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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 244-253, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970643

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The mental health of the human being and a higher level of the self-esteem have the positive effects on the peace surrounding, stability, success and the personal satisfaction of any individual. The fundamental opinion is that the dance has the affect on the body and the psychical health of the people. To explore if the dancers have their less-expressed psychical symptoms and higher self-esteem. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The examination was performed on the sample of 310 examinees, mostly of the young life age and who identified themselves as the dancers or non-dancers. For the requirements of the investigation there were used the socio-demographic question-form, the psychical symptoms estimation scale (RCL-90-R) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES). RESULTS: The dancers show the smaller appearance of the psychical symptoms and that almost in all sub-scales, but their difference is not statistically significant. The statistically significant difference among the men and the women was recorded in the subscales of the somatisations, then the interpersonal vulnerability, the depression, the anxiety and the phobias. The dancers possess their higher self-esteem then the non-dancers, but statistically their difference is not significant. Comparing the results against the sex, the persons of the female sex possess the higher self-respect than the persons of the male sex. CONCLUSION: The dancers possess less of the psychical symptoms and their higher self-esteem than the non-dancers, but the difference within the results is not significant statistically.


Assuntos
Dança/psicologia , Autoimagem , Logro , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade , Atitude , Dança/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21552, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual researchers' achievements (IRA) are determined by both personal publications and article citations such as Author Impact Factor, h-index, and x-index. Due to those indicators not truly supporting a normal distribution, the traditional t-test and Analysis of variance are not allowed for RA comparison in groups. The objective of this study is to use the bootstrapping method to verify whether hospital physicians have different h-indexes. METHODS: We downloaded 63,266 journal articles with their corresponding citations for 2128 researchers from a Taiwan university website on December 10, 2019. Their IRAs were assessed using the bibliometric h-index. A pyramid plot was used to compare the h-index patterns between institutes. The x-index and the Kano model were found to be complemental to the h-index for identifying the group IRA characteristics and rankings, including colleges and departments in the university study, the School of Medicine, and the Affiliated Hospital. The bootstrapping method was applied with an estimated 95% confidence interval (CI) to distinguish the differences in physicians between the Internal Medicine and Surgery departments. The stronger-than-the-next coefficient (SC) for the highest represents the RA strength. RESULTS: The highest h-indices were found in the College of Engineering, School of Medicine, and the Department of Internal Medicine in groups of colleges (SC = 0.71), all departments (SC = 0.83), the School of Medicine (SC = 0.74), and the Affiliated Hospital (SC = 0.56), respectively. No difference in h-index for hospital physicians was found between departments in Internal Medicine (Mean = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.02,3.26) and Surgery (mean = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.48, 3.52). CONCLUSIONS: The x-index and the Kano models can complement the h-index for identifying group IRA characteristics. The bootstrapping method allows estimation of the sampling distribution for almost any statistic using random sampling methods and gains measures of accuracy (as defined by 95% CI). The finding of no difference in h-index for hospital physicians between departments in Internal Medicine and Surgery requires further investigation in the future.


Assuntos
Logro , Médicos Hospitalares , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Bibliometria , Humanos
3.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 313-319, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192068

RESUMO

The quality of learning in Higher Education is particularly dependent on students' skills in regulating their cognition. This regulation requires cognitive and metacognitive skills as well as motivational dimensions. Due to its relevance in explaining students' academic achievement and developing lifelong learning skills, it´s important to increase research in the area. This study aims to adapt and validate a short version of the Regulation of Cognition of Metacognitive Awareness Inventory to first-year Portuguese university students. A sample of 360 students was considered and was identified a three-dimensional structure (Planning, 4 items; Strategies, 7 items; and Monitoring and evaluation, 7 items) with a second-order factor (Regulation of Cognition). The internal consistency values of the reduced scale are within the acceptable parameters for a self-report scale and the correlations with academic achievement at the end of the first year of the university guarantee the predictive validity of the scale. This short version of regulation of cognition measure allows its use in research with other instruments in larger studies and can function as a diagnostic / screening tool to help students in higher education learning challenges


