseases in grain legumes. Several accessions of Lathyrus cicera (chickling pea) show levels of partial resistance to Erysiphe pisi, the causal agent of pea powdery mildew, and to E. trifolii, a powdery mildew pathogen recently confirmed to infect pea and Lathyrus spp. Nevertheless, the underlying L. cicera resistance mechanisms against powdery mildews are poorly understood. To unveil the genetic control of resistance against powdery mildews in L. cicera, a recombinant inbred line population segregating for response to both species was used in resistance linkage analysis. An improved L. cicera genetic linkage map was used in this analysis. The new higher-density linkage map contains 1,468 polymorphic loci mapped on seven major and two minor linkage groups, covering a total of 712.4 cM. The percentage of the leaf area affected by either E. pisi or E. trifolii was recorded in independent screenings of the recombinant inbred line population, identifying a continuous range of resistance-susceptibility responses. Distinct quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for partial resistance against each pathogen were identified, suggesting different genetic bases are involved in the response to E. pisi and E. trifolii in L. cicera. Moreover, through comparative mapping of L. cicera QTL regions with the pea reference genome, candidate genes and pathways involved in resistance against powdery mildews were identified. This study extended the previously available genetic and genomic tools in Lathyrus species, providing clues about diverse powdery mildew resistance mechanisms useful for future resistance breeding of L. cicera and related species.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Lathyrus , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Lathyrus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
6.
Plant Dis ; 104(11): 2799-2806, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986536

RESUMO

Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by Magnaporthe grisea, is a major fungal disease of St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), causing widespread blighting of the foliage under warm, humid conditions. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling GLS resistance, an F1 mapping population consisting of 153 hybrids was developed from crosses between cultivar Raleigh (susceptible parent) and plant introduction PI 410353 (resistant parent). Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from genotyping-by-sequencing constituted nine linkage groups for each parental linkage map. The Raleigh map consisted of 2,257 SNP markers and spanned 916.63 centimorgans (cM), while the PI 410353 map comprised 511 SNP markers and covered 804.27 cM. GLS resistance was evaluated under controlled environmental conditions with measurements of final disease incidence and lesion length. Additionally, two derived traits, area under the disease progress curve and area under the lesion expansion curve, were calculated for QTL analysis. Twenty QTL were identified as being associated with these GLS resistance traits, which explained 7.6 to 37.2% of the total phenotypic variation. Three potential GLS QTL "hotspots" were identified on two linkage groups: P2 (106.26 to 110.36 cM and 113.15 to 116.67 cM) and P5 (17.74 to 19.28 cM). The two major effect QTL glsp2.3 and glsp5.2 together reduced 20.2% of disease incidence in this study. Sequence analysis showed that two candidate genes encoding ß-1,3-glucanases were found in the intervals of two QTL, which might function in GLS resistance response. These QTL and linked markers can be potentially used to assist the transfer of GLS resistance genes to elite St. Augustinegrass breeding lines.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ligação Genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22323-22330, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848059

RESUMO

Distinguishing which traits have evolved under natural selection, as opposed to neutral evolution, is a major goal of evolutionary biology. Several tests have been proposed to accomplish this, but these either rely on false assumptions or suffer from low power. Here, I introduce an approach to detecting selection that makes minimal assumptions and only requires phenotypic data from ∼10 individuals. The test compares the phenotypic difference between two populations to what would be expected by chance under neutral evolution, which can be estimated from the phenotypic distribution of an F2 cross between those populations. Simulations show that the test is robust to variation in the number of loci affecting the trait, the distribution of locus effect sizes, heritability, dominance, and epistasis. Comparing its performance to the QTL sign test-an existing test of selection that requires both genotype and phenotype data-the new test achieves comparable power with 50- to 100-fold fewer individuals (and no genotype data). Applying the test to empirical data spanning over a century shows strong directional selection in many crops, as well as on naturally selected traits such as head shape in Hawaiian Drosophila and skin color in humans. Applied to gene expression data, the test reveals that the strength of stabilizing selection acting on mRNA levels in a species is strongly associated with that species' effective population size. In sum, this test is applicable to phenotypic data from almost any genetic cross, allowing selection to be detected more easily and powerfully than previously possible.


Assuntos
Cruzamentos Genéticos , Modelos Genéticos , Seleção Genética/genética , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Drosophila/anatomia & histologia , Drosophila/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Pigmentação da Pele/genética
8.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(8): e1008120, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804935

RESUMO

Complexity of cell-type composition has created much skepticism surrounding the interpretation of bulk tissue transcriptomic studies. Recent studies have shown that deconvolution algorithms can be applied to computationally estimate cell-type proportions from gene expression data of bulk blood samples, but their performance when applied to brain tissue is unclear. Here, we have generated an immunohistochemistry (IHC) dataset for five major cell-types from brain tissue of 70 individuals, who also have bulk cortical gene expression data. With the IHC data as the benchmark, this resource enables quantitative assessment of deconvolution algorithms for brain tissue. We apply existing deconvolution algorithms to brain tissue by using marker sets derived from human brain single cell and cell-sorted RNA-seq data. We show that these algorithms can indeed produce informative estimates of constituent cell-type proportions. In fact, neuronal subpopulations can also be estimated from bulk brain tissue samples. Further, we show that including the cell-type proportion estimates as confounding factors is important for reducing false associations between Alzheimer's disease phenotypes and gene expression. Lastly, we demonstrate that using more accurate marker sets can substantially improve statistical power in detecting cell-type specific expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Encéfalo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Análise de Célula Única
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4140, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811829

RESUMO

Investigating the evolution of complex phenotypes and the underlying molecular bases of their variation is critical to understand how organisms adapt to their environment. Applying classical quantitative genetics on a segregating population derived from a Can-0xCol-0 cross, we identify the MADS-box transcription factor FLOWERING LOCUS M (FLM) as a player of the phenotypic variation in plant growth and color. We show that allelic variation at FLM modulates plant growth strategy along the leaf economics spectrum, a trade-off between resource acquisition and resource conservation, observable across thousands of plant species. Functional differences at FLM rely on a single intronic substitution, disturbing transcript splicing and leading to the accumulation of non-functional FLM transcripts. Associations between this substitution and phenotypic and climatic data across Arabidopsis natural populations, show how noncoding genetic variation at a single gene might be adaptive through pleiotropic effects.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Processamento de RNA/genética , Alelos , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Pleiotropia Genética , Variação Genética , Íntrons , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Temperatura
10.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008995, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833967

RESUMO

Pan-genomic open reading frames (ORFs) potentially carry protein-coding gene or coding variant information in a population. In this study, we suggest that pan-genomic ORFs are promising to be utilized in estimation of heritability and genomic prediction. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae dataset with whole-genome SNPs, pan-genomic ORFs, and the copy numbers of those ORFs is used to test the effectiveness of ORF data as a predictor in three prediction models for 35 traits. Our results show that the ORF-based heritability can capture more genetic effects than SNP-based heritability for all traits. Compared to SNP-based genomic prediction (GBLUP), pan-genomic ORF-based genomic prediction (OBLUP) is distinctly more accurate for all traits, and the predictive abilities on average are more than doubled across all traits. For four traits, the copy number of ORF-based prediction(CBLUP) is more accurate than OBLUP. When using different numbers of isolates in training sets in ORF-based prediction, the predictive abilities for all traits increased as more isolates are added in the training sets, suggesting that with very large training sets the prediction accuracy will be in the range of the square root of the heritability. We conclude that pan-genomic ORFs have the potential to be a supplement of single nucleotide polymorphisms in estimation of heritability and genomic prediction.


Assuntos
Genoma/genética , Genômica , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008947, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833970

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified tens of thousands of genetic variants associated with various phenotypes, but together they explain only a fraction of heritability, suggesting many variants have yet to be discovered. Recently it has been recognized that incorporating functional information of genetic variants can improve power for identifying novel loci. For example, S-PrediXcan and TWAS tested the association of predicted gene expression with phenotypes based on GWAS summary statistics by leveraging the information on genetic regulation of gene expression and found many novel loci. However, as genetic variants may have effects on more than one gene and through different mechanisms, these methods likely only capture part of the total effects of these variants. In this paper, we propose a summary statistics-based mixed effects score test (sMiST) that tests for the total effect of both the effect of the mediator by imputing genetically predicted gene expression, like S-PrediXcan and TWAS, and the direct effects of individual variants. It allows for multiple functional annotations and multiple genetically predicted mediators. It can also perform conditional association analysis while adjusting for other genetic variants (e.g., known loci for the phenotype). Extensive simulation and real data analyses demonstrate that sMiST yields p-values that agree well with those obtained from individual level data but with substantively improved computational speed. Importantly, a broad application of sMiST to GWAS is possible, as only summary statistics of genetic variant associations are required. We apply sMiST to a large-scale GWAS of colorectal cancer using summary statistics from ∼120, 000 study participants and gene expression data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. We identify several novel and secondary independent genetic loci.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Biologia Computacional , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
12.
Ann Hematol ; 99(10): 2279-2288, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772141

