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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0265372, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652409

RESUMO

Sports sciences are increasingly data-intensive nowadays since computational tools can extract information from large amounts of data and derive insights from athlete performances during the competition. This paper addresses a performance prediction problem in soccer, a popular collective sport modality played by two teams competing against each other in the same field. In a soccer game, teams score points by placing the ball into the opponent's goal and the winner is the team with the highest count of goals. Retaining possession of the ball is one key to success, but it is not enough since a team needs to score to achieve victory, which requires an offensive toward the opponent's goal. The focus of this work is to determine if analyzing the first five seconds after the control of the ball is taken by one of the teams provides enough information to determine whether the ball will reach the final quarter of the soccer field, therefore creating a goal-scoring chance. By doing so, we can further investigate which conditions increase strategic leverage. Our approach comprises modeling players' interactions as graph structures and extracting metrics from these structures. These metrics, when combined, form time series that we encode in two-dimensional representations of visual rhythms, allowing feature extraction through deep convolutional networks, coupled with a classifier to predict the outcome (whether the final quarter of the field is reached). The results indicate that offensive play near the adversary penalty area can be predicted by looking at the first five seconds. Finally, the explainability of our models reveals the main metrics along with its contributions for the final inference result, which corroborates other studies found in the literature for soccer match analysis.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Humanos , Logro , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Vet Rec ; 192(1): iv, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607646
3.
Vet Rec ; 192(1): i-ii, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607668

RESUMO

From her first job helping with the practice books, to chairing the Veterinary Management Group board, Ruth Mckay has focused her career around leadership and management skills.


Assuntos
Liderança , Médicos Veterinários , Feminino , Animais , Humanos , Logro , Mobilidade Ocupacional
4.
Vet Rec ; 192(1): iv, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607672
5.
PeerJ ; 11: e14510, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36643623

RESUMO

Previous studies showed small-to-moderate associations between students' performances in math and science and math anxiety and science anxiety, respectively. Accordingly, the high prevalence of these two forms of topic anxiety represent severe obstructions to the worldwide demand calling for improving the quality of math and science achievements and, subsequently, increasing career success in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) domains. Therefore, this study examined math anxiety and science anxiety among female and male students who were enrolled in Sciences vs Arts tracks in Grades 11 and 12 in a Middle Eastern Arabic-speaking country (Qatar), and investigated how gender, math anxiety and science anxiety could predict this enrollment. Results showed that students in the Arts track experienced higher levels of math anxiety and science anxiety than those in the Sciences track, regardless of the students' gender. However, a binary logistic regression analysis showed that science learning anxiety, but not evaluation science anxiety nor math learning or evaluation anxieties, significantly predicts students' enrollment in Arts and Sciences tracks. Therefore, STEM career success is associated with good knowledge of STEM domains and positive emotions towards math and science.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Ansiedade , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Logro
6.
Cognition ; 232: 105331, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495709

RESUMO

In a seminal study, Dehaene et al. (2006) found evidence that adults and children are sensitive to geometric and topological (GT) concepts using a novel odd-one-out task. However, performance on this task could reflect more general cognitive abilities than intuitive knowledge of GT concepts. Here, we developed a new 2-alternative forced choice (2-AFC) version of the original task where chance represents a higher bar to clear (50% vs. 16.67%) and where the role of general cognitive abilities is minimized. Replicating the original finding, American adult participants showed above-chance sensitivity to 41 of the 43 GT concepts tested. Moreover, their performance was not strongly driven by two general cognitive abilities, fluid intelligence and mental rotation, nor was it strongly associated with mathematical achievement as measured by ACT/SAT scores. The performance profile across the 43 concepts as measured by the new 2-AFC task was found to be highly correlated with the profiles as measured using the original odd-one-out task, as an analysis of data sets spanning populations and ages revealed. Most significantly, an aggregation of the 43 concepts into seven classes of GT concepts found evidence for graded sensitivity. Some classes, such as Euclidean geometry and Topology, were found to be more domain-specific: they "popped out" for participants and were judged very quickly and highly accurately. Others, notably Symmetry and Geometric transformations, were found to be more domain-general: better predicted by participants' general cognitive abilities and mathematical achievement. These results shed light on the graded nature of GT concepts in humans and challenge computational models that emphasize the role of induction.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Conceitos Matemáticos , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Logro
7.
J Phys Act Health ; 20(1): 77-93, 2023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study investigated the effect of elite sport on physical activity (PA) practice in the general population. METHODS: Structured Boolean searches were conducted across 5 electronic databases (PubMed, JSTOR, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, and PsycInfo) from January 2000 to August 2021. Peer-reviewed studies in English were included if the effects of hosting elite sport events, elite sport success, and elite sport role modeling on PA/sport practice in the general population were measured. RESULTS: We identified 12,563 articles and included 36 articles. Most studies investigated the effect of hosting elite sport events (n = 27), followed by elite sport success (n = 16) and elite sport role modeling (n = 3). Most studies did not observe a positive effect of hosting elite sport events, elite sport success, or elite sport role modeling on PA/sport practice in the general population. No evidence of a lagged effect of elite sport was observed. No evidence of elite sport effects was observed according to age range and geographical scale. CONCLUSION: There is no evidence supporting the effect of elite sport in increasing PA or sport participation in the general population. Decision makers and policymakers should be aware of this and invest in strategies such as those recommended by the World Health Organization.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Esportes , Humanos , Logro
8.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 124(1): 145-178, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521161

RESUMO

We present a three-dimensional taxonomy of achievement emotions that considers valence, arousal, and object focus as core features of these emotions. By distinguishing between positive and negative emotions (valence), activating and deactivating emotions (arousal), and activity emotions, prospective outcome emotions, and retrospective outcome emotions (object focus), the taxonomy has a 2 × 2 × 3 structure representing 12 groups of achievement emotions. In four studies across different countries (N = 330, 235, 323, and 269 participants in Canada, the United States, Germany, and the U.K., respectively), we investigated the empirical robustness of the taxonomy in educational (Studies 1-3) and work settings (Study 4). An expanded version of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire was used to assess 12 key emotions representing the taxonomy. Consistently across the four studies, findings from multilevel facet analysis and structural equation modeling documented the importance of the three dimensions for explaining achievement emotions. In addition, based on hypotheses about relations with external variables, the findings show clear links of the emotions with important antecedents and outcomes. The Big Five personality traits, appraisals of control and value, and context perceptions were predictors of the emotions. The 12 emotions, in turn, were related to participants' use of strategies, cognitive performance, and self-reported health problems. Taken together, the findings provide robust evidence for the unique positions of different achievement emotions in the proposed taxonomy, as well as unique patterns of relations with external variables. Directions for future research and implications for policy and practice are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Logro , Emoções , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Nível de Alerta
9.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 49(1): 81-96, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34906003

RESUMO

Experimental research and real-world events demonstrate a puzzling phenomenon-anxiety, which primarily inspires caution, sometimes precedes bouts of risk-taking. We conducted three studies to test whether this phenomenon is due to the regulation of anxiety via reactive approach motivation (RAM), which leaves people less sensitive to negative outcomes and thus more likely to take risks. In Study 1 (N = 231), an achievement anxiety threat caused increased risk-taking on the Behavioral Analogue Risk Task (BART) among trait approach-motivated participants. Using electroencephalogram in Study 2 (N = 97), an economic anxiety threat increased behavioral inhibition system-specific theta activity, a neural correlate of anxiety, which was associated with an increase in risk-taking on the BART among trait approach-motivated participants. In a preregistered Study 3 (N = 432), we replicated the findings of Study 1. These results offer preliminary support for the reactive risk-taking hypothesis.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Motivação , Humanos , Logro , Cognição , Assunção de Riscos
10.
Sci Med Footb ; 6(5): 668-674, 2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36540913

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We examined the manner in which age, participation in other sports, socioeconomic status, perceived sport competence, achievement goal orientations, and perceived motivational climate may interact to predict the risk of dropout among adolescent female soccer players. METHODS: Self-reported data from 519 female soccer players between 10 and 19 years of age (M = 13.41, SD = 1.77) were analysed using a person-centred approach to uncover the interactions among risk factors and their relative predictability of dropout. RESULTS: Perceived motivational climate was identified as the main predictor, where relatively lower levels of mastery climate were associated with a higher dropout tendency (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 12.2% ±6.1% [95% CL]). If combined with relatively lower levels of mastery climate, then relatively lower levels of perceived sport competence were related to higher dropout risks (ARR = 16.5% ±9.5%), whereas, in combination with relatively higher levels of mastery climate, then relatively lower levels of ego-orientated achievement goals were associated with higher dropout rates (ARR = 10.8% ±12.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings afford novel insights into the interactions between, and the relative importance of, various risk factors for dropout in adolescent female soccer. This knowledge may be useful for soccer associations, clubs, and coaches when developing guidelines and strategies that aim to foster young females' sustained participation in organised soccer.


Assuntos
Futebol , Esportes , Humanos , Adolescente , Feminino , Futebol/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Motivação , Logro
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36554516

RESUMO

Positive academic emotions can promote good academic performance and development in students. Therefore, how teachers stimulate students to produce more positive academic emotions is particularly important. This study aimed to reveal the underlying mechanism of teacher support and adolescents' positive academic emotions. A total of 854 students from western China participated in this survey, which included the Students' Perception of the Teacher's Behavioural Support Questionnaire, the Psychological Suzhi Questionnaire for Middle School Students, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (396 boys; 12 to 20 years old, Mage = 15.3, SD = 2.04). Results showed that (1) teacher support, psychological suzhi, and general self-efficacy were positively correlated with students' positive academic emotion; (2) psychological suzhi and general self-efficacy played a separate mediating role between teacher support and adolescents' positive academic emotion; and (3) teacher support also influenced adolescents' positive academic emotion through the serial mediation of psychological suzhi and general self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Autoeficácia , Estudantes , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Criança , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Estudantes/psicologia , Logro , China , Emoções
12.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0276943, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36584034

RESUMO

This study proposes a Grey Wolf Optimization (GWO) variant named Elastic Grey Wolf Optimization algorithm (EGWO) with shrinking, resilient surrounding, and weighted candidate mechanisms. Then, the proposed EGWO is used to optimize the weights and biases of Multi-Layer Perception (MLP), and the EGWO-MLP model for predicting student achievement is thus obtained. The training and verification of the EGWO-MLP prediction model are conducted based on the thirty attributes from the University of California (UCI) Machine Learning Repository dataset's student performance dataset, including family features and personal characteristics. For the Mathematics (Mat.) subject achievement prediction, the EGWO-MLP model outperforms one model's prediction accuracy, and the standard deviation possesses the stable ability to predict student achievement. And for the Portuguese (Por.) subject, the EGWO-MLP outperforms three models' Mathematics (Mat.) subject achievement prediction through the training process and takes first place through the testing process. The results show that the EGWO-MLP model has made fewer test errors, indicating that EGWO can effectively feedback weights and biases due to the strong exploration and local stagnation avoidance. And the EGWO-MLP model is feasible for predicting student achievement. The study can provide reference for improving school teaching programs and enhancing teachers' teaching quality and students' learning effect.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Humanos , Estudantes , Logro , Algoritmos , Percepção
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497953

RESUMO

Students with low family socioeconomic status (SES) often have lower academic achievement than their peers with high family SES, as has been widely demonstrated. Nevertheless, there is a group of students beating the odds and achieving academic excellence despite the socio-economic background of their families. The students who have the capacity to overcome adversities and achieve successful educational achievements are referred to as academically resilient students. This study's purpose was to identify the protective factors among academically resilient students. A total of 46,089 students from 303 primary schools in grade 6, 55,477 students from 256 junior high schools in grade 9, and 37,856 students from 66 high schools in grade 11 in a city in northeast China participated in the large-scale investigation. Students completed a structured questionnaire to report their demographic information, psychological characteristics, and three academic tests. A causal comparative research model was applied to determine significant protective factors associated with resilient students (referring to students are resilient if they are among the 25% most socio-economically disadvantaged students in their city but are able to achieve the top 25% or above in all three academic domains). Multivariable logistic regression analyses found that the intrinsic protective factors for resilient students included higher proportion of academic importance identity, higher proportion of achievement approaching motivation, longer-term future educational expectation, and more positive academic emotion compared with non-resilient students; the extrinsic protective factors included parents' higher proportion of positive expectations for their children' future development, as well as more harmonious peer and teacher-student relationships. The results of this study provide important targets for psychological intervention of disadvantaged students, and future intervention studies can increase their likelihood of becoming resilient students by improving their recognition of the importance of learning, stronger motivation for achievement approaching, longer-term expectations for future academic careers, and positive academic emotions and harmonious teacher-student relationships.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Estudantes , Criança , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Estudantes/psicologia , Logro , Instituições Acadêmicas , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0279255, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36576932

RESUMO

Value-added (VA) models are used for accountability purposes and quantify the value a teacher or a school adds to their students' achievement. If VA scores lack stability over time and vary across outcome domains (e.g., mathematics and language learning), their use for high-stakes decision making is in question and could have detrimental real-life implications: teachers could lose their jobs, or a school might receive less funding. However, school-level stability over time and variation across domains have rarely been studied together. In the present study, we examined the stability of VA scores over time for mathematics and language learning, drawing on representative, large-scale, and longitudinal data from two cohorts of standardized achievement tests in Luxembourg (N = 7,016 students in 151 schools). We found that only 34-38% of the schools showed stable VA scores over time with moderate rank correlations of VA scores from 2017 to 2019 of r = .34 for mathematics and r = .37 for language learning. Although they showed insufficient stability over time for high-stakes decision making, school VA scores could be employed to identify teaching or school practices that are genuinely effective-especially in heterogeneous student populations.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Estudantes , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Logro , Coleta de Dados , Professores Escolares
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498321

RESUMO

Psychology is one of the numerous factors that influences students' mathematics achievement, but studies on the influence of psychology on student mathematics achievement are still limited. This study analyzes key factors affecting mathematics achievement through teacher-parent support, stress, and students' well-being in learning mathematics. Data was collected via online questionnaires. Participants of the study are 531 students studying at five secondary schools in Bandung, Indonesia. The data were analyzed using the structural equations modeling approach using SMART-PLS 3.0 software. The results showed that interest in learning was the most significant factor affecting students' mathematics achievement. Moreover, teachers have a more substantial effect than parents' support, which does not significantly reduce the students' stress levels. The academic and emotional support of teachers and parents reduces students' stress levels while increasing their feelings and interest in learning mathematics. This study provides essential results for school teachers and parents to improve students' mathematics achievement at the secondary school level.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Humanos , Matemática , Estudantes/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 798, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We appraised the effectiveness of online (Zoom) delivery versus live campus-based delivery of lectures in biochemistry and genetics courses and assessed the security of remote versus campus-administered exams. METHODS: Participants were 601 students entering Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine in 2019 or 2020. The former cohort completed courses and exams on campus, while the latter completed courses online due to the COVID-19 pandemic. For the biochemistry and genetics courses, the same lecturers delivered the same content and used identical exam questions for assessments in 2019 and 2020. The investigators compared percent correct for each question in 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: This study found 84 of 126 (67%) of the questions yielded little difference (3% or less in % correct) between live delivery and Zoom delivery. For questions whose % correct index differed by 4% or more, Zoom delivery yielded a better performance for 16 questions (13%), while 19 questions (15%) showed live lectures performed better. Seven of the questions (6%) had an identical mode of delivery in 2019 and 2020 (e.g., self-study exercise). These served as "control questions" for which equivalent student performance was expected. The 126 questions analyzed spanned a wide range in the % correct index, from 60% correct to > 90% correct. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that Zoom and on-campus delivery of the content in biochemistry and genetics yielded similar achievement of course objectives. The high concordance, between 2019 and 2020, of the % correct for individual questions also speaks to exam security including online proctoring.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Estudantes , Universidades , Logro
18.
J Sch Psychol ; 95: 105-120, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371121

RESUMO

Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) is increasingly conceptualized as a transdiagnostic set of symptoms associated with poorer functional outcomes, although the extent to which SCT is associated with academic functioning remains unclear. This study recruited children based on the presence or absence of clinically elevated SCT symptoms, using a multi-informant and multi-method design to provide a comprehensive examination of academic functioning in children with and without clinically elevated SCT symptoms. Participants were 207 children in Grades 2-5 (ages 7-11 years; 63.3% male), including 103 with clinically elevated teacher-reported SCT symptoms and 104 without elevated SCT, closely matched on grade and sex. A multi-informant, multi-method design that included standardized achievement testing, curriculum-based measurement (CBM), grades, classroom and laboratory observations, and parent and teacher rating scales was used. Children with elevated SCT symptoms had poorer academic functioning than their peers across most domains examined. Specifically, compared to children without SCT, children with elevated SCT had significantly lower grade point average (d = 0.42) and standardized achievement scores (ds = 0.40-0.77), poorer CBM performance including lower productivity (ds = 0.39-0.51), poorer homework performance and organizational skills (ds = 0.58-0.85), and lower teacher-reported academic skills (ds = 0.63-0.74) and academic enablers (ds = 0.66-0.74). The groups did not significantly differ on percentage of time on task during classroom observations or academic enabler interpersonal skills. Most effects were robust to control of family income, medication use, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattentive symptoms, although effects for motivation and study skills academic enablers were reduced. This study demonstrates that children with clinically elevated SCT symptoms have wide-ranging academic difficulties compared to their peers without SCT. Findings point to the potential importance of assessing and treating SCT to improve academic outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Tempo Cognitivo Lento , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Cognição , Logro , Pais
19.
J Sch Psychol ; 95: 43-57, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371124

RESUMO

In the present study, we examined bidirectional associations between two components of teachers' burnout (personal accomplishment and emotional exhaustion) and classroom relational climate (closeness and conflict) across two time points within an academic year. Participants included 330 elementary school teachers (third and fourth grade) and 5081 students in a large, urban city in the northeastern United States. Students were primarily Hispanic/Latino (66%) or Black/African American (22%), and most were from low-income households. Forty-seven percent of teachers were White, 25% Black, and 31% identified as Hispanic/Latino. Two modeling approaches were used for preliminary detection of bidirectional relations among burnout and classroom relational climate. First, a crossed-lagged panel model showed a clear pattern from earlier relational climate to later burnout; closeness and conflict at Time 1 predicted personal accomplishment at Time 2, and conflict at Time 1 predicted emotional exhaustion at Time 2. No evidence was found for earlier burnout predicting later relational climate. Second, a set of latent change score models indicated that increases in closeness from Time 1 to Time 2 were associated with decreases in emotional exhaustion across the academic year. Together, findings provide preliminary evidence for associations from classroom relational climate to teacher burnout, but not the other way around. Implications of these findings for teachers and school psychologists are discussed.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Professores Escolares , Humanos , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Logro , Emoções
20.
Mol Biol Cell ; 33(14): ae3, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399627

RESUMO

It is my great honor to receive the 2022 Günter Blobel Early Career Award from the American Society for Cell Biology. Reflecting upon my research and career trajectory, I recognize the incredible support of my mentors and the hard work of everyone within my lab. I have always relied on a network of advisors and colleagues who supported me throughout my scientific journey. To better support my own trainees, I endeavor to pass on lessons learned while continuously developing and strengthening my own leadership potential. I am a relentless advocate for the success of my trainees, a legacy I pass on from my own mentors.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Mentores , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Pesquisadores , Liderança , Logro
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