La calidad del aprendizaje en la Educación Superior depende, especialmente, de las habilidades de los estudiantes para regular su cognición. Esta regulación requiere habilidades cognitivas y metacognitivas, así como dimensiones motivacionales. Dada su relevancia en el rendimiento académico y el desarrollo de habilidades para el aprendizaje a lo largo de la vida, es importante aumentar la investigación en el campo. Este estudio pretende adaptar y validar una versión abreviada de la dimensión Regulación de la Cognición del Metacognitive Awareness Inventory para estudiantes universitarios portugueses de primer año. Se empleó una muestra de 360 estudiantes y se identificó una estructura tridimensional (Planificación, 4 ítems; Estrategias, 7 ítems; y Monitoreo y evaluación, 7 ítems) con un factor de segundo orden (Regulación de la cognición). Los valores de consistencia interna de la escala reducida son aceptables para una escala de auto-informe y las correlaciones con el logro académico al final del primer año de la universidad garantizan su validez predictiva. Esta versión abreviada para medir la regulación de la cognición puede usarse en investigación junto con otros instrumentos en estudios más amplios y puede funcionar como una herramienta de diagnóstico para ayudar a los estudiantes en los desafíos del aprendizaje en la enseñanza superior


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Cognição , Estudantes/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Autocontrole/psicologia , Logro , Desempenho Acadêmico , Autorrelato , Portugal , Análise Fatorial , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1375, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring progress towards the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 treatment targets is key to assessing progress towards turning the HIV epidemic tide. In 2017, the UNAIDS model estimated that 75% of people living with HIV (PLHIV) globally knew their HIV positive status, 79% of those who knew their status were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 81% of those who knew their HIV status and were on ART had a suppressed viral load. The fifth South African national HIV sero-behavioural survey collected nationally representative data that enabled the empirical estimation of these 90-90-90 targets for the country stratified by a variety of key factors. METHODS: To evaluate progress towards achievement of the 90-90-90 targets for South Africa, data obtained from a national, representative, cross-sectional population-based multi-stage stratified cluster random survey conducted in 2017 were analysed. The Fifth South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey (SABSSM V), collected behavioural and biomarker data from individuals residing in households from 1000 randomly selected Small Area Layers (SALs), across all nine provinces of the country. Structured questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic data, knowledge and perceptions about HIV, and related risk behaviours. Blood samples were collected to test for HIV infection, antiretroviral use, and viral suppression (defined as < 1000 copies/ml). Weighted proportions of study participants aged 15 years and older who tested HIV positive were computed for those who reported awareness of their status (1st 90), and among these, those who were currently on ART (2nd 90) and of these, those who were virally suppressed (3rd 90). RESULTS: Among persons 15 years and older who were HIV positive, 84.8% were aware of their HIV positive status, of whom 70.7% were currently on ART, with 87.4% of these estimated to have suppressed viral load at the time of the survey. These estimates varied by sex, age, and geo-location type. Relatively higher percentages across all three indicators for women compared to men were observed: 88.7% versus 78.2% for those aware of their status, 72.3% versus 67.7% for on ART, and 89.8% versus 82.3% for viral suppression. Knowing one's positive HIV status increased with age: 74.0, 85.8, and 88.1% for age groups 15-24 years old, 25-49 years old and 50-64 years old, although for those 65 years and older, 78.7% knew their HIV positive status. A similar pattern was observed for the 2nd 90, among those who knew their HIV positive status, 51.7% of 15 to 24 year olds, 70.5% of those aged 25-49 years old, 82.9% of those aged 50-64 years old and 82.4% of those aged 65 years or older were currently on ART. Viral suppression for the above mentioned aged groups, among those who were on ART was 85.2, 87.2, 89.5, and 84.6% respectively. The 90-90-90 indicators for urban areas were 87.7, 66.5, and 87.2%, for rural settings was 85.8, 79.8, and 88.4%, while in commercial farming communities it was 56.2, 67.6 and 81.4%. CONCLUSIONS: South Africa appears to be on track to achieve the first 90 indicator by 2020. However, it is behind on the second 90 indicator with ART coverage that was ~ 20-percentage points below the target among people who knew their HIV status, this indicates deficiencies around linkage to and retention on ART. Overall viral suppression among those on ART is approaching the target at 87.4%, but this must be interpreted in the context of low reported ART coverage as well as with variation by age and sex. Targeted diagnosis, awareness, and treatment programs for men, young people aged 15-24 years old, people who reside in farming communities, and in specific provinces are needed. More nuanced 90-90-90 estimates within provinces, specifically looking at more granular sub-national level (e.g. districts), are needed to identify gaps in specific regions and to inform provincial interventions.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Conscientização , Epidemias , Objetivos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Carga Viral , Logro , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Nações Unidas , Adulto Jovem
6.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e180, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772967

RESUMO

Osiurak and Reynaud highlight a major omission of models of cumulative technological culture. I propose an additional problematic omission: pride. By taking this emotion into account, we can address the question of why humans seek to learn, teach, and innovate - three processes essential to cumulative technological culture (CTC). By fostering achievement, prestige, and social learning, pride provides a pivotal piece of the puzzle.


Assuntos
Logro , Emoções , China , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Resolução de Problemas
7.
J Environ Manage ; 272: 111077, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854884

RESUMO

China needs to balance between current population pressures and a vulnerable marine environment, creating a national, political outline or management strategy dubbed an ecological civilization construction. The nation's effort to protect and maintain a sustainable ocean and address the relevant economic, resource and environmental issues relies on Marine Ecological Civilization (MEC) construction. The quantification of MEC progress is essential to track the management performance and guide the subsequent development and implementation. This study evaluates the performance of China's MEC from 2006 to 2016 based on a comprehensive index system. Our findings are as follows: During 2006-2016, the overall MEC performance score increased from 0.3426 to 0.4850 nationwide. Large space-time variations exist among the eleven coastal regions. The Shandong and Guangdong regions showed relatively good performances, whereas the Jiangsu, Guangxi and Shanghai regions had low scores. A decade long change in MEC scores showed that Hebei achieved the largest increase ratio. Marine management was improved by implementing various conservation strategies by China's government. Marine education and human talent introduction deserve more attention in less developed areas such as Hainan and Guangxi, and poor marine environmental quality was an urgent issue of the Yangtze river estuary economic zone. More accessible marine monitoring dataset are needed to track future space-time progress dynamics towards MEC construction. Our results provide a decade long retrospect of China's MEC achievements, and the quantified evaluation for each coastal region can provide valuable insight to policy-makers.


Assuntos
Civilização , Biologia Marinha , Logro , China , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional
8.
J Med Life ; 13(2): 229-234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32742519

RESUMO

Environmental tobacco smoke, containing many toxic gases, suggests inevitable contact of humans with the damaging factors of cigarettes. On average, approximately 40% of children, 35% of women and 32% of men worldwide are exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. This study aims at investigating the relationship between environmental tobacco smoke in adolescents and their educational self-regulation and achievement. In this study, 770 students aged between 13 and 15 were selected and studied using the multistage sampling method. The tools used in this study consisted of four questionnaires, demographic characteristics, environmental tobacco smoke, educational self-regulation, and educational achievement. The validity and reliability of tools have been approved, and the data were analyzed using SPSS v22. The results indicated a significant inverse relationship between environmental tobacco smoke and students' educational self-regulation and achievement (p-value > 0.001). Given the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and educational self-regulation and achievement, it is essential to keep children away from tobacco smoke. Family health and education policy-makers are recommended to design and operate fundamental schemes in order to deal with environmental tobacco smoke.


Assuntos
Logro , Autocontrole , Estudantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756557

RESUMO

Maximising research productivity is a major focus for universities world-wide. Graduate research programs are an important driver of research outputs. Choosing students with the greatest likelihood of success is considered a key part of improving research outcomes. There has been little empirical investigation of what factors drive the outcomes from a student's PhD and whether ranking procedures are effective in student selection. Here we show that, the research environment had a decisive influence: students who conducted research in one of the University's priority research areas and who had experienced, research-intensive, supervisors had significantly better outcomes from their PhD in terms of number of manuscripts published, citations, average impact factor of journals published in, and reduced attrition rates. In contrast, students' previous academic outcomes and research training was unrelated to outcomes. Furthermore, students who received a scholarship to support their studies generated significantly more publications in higher impact journals, their work was cited more often and they were less likely to withdraw from their PhD. The findings suggest that experienced supervisors researching in a priority research area facilitate PhD student productivity. The findings question the utility of assigning PhD scholarships solely on the basis of student academic merit, once minimum entry requirements are met. Given that citations, publication numbers and publications in higher ranked journals drive university rankings, and that publications from PhD student contribute approximately one-third of all research outputs from universities, strengthening research infrastructure and supervision teams may be more important considerations for maximising the contribution of PhD students to a university's international standing.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação , Universidades , Dissertações Acadêmicas como Assunto , Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Humanos , Fator de Impacto de Revistas , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Pesquisa , Estudantes
10.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 47(3): 259-265, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639128

RESUMO

New nurse managers and nurses who wish to transition into management positions often look for guidance in improving their skills for the next level and to succeed in the job. This article provides guidelines and pragmatic advice for those who aspire to become a manager, started in their management role recently, and want to become successful in their current role and beyond.


Assuntos
Logro , Mobilidade Ocupacional , Enfermeiras Administradoras , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234604, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692752

RESUMO

Ability self-concept (SC) and self-efficacy (SE) are central competence-related self-perceptions that affect students' success in educational settings. Both constructs show conceptual differences but their empirical differentiation in higher education has not been sufficiently demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated the empirical differentiation of SC and SE in higher education with N = 1,243 German psychology students (81% female; age M = 23.62 years), taking into account central methodological requirements that, in part, have been neglected in prior studies. SC and SE were assessed at the same level of specificity, only cognitive SC items were used, and multiple academic domains were considered. We modeled the structure of SC and SE taking into account a multidimensional and/or hierarchical structure and investigated the empirical differentiation of both constructs on different levels of generality (i.e., domain-specific and domain-general). Results supported the empirical differentiation of SC and SE with medium-sized positive latent correlations (range r = .57 - .68) between SC and SE on different levels of generality. The knowledge about the internal structure of students' SC and SE and the differentiation of both constructs can help us to develop construct-specific and domain-specific intervention strategies. Future empirical comparisons of the predictive power of SC and SE can provide further evidence that both represent empirical different constructs.


Assuntos
Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Logro , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Autoeficácia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(4): 7404345020p1-7404345020p10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602454

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: A predictive tool to support academic and practice outcomes for occupational therapy students is needed for use in advising students. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether characteristics of academic and professional behavior across cohorts could indicate the likelihood of student success in passing the National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy® examination. DESIGN: Causal-comparative research. PARTICIPANTS: Master of occupational therapy students (N = 315; eight cohorts). MEASURES: Demographics, college entrance exams, grade point average, program benchmarks (i.e., specific course grades, fieldwork grades, Occupational Therapy Knowledge Exam scores), licensure exam. RESULTS: Baseline and in-program characteristics were used to determine success; for each unit increase in the success score, the odds of passing the exam were 4.11 (95% confidence interval [2.23, 7.60]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Case studies that have used this success score suggest that additional resources and targeted interventions could be allocated to help students at highest risk of not passing the licensure exam. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Using a predictive tool to support student success can enable more effective academic advising throughout an occupational therapy program and result in positive outcomes on the licensure exam.


Assuntos
Avaliação Educacional , Terapia Ocupacional , Logro , Certificação , Humanos , Estudantes
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584838

RESUMO

In spite of efforts to increase gender diversity across many science fields, women continue to encounter beliefs that they lack ability and talent. Undergraduate education is a critical time when peer influence may alter choice of majors and careers for women interested in science. Even in life science courses, in which women outnumber men, gender biases that emerge in peer-to-peer interactions during coursework may detract from women's interest and progress. This is the first study of which we are aware to document that women are outperforming men in both physical and life science undergraduate courses at the same institution, while simultaneously continuing to be perceived as less-able students. This is problematic because undergraduate women may not be able to escape gender-ability stereotypes even when they are outperforming men, which has important implications for 1) the recognition of women's achievements among their peers in undergraduate education and 2) retention of women in STEM disciplines and careers.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Engenharia/educação , Matemática/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes , Tecnologia/educação , Logro , Disciplinas das Ciências Biológicas/educação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14066-14072, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522882

RESUMO

Many attractive jobs in today's world require people to take on new challenges and figure out how to master them. As with any challenging goal, this involves systematic strategy use. Here we ask: Why are some people more likely to take a strategic stance toward their goals, and can this tendency be cultivated? To address these questions, we introduce the idea of a domain-general "strategic mindset." This mindset involves asking oneself strategy-eliciting questions, such as "What can I do to help myself?", "How else can I do this?", or "Is there a way to do this even better?", in the face of challenges or insufficient progress. In three studies (n = 864), people who scored higher on (or were primed with) a strategic mindset reported using more metacognitive strategies; in turn, they obtained higher college grade point averages (GPAs) (Study 1); reported greater progress toward their professional, educational, health, and fitness goals (Study 2); and responded to a challenging timed laboratory task by practicing it more and performing it faster (Study 3). We differentiated a strategic mindset from general self-efficacy, self-control, grit, and growth mindsets and showed that it explained unique variance in people's use of metacognitive strategies. These findings suggest that being strategic entails more than just having specific metacognitive skills-it appears to also entail an orientation toward seeking and employing them.


Assuntos
Logro , Objetivos , Metacognição/classificação , Desempenho Acadêmico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoeficácia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 541-544, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521971

RESUMO

With the worldwide adoption of minimally invasive surgery, innovation again becomes the theme. In the past hundred years, molecular biology technology, minimally invasive surgery technology, pharmaceutical research and therapies have been constantly innovated to promote the development of medicine. As the subject of medical innovation, the innovative idea from medical staff is also very important. For surgeons, the invention and improvement of a new operation or surgical instrument directly depends on curiosity and exploration. Whether a novel idea or technology can be transformed and used in clinical practice depends on its commercial prospects and the adjustment of macro health policies. The protection of intellectual property and appropriate distribution of interests are the key to ensure sustainable innovation. We should put scientific and technological innovation and achievement transformation in the important position of the "healthy China" strategy, take scientific and technological innovation as the basis and achievements transformation as the means, promote the development of China's health protection, implement the healthy China strategy, and make our own contribution to provide people with all-round health services.


Assuntos
Invenções , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/tendências , Logro , Pesquisa Biomédica , Tecnologia Biomédica , China , Humanos , Propriedade Intelectual
16.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(6): 545-549, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521972

RESUMO

The transformation of medical science and technology achievements is of great practical significance for improving the medical standard of our country and promoting the health and well-being of the people. However, China's medical science and technology achievements transformation ecosystem is still immature. Each subject in the system has insufficient cognition of their roles, unclear division of responsibilities, and imperfect system guarantees, resulting in the obstacle of scientific and technological achievements that can truly be transformed into actual productivity. In order to further deepen the understanding and thinking of the current status of China's medical science and technology achievement transformation ecosystem, the opportunities and challenges it faces, to find an optimized path that conforms to the situation in China today, we combine our own production, teaching and research achievement transformation practice, summarize the composition and existing problems of the current system subjects, analyze the plight and outlet of doctors, hoping to provide help and reference for the transformation of scientific and technological achievements to our peer doctors.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Invenções , Logro , Tecnologia Biomédica , China , Humanos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233542, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484833

RESUMO

Identifying children who are at-risk for developmental delay, so that these children can have access to interventions as early as possible, is an important and challenging problem in developmental research. This research aimed to identify latent subgroups of children with developmental delay, by modelling and clustering developmental milestones. The main objectives were to (a) create a developmental profile for each child by modelling milestone achievements, from birth to three years of age, across multiple domains of development, and (b) cluster the profiles to identify groups of children who show similar deviations from typical development. The ensemble methodology used in this research consisted of three components: (1) Bayesian sequential updating was used to model the achievement of milestones, which allows for updated predictions of development to be made in real time; (2) a measure was created that indicated how far away each child deviated from typical development for each functional domain, by calculating the area between each child's obtained sequence of posterior means and a sequence of posterior means representing typical development; and (3) Dirichlet process mixture modelling was used to cluster the obtained areas. The data used were 348 binary developmental milestone measurements, collected from birth to three years of age, from a small community sample of young children (N = 79). The model identified nine latent groups of children with similar features, ranging from no delays in all functional domains, to large delays in all domains. The performance of the Dirichlet process mixture model was validated with two simulation studies.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/classificação , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/classificação , Logro , Algoritmos , Austrália , Teorema de Bayes , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560173

RESUMO

Achievement emotions constitute one important variable among the many variables of students' learning. The aim of this research was to analyze the differential effect of university students' levels of self-regulation (1 = low, 2 = medium and 3 = high), and of their level of perceived stress in three academic situations (1 = class, 2 = study time and 3 = testing), on the type of achievement emotionality they experience (positive and negative emotions). The following hypotheses were established: (1) a higher level of student self-regulation would be accompanied by higher levels of positive emotionality and lower levels of negative emotionality and (2) a higher level of situational stress would predispose higher levels of negative emotionality and lower levels of positive emotionality. A total of 520 university students completed three self-reports with validated inventories. Descriptive, correlational, and structural prediction analyses (SEM) were performed, as well as 3 × 3 ANOVAs, under an ex post facto design by selection. The results showed overall fulfillment of the hypotheses, except for a few specific emotions. Implications for prevention and psychoeducational guidance in the sphere of university education are discussed.


Assuntos
Logro , Emoções , Estresse Psicológico , Estudantes , Humanos , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512948

RESUMO

More than 20% of all school-aged children in Germany experience a grade retention and repetition during the educational career which is likely to affect their well-being as a central element of school success. This study aims at revealing the temporal dynamics of general and school well-being around the event of grade retention (i.e., the year when the decision to repeat a grade is taken) and the subsequent grade repetition (i.e., the repeated school year) during secondary school in Germany. Longitudinal data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) is used on native students attending grades 5 through to 12 (N = 4581 from originally 273 schools). Distributed fixed-effects regressions by gender and school type have been conducted, using satisfaction with school and life as outcomes. Although retention decisions often trigger an immediate decrease in students' well-being, there arise still benefits from this event in the short-term, middle-term and long-term, though trajectories differ by gender and school type. Overall, it is necessary to promote students´ well-being throughout their educational career, particularly in those critical periods when they face grade retention. Results highlight that tailored programs for both genders and students in different school types should be provided to foster well-being during this phase.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Autoimagem , Estudantes , Logro , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Satisfação Pessoal , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia
20.
J Dent Educ ; 84(9): 1016-1024, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436247

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Professors often spend a great deal of time counseling poorly performing students, which limits the time dedicated to high achievers. This may be problematic, as psychiatrists have determined that gifted students may be susceptible to feelings of inadequacy despite positive external evidence. Dr. Pauline Clance coined the term "Impostor Phenomenon" (IP) to describe these traits. OBJECTIVE: Dental students, while academically successful, may be prone to IP and lack appropriate coping strategies. The goal of this project was to create and publish an online module to educate dental students about IP and provide 6 coping mechanisms. DESIGN: After viewing the video at the beginning of the semester, students completed the Clance IP Scale to determine the prevalence of IP thoughts. This was repeated at the end of the semester to determine the impact of the online training module. RESULTS: There was a decrease in postsemester scores from 63.44 (±14.92) to 59.12 (±14.56), n = 103, 86% response rate, dependent samples within subjects t-test, P < 0.001). The percentage of students reporting intense impostor experiences decreased from 13.6% to 4.9%. Females exhibited significantly higher scores than males, but there was no statistically significant impact of age or race on results. The most common reported coping strategies were a reduction in time spent on nonessential tasks and the use of scheduling to prevent procrastination. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that an online training module can improve awareness of the Impostor Phenomenon and help high-achieving students to cope with their stress and feelings of inadequacy.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Estudantes de Odontologia , Logro , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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