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a monogenic disease characterized by multisystem morbidity and highly variable clinical course. Inter-individual variability in hemoglobin F (HbF) levels is one of the main modifiers that account for the clinical heterogeneity in SCD. HbF levels are affected by, among other factors, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the BCL11A gene and the HBS1L-MYB intergenic region and Xmn1 gene. Our aim was to investigate HbF-enhancer haplotypes at these loci to obtain a first overview of the genetic situation of SCD patients in Egypt and its impact on the severity of the disease. The study included 100 SCD patients and 100 matched controls. Genotyping of BCL11A (rs1886868 C/T), HBS1L-MYB (rs9389268 A/G) and Xmn1 γG158 (rs7842144 C/T) SNPs showed no statistically significant difference between SCD patients and controls except for the hetero-mutant genotypes of BCL11A which was significantly higher in SCD patients compared with controls. Baseline HbF levels were significantly higher in those with co-inheritance of polymorphic genotypes of BCL11A + HSB1L-MYB and BCL11A + Xmn1. Steady-state HbF levels, used as an indicator of disease severity, were significantly higher in SCD-Sß patients having the polymorphic genotypes of HSB1L-MYB. Fold change of HbF in both patient groups did not differ between those harboring the wild and the polymorphic genotypes of the studied SNPs. In conclusion, BCL11A, HSB1L, and Xmn1 genetic polymorphisms had no positive impact on baseline HbF levels solely but had if coexisted. Discovery of the molecular mechanisms controlling HbF production could provide a more effective strategy for HbF induction.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , Hemoglobina Fetal/análise , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Genes myb , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , gama-Globinas/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Desoxirribonucleases de Sítio Específico do Tipo II , Egito , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Adulto Jovem
13.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779330

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the effect of genotyped bulls with different numbers of phenotyped progenies on quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection and genomic evaluation using a simulated cattle population. Twelve generations (G1-G12) were simulated from the base generation (G0). The recent population had different effective population sizes, heritability, and number of QTL. G0-G4 were used for pedigree information. A total of 300 genotyped bulls from G5-G10 were randomly selected. Their progenies were generated in G6-G11 with different numbers of progeny per bull. Scenarios were considered according to the number of progenies and whether the genotypes were possessed by the bulls or the progenies. A genome-wide association study and genomic evaluation were performed with a single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction method to calculate the power of QTL detection and the genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV). We found that genotyped bulls could be available for QTL detection depending on conditions. Additionally, using a reference population, including genotyped bulls, which had more progeny phenotypes, enabled a more accurate prediction of GEBV. However, it is desirable to have more than 4,500 individuals consisting of both genotypes and phenotypes for practical genomic evaluation.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genoma/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Genômica , Masculino
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236674, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756600

RESUMO

In Sub-Saharan Africa cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food crops where more than 40% of the population relies on it as their staple carbohydrate source. Biotic constraints such as viral diseases, mainly Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD), and arthropod pests, particularly Cassava Green Mite (CGM), are major constraints to the realization of cassava's full production potential in Africa. To address these problems, we aimed to map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to CBSD foliar and root necrosis symptoms, foliar CMD and CGM symptoms in a full-sib mapping population derived from the genotypes AR40-6 and Albert. A high-density linkage map was constructed with 2,125 SNP markers using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. For phenotyping, clonal evaluation trials were conducted with 120 F1 individuals for two consecutive field seasons using an alpha-lattice design at Chambezi and Naliendele, Tanzania. Previously identified QTL for resistance to CBSD foliar symptoms were corroborated, and a new putative QTL for CBSD root necrosis identified (qCBSDRNc14AR) from AR40-6. Two QTL were identified within the region of the previously recognized CMD2 locus from this population in which both parents are thought to possess the CMD2 locus. Interestingly, a minor but consistent QTL, qCGM18AR, for CGM resistance at 3 months after planting stage was also detected and co-localized with a previously identified SSR marker, NS346, linked with CGM resistance. Markers underlying these QTL may be used to increase efficiencies in cassava breeding programs.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Manihot/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Cruzamento , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Manihot/fisiologia , Manihot/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Potyviridae/genética , Potyviridae/patogenicidade , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tanzânia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237741, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804977

RESUMO

Region-specific local landraces represent a germplasm diversity adapted and acclimatized to local conditions, and are ideal to breed for targeted market niches while maintaining the variability of heirloom traits. A collection of 180 pepper accessions, collected from 62 diverse locations across six Balkan countries, were characterized and evaluated for phenotypic and biochemical variation during a multi-year environment. An assortment of 32 agro-morphological, fruit quality, and virus resistance traits were evaluated, and the top 10% accessions were identified. A wide range of trait variation concerning plant architecture, inflorescence and fruit traits, yield and fruit quality was observed, and appreciable variation was noticed. According to hierarchical clustering, six distinct clusters were established based on pre-defined varietal groups. Divergence among accessions for phenotypic and fruit compositional variability was analyzed, and eight principal components were identified that contributed ~71% of the variation, with fruit shape, width, wall thickness, weight, and fruit quality traits being the most discriminant. Evaluation of the response to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and pepper mild mottle mosaic virus (PMMoV) showed that 24 and 1 accession were resistant, respectively while no tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) resistance was found. Considerable diversity for agro-bio-morphological traits indicates the Balkan pepper collection as good gene sources for pre-breeding and cultivar development that are locally adapted.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Península Balcânica , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/virologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/virologia , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Tobamovirus/patogenicidade , Tospovirus/patogenicidade
16.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 173-185, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734417

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A novel and major QTL for the effective tiller number was identified on chromosomal arm 1BL and validated in two genetic backgrounds The effective tiller number (ETN) substantially influences plant architecture and the wheat yield improvement. In this study, we constructed a genetic map of the 2SY (20828/SY95-71) recombinant inbred line population based on the Wheat 55K array as well as the simple sequence repeat (SSR) and Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) markers. A comparison between the genetic and physical maps indicated the marker positions were consistent in the two maps. Additionally, we identified seven tillering-related quantitative trait locus (QTLs), including Qetn-sau-1B.1, which is a major QTL localized to a 6.17-cM interval flanked by markers AX-89635557 and AX-111544678 on chromosome 1BL. The Qetn-sau-1B.1 QTL was detected in eight environments and explained 12.12-55.71% of the phenotypic variance. Three genes associated with the ETN were detected in the physical interval of Qetn-sau-1B.1. We used a tightly linked KASP marker, KASP-AX-110129912, to further validate this QTL in two other populations with different genetic backgrounds. The results indicated that Qetn-sau-1B.1 significantly increased the ETN by up to 23.5%. The results of this study will be useful for the precise mapping and cloning of Qetn-sau-1B.1.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Bangladesh , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853245

RESUMO

Functional and enduring mammary structure is pivotal for producer profitability, and animal health and welfare in beef production. Genetic evaluations for teat and udder score in Canadian Angus cattle have previously been developed. The aim of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with teat and udder structure in Canadian Angus cows thereby enhancing knowledge of the biological architecture of these traits. Thus, we performed a weighted single-step genome wide association study (WssGWAS) to identify candidate genes for teat and udder score in 1,582 Canadian Angus cows typed with the GeneSeek® Genomic Profiler Bovine 130K SNP array. Genomically enhanced estimated breeding values (GEBVs) were converted to SNP marker effects using unequal variances for markers to calculate weights for each SNP over three iterations. At the genome wide level, we detected windows of 20 consecutive SNPs that explained more than 0.5% of the variance observed in these traits. A total of 35 and 28 windows were identified for teat and udder score, respectively, with two SNP windows in common for both traits. Using Ensembl, the SNP windows were used to search for candidate genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL). A total of 94 and 71 characterized genes were identified in the regions for teat and udder score, respectively. Of these, 7 genes were common for both traits. Gene network and enrichment analysis, using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), signified key pathways unique to each trait. Genes of interest were associated with immune response and wound healing, adipose tissue development and morphology, and epithelial and vascular development and morphology. Genetic architecture from this GWAS confirms that teat and udder score are distinct, polygenic traits involving varying and complex biological pathways, and that genetic selection for improved teat and udder score is possible.


Assuntos
Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Software , Estatística como Assunto
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853269

RESUMO

Water deficit is one of the major limitations to food production worldwide and most climate change scenarios predict an aggravation of the situation. To face the expected increase in drought stress in the coming years, breeders are working to elucidate the genetic control of barley growth and productivity traits under water deficit. Barley is known as a relatively drought tolerant crop and genetic variability was observed for drought tolerance traits. The objectives of the present study were the quantification of morphological and physiological responses in a collection of 209 spring barley genotypes to drought stress, and the genetic analysis by genome-wide association study to find quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the allele contributions for each of the investigated traits. In six pot experiments, 209 spring barley genotypes were grown under a well-watered and water-limited regime. Stress phases were initiated individually for each genotype at the beginning of tillering and spiking for the vegetative- and the generative stage experiments, respectively, and terminated when the transpiration rates of stress treatments reached 10% of the well-watered control. After the stress phase, a total of 42 productivity related traits such as the dry matter of plant organs, tiller number, leaf length, leaf area, amount of water soluble carbohydrates in the stems, proline content in leaves and osmotic adjustment of corresponding well-watered and stressed plants were analysed, and QTL analyses were performed to find marker-trait associations. Significant water deficit effects were observed for almost all traits and significant genotype x treatment interactions (GxT) were observed for 37 phenotypic traits. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed 77 significant loci associated with 16 phenotypic traits during the vegetative stage experiment and a total of 85 significant loci associated with 13 phenotypic traits during the generative stage experiment for traits such as leaf area, number of green leaves, grain yield, harvest index and stem length. For traits with significant GxT interactions, genotypic differences for relative values were analysed using one way ANOVA. More than 110 loci for GxT interaction were found for 17 phenotypic traits explaining in many cases more than 50% of the genetic variance.


Assuntos
Hordeum/genética , Hordeum/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estações do Ano , Água , Adaptação Fisiológica , Análise de Variância , Biomassa , Desidratação , Secas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hordeum/anatomia & histologia , Padrões de Herança/genética , Fenótipo , Análise de Regressão
19.
Nat Genet ; 52(9): 939-949, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601472

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) plays important roles in regulating messenger RNA processing. Despite rapid progress in this field, little is known about the genetic determinants of m6A modification and their role in common diseases. In this study, we mapped the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of m6A peaks in 60 Yoruba (YRI) lymphoblastoid cell lines. We found that m6A QTLs are largely independent of expression and splicing QTLs and are enriched with binding sites of RNA-binding proteins, RNA structure-changing variants and transcriptional features. Joint analysis of the QTLs of m6A and related molecular traits suggests that the downstream effects of m6A are heterogeneous and context dependent. We identified proteins that mediate m6A effects on translation. Through integration with data from genome-wide association studies, we show that m6A QTLs contribute to the heritability of various immune and blood-related traits at levels comparable to splicing QTLs and roughly half of expression QTLs. By leveraging m6A QTLs in a transcriptome-wide association study framework, we identified putative risk genes of these traits.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Adenosina/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Processamento de RNA/genética , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 18(11): 2173-2186, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725933

RESUMO

Rice is a staple food for half of the world's population. Changing climatic conditions, water and labour scarcity are the major challenges that shall limit future rice production. Dry direct-seeded rice (DDSR) is emerging as an efficient, resources conserving, mechanized, climate smart and economically viable strategy to be adopted as an alternative to puddled transplanted rice (TPR) with the potential to address the problem of labour-water shortages and ensure sustainable rice cultivation. Despite these benefits, several constraints obstruct the adoption of DDSR. In principle, the plant type for DDSR should be different from one for TPR, which could be achieved by developing rice varieties that combine the traits of upland and lowland varieties. In this context, recent advances in precise phenotyping and NGS-based trait mapping led to identification of promising donors and QTLs/genes for DDSR favourable traits to be employed in genomic breeding. This review discusses the important traits influencing DDSR, research studies to clarify the need for breeding DDSR-specific varieties to achieve enhanced grain yield, climate resilience and nutrition demand. We anticipate that in the coming years, genomic breeding for developing DDSR-specific varieties would be a regular practice and might be further strengthened by combining superior haplotypes regulating important DDSR traits by haplotype-based breeding.


Assuntos
Oryza , Cruzamento , Genômica , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sementes
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