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1.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 75(1): 98-117, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092147

RESUMO

This study probed the cognitive mechanisms that underlie order processing for number symbols, specifically the extent to which the direction and format in which number symbols are presented influence the processing of numerical order, as well as the extent to which the relationship between numerical order processing and mathematical achievement is specific to Arabic numerals or generalisable to other notational formats. Seventy adults who were bilingual in English and Chinese completed a Numerical Ordinality Task, using number sequences of various directional conditions (i.e., ascending, descending, mixed) and notational formats (i.e., Arabic numerals, English number words, and Chinese number words). Order processing was found to occur for ascending and descending number sequences (i.e., ordered but not non-ordered trials), with the overall pattern of data supporting the theoretical perspective that the strength and closeness of associations between items in the number sequence could underlie numerical order processing. However, order processing was found to be independent of the notational format in which the numerical stimuli were presented, suggesting that the psychological representations and processes associated with numerical order are abstract across different formats of number symbols. In addition, a relationship between the processing speed for numerical order judgements and mathematical achievement was observed for Arabic numerals and Chinese number words, and to a weaker extent, English number words. Together, our findings have started to uncover the cognitive mechanisms that could underlie order processing for different formats of number symbols, and raise new questions about the generalisability of these findings to other notational formats.


Assuntos
Logro , Julgamento , Adulto , Cognição , Humanos , Matemática
2.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(11): 2623-2628, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783747

RESUMO

Creativity is one of the tools in the toolkit of modern day learners. Scientific progress cannot be accomplished without developing creative capacities of individuals. The Muslim countries, despite their historical achievement in different creative and innovative discoveries and positive encouragement by Islam towards creativity, have paradoxically gone down from their position. Creativity is one of the priorities of modern age due to its role in the progress of humanity and future. The education system is spoon-feeding our learners and killing creativity. The main aim of the current scoping review is to summarise and disseminate research findings pertaining to the evidence on the definition of the concept of creativity, its importance in education, role of teachers and learners in making creativity a part of their educational endeavours, and their implications. Moreover, it provides a broad and detailed outline of the topic and exploring more general questions rather than providing answer to limited questions. It will help to determine how important it is to foster creativity as educators.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Ciências Humanas , Logro , Humanos
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770226

RESUMO

Boredom is a salient emotion experienced in postsecondary settings, and evidence reveals that it can negatively impact academic achievement and motivation. Drawing from the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006) and the component process model of emotions (CPM; Scherer, 1984), our study examines the first phase of a multi-sequenced online boredom intervention training (BIT) program. The goal of Phase I of BIT was to increase university students' (N = 85) knowledge about boredom as a scholarly construct. Students completed four components of the Phase I BIT session, including: (a) a baseline survey and knowledge quiz, (b) a psychoeducational video, (c) a consolidation exercise, and (d) a follow-up knowledge quiz. We employed a repeated measures analysis to measure changes in knowledge after students watched the psychoeducational boredom video. Our findings reveal that students became more knowledgeable about boredom, learned something novel, and were interested in the intervention. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for research, theory, and practice.


Assuntos
Tédio , Motivação , Logro , Emoções , Humanos , Estudantes
4.
Psychol Rep ; 124(6): 2651-2668, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806484

RESUMO

Previous work has noted that math anxiety may have a profound effect on math performance; however extant research has relied on measures that explicitly assess math anxiety. This study examined the effects of implicit math anxiety on the performance of a math achievement task. We hypothesized that combined measure of implicit anxiety and explicit anxiety would better predict math achievement than measures of explicit math anxiety alone. In addition, we hypothesized that an individuals' measured implicit anxiety and measured explicit anxiety would share only a modest correlation. To test these hypotheses, 175 participants completed measures of explicit anxiety, an implicit associations test designed to measure implicit anxiety, and a measure of math achievement. As expected, math achievement was better predicted when implicit anxiety was combined with explicit anxiety. Furthermore, scores on the implicit and explicit anxiety measures were not significantly correlated. These results suggest that implicit and explicit math anxiety are two distinct constructs, thus traditional methods for helping students deal with math anxiety may not be entirely successful if the implicit component is ignored.


Assuntos
Logro , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos , Matemática , Estudantes
6.
Psicothema ; 33(4): 595-601, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dropout in higher education is a concern for students, families, educational institutions, and society. Tertiary education is an important mechanism for empowering people and STEM courses are vital to countries' development. METHOD: The study combined quantitative and qualitative data. Step 1 was an analysis of personal and contextual variables in a comprehensive examination of dropout in a sample of 1,016 engineering students. In step 2 a short interview by telephone were conducted with 82 students who dropped out, identifying their reasons and their academic/professional situation. In step 3 in-depth interviews were conducted with six students in order to understand the dynamic process of their decisions to leave. RESULTS: The academic/professional situations of students who dropped out were quite varied, for example the same course or a different course at another institution, starting a job, not working or studying, or attending another level of professional training. There were three main reasons for dropping: vocational, learning process and achievement, and reconciling roles. CONCLUSIONS: Engineering student dropout is related to vocational and academic achievement. This should be considered in the implementation of programs to reduce the rate of dropout.


Assuntos
Evasão Escolar , Universidades , Logro , Escolaridade , Humanos , Estudantes
7.
N Z Med J ; 134(1543): 59-68, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34695077

RESUMO

This paper aims to describe a number of sociological and theoretical foundations that underpin selection into tertiary health education in New Zealand and that have historically served to limit the participation of Maori students in restricted-entry health professional programmes. It further describes practical steps that can be taken to promote pro-equity changes within tertiary institutions. First, we discuss the sociological concept of meritocracy as a dominant approach to student selection and pedagogy in universities, and we describe the consequences of this approach for Maori students. Second, we discuss the concepts of white supremacy and privilege as two organising sets of values that interplay with each other and shape the tertiary environment. Third, we discuss possible alternative theoretical and ethical approaches based on Rawls' theory of justice, mana motuhake and strengths-based assumptions. Finally, we illustrate these alternative approaches, which are fundamentally committed to Te Tiriti o Waitangi, with an example of their successful application.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Critérios de Admissão Escolar , Logro , Humanos , Medicina , Nova Zelândia , Recursos Humanos
8.
J Adolesc ; 92: 247-257, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627124

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This paper examined individual, family, and peer roles in promoting Latinx youths' math and science performance. The role of maternal/paternal modeling in education was examined as shaping academic self-efficacy and, in turn, math/science grades among a population considered at risk of low academic achievement. Moreover, the study tested the moderating roles of class ethnic fit (i.e., feelings of fit based on having same-ethnic peers in class) and gender. METHOD: Cross-sectional data came from a southwestern U.S. sample of Latinx adolescents (N = 329; 54% female, Mage = 13.69 years, SD = 0.56) who reported on maternal/paternal educational modeling, academic self-efficacy, math/science grades, class ethnic fit, and gender. RESULTS: Adolescents' perceptions of maternal modeling, but not paternal, related to higher levels of academic self-efficacy which, in turn, related to higher math/science performance. Moderation results revealed: (a) for adolescents who perceived low science class ethnic fit, high levels of parental modeling related to higher levels of academic self-efficacy which, in turn, were related to higher science grades, and (b) maternal modeling positively related to girls', but not boys', academic self-efficacy and paternal modeling positively related to girls', but not boys', math/science performance. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest maternal modeling is a promotive factor, supporting Latinx youths' academic self-efficacy which, in turn, related to math/science grades. Additionally, a negative direct relation between maternal modeling and science grades suggests maternal modeling generally support academic self-efficacy, but not necessarily science attainment. These associations are nuanced as they are informed by context and parent-child gender.


Assuntos
Logro , Autoeficácia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Matemática , Estudantes
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 389, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor reading ability is one of the common causes of low academic performance. In previous studies, children with dyslexia were found to demonstrate poor academic achievement due to poor reading ability. However, the relationship between academic achievement and reading ability in children with a borderline full-scale intellectual quotient (FSIQ) is unknown. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of children with borderline FSIQ and poor reading ability, and differentiate these characteristics from those of children with higher FSIQ and poor reading ability. METHODS: A total of 126 children (aged 6-15 years) identified as having low academic performance were enrolled. The reading ability of children was assessed through their performance on the hiragana (Japanese syllabary) reading task, while their reading and writing achievement was assessed through their reading and writing score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition. Children were categorized into two groups based on their FSIQ score (FSIQ > 85 and 85 ≥ FSIQ ≥ 70). Reading ability in children was evaluated by referring to the linear relationship between FSIQ and the standard deviation value of reading tasks in typically developing children. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to examine clinical characteristics between higher and lower FSIQ groups. Associations between reading and writing achievement, reading ability, and ages of children were assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients for the higher and lower FSIQ groups. RESULTS: Poorer reading and writing achievement was associated with poorer reading ability in the higher FSIQ group. Conversely, poorer reading and writing achievement and poor reading ability were associated with older age in the lower FSIQ group. CONCLUSIONS: Poor reading and writing achievement were associated with older age, not with poor reading ability in the lower FSIQ group. Children with lower FSIQ need appropriate educational interventions based on independent assessments to further their academic achievement and reading ability. Moreover, they need more frequent evaluations of their academic achievement than do children with higher FSIQ and poor reading ability since they are more likely to be at a lower academic achievement level at an older age.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Leitura , Logro , Idoso , Criança , Dislexia/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Redação
10.
Br J Nurs ; 30(16): S3, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514826

Assuntos
Logro , Humanos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574608

RESUMO

This study aims to determine why Korean parents provide adolescent children with continuous physical education through Taekwondo. The Q methodology was applied. The final 25 Q-samples were selected by composing the Q-population. Twenty parents who provided their children with Taekwondo education for more than 10 years were designated as the P-sample. Q-sorting was performed on the P-sample. Centroid factor analysis and varimax rotation were performed using version 2.35 of PQ method program. The study observed four factors with a total explanatory variance of 69%. Types 1 to 4 (N = 5, 7, 5, and 3) pertained to a powerful means of enhancing mental health, the driving force behind stable school life and social development, improvement in psychological and social areas for a successful transition to adulthood, and increased awareness of the values of Taekwondo and importance of physical activity, with eigenvalues of 4.59, 6.42, 3.16, and 1.18 and explanatory variances of 0.16, 0.32, 0.12, and 0.09, respectively. Furthermore, consensus statements for each type were investigated as Q18 and Q17. These findings supported the academic foundation of proper Taekwondo education in adolescence and confirmed it as a powerful means of exerting a positive impact on adulthood.


Assuntos
Artes Marciais , Logro , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Percepção , Q-Sort , República da Coreia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501990

RESUMO

Psychological variables, such as perceived motivational climate, goal orientation, self-determined motivation, and personality, have an influence on sports success performance. This study aimed to examine the relationships among a set of psychological variables (perceived motivational climate, goal orientation, self-determined motivation, and personality) in male and female footballers. Participants were 167 footballers (106 male, 61 female), aged 12 to 26, competing with clubs in the Spanish Football League. They all took four questionnaires aimed at evaluating motivational climate, goal orientations, self-determined motivation, and personality. The analyses of correlation and regression showed statistically significant relations among the variables. Neuroticism and psychoticism negatively relate to mastery motivational climate, the best predictor of self-determined motivation. It was concluded that contextual variables carry more weight in predicting goal orientations and self-determined motivation among participant footballers.


Assuntos
Motivação , Futebol , Logro , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Psychol Sci ; 32(10): 1662-1674, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543110

RESUMO

Overconfidence is one of the most ubiquitous biases in the social sciences, but the evidence regarding its overall costs and benefits is mixed. To test the possibility that overconfidence might yield important relative benefits that offset its absolute costs, we conducted an experiment (N = 298 university students) in which pairs of participants bargained over the unequal allocation of a prize that was earned through a joint effort. We manipulated confidence using a binary noisy signal to investigate the causal effect of negotiators' beliefs about their relative contribution to the outcome of the negotiation. Our results provide evidence that high levels of confidence lead to relative benefits (how much one earns compared with one's partner) but absolute costs (how much money one receives overall). These results suggest that overconfidence creates an inefficient equilibrium whereby overconfident negotiators benefit over their partners even as they bring about joint losses.


Assuntos
Logro , Negociação , Humanos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501695

RESUMO

This study aimed to test the role of passion in the cognitive goals pursued in sport and the level of Optimal Functioning in Society (OFIS) derived from such sport engagement. A total of 184 competitive water polo and synchronized swimming athletes completed a questionnaire assessing their passion for their sport, achievement goals, and various scales assessing their level of OFIS (e.g., subjective well-being, relationship with their coach, sport performance, and intentions to continue in sport). It was hypothesized that harmonious passion (HP) would be positively associated with mastery goals while obsessive passion (OP) would be positively associated with mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. In turn, mastery goals were expected to positively lead to the four components of OFIS, whereas performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals should display less adaptive relationships with OFIS. The results of a path analysis generally supported the proposed model. As hypothesized, these findings suggest that HP leads to a more adaptive cognitive engagement in sport (than OP) that, in turn, fosters higher levels of optimal functioning.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Esportes , Logro , Atletas , Emoções , Humanos , Motivação
15.
Physiol Behav ; 241: 113564, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516958

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to analyze differences in intelligence, academic competences, and academic achievement by gender and academic course in sports science university students. To reach the study aim we analyzed in 267 (226 males and 41 females) first and last year students' degree the variables of intelligence (Reasoning scale of the Primary Mental Abilities Test), academic achievement and self-perception of 40 academic competences (30 general competences and 10 specific competences). We found how last year degree students presented higher general and specific competences than first year students, not presenting differences in intelligence and academic achievement. Female students presented higher academic achievement and higher values in some general and specific competences but not in intelligence.


Assuntos
Logro , Universidades , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Inteligência , Masculino , Estudantes
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501534

RESUMO

This investigation aimed to analyze the predictive differential value of personal (self-regulation, self-efficacy, procrastination) and contextual characteristics (parents' socio-educational level), regarding academic achievement, among Colombian adolescents. A total of 430 students (from 11 to 18 years old) from both genders filled out validated self-reports and informed their academic achievement. We performed an ex-post-facto design, simple regression analyses, structural equations predictions analyses (SEM), and variance analyses (ANOVAs). The results showed that self-regulation is the most potent personal variable predictive of procrastination and achievement, positively associated with self-efficacy; additionally, the parents' educational level was also a predictor, although to a lesser level. The female group and the elderly group negatively predicted academic achievement, behaving as modulatory variables of the above results.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Procrastinação , Logro , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes
17.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 220: 103413, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537471

RESUMO

Some academic subjects, such as math, produce negative feelings, influencing achievement. Math anxiety interferes with processing math-related or number-related information and tasks in ordinary life and academic situations. It differs from general academic anxiety that involves all the academic situations, independently by the specificity of the study subject. Further, it is possible to identify two correlated dimensions of math anxiety which may considerably interfere with math performance: anxiety related to learning mathematics and that experienced during tests. This study investigated the relationship between general academic anxiety, math anxiety, and calculation skill in schoolchildren (N = 204). Results showed that math anxiety was negatively associated with calculation performance in schoolchildren. More specifically, anxiety for math tests correlated negatively with numerical knowledge, calculation accuracy, and calculation speed, while anxiety for learning math correlated negatively with written calculation scores. These findings have a great educational interest. Indeed, calculation skills are central in school and daily life so teachers should recognize math anxiety precociously and promote educational interventions to control it.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Logro , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Criança , Humanos , Matemática
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574493

RESUMO

This study conceptualized the multidimensional construct of parental involvement, including cognitive involvement, behavioral involvement, and personal involvement, and examined the mediating effects of student's mental health and mathematics self-efficacy. Questionnaires were administered to 2866 early adolescents and their parents in China; structural equation modeling and bias-corrected bootstrap methods were used. The results show that different dimensions of parental involvement had different effects on mathematics achievement. Additionally, results indicate that the influences of the multidimensional construct of parental involvement on mathematics achievement were either partially or completely mediated by student's mental health and mathematics self-efficacy. The findings also offer insight into possible interventions designed to explore how parental involvement promotes students' mathematics achievement through their children's mental health and mathematics self-efficacy.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Autoeficácia , Logro , Adolescente , Criança , China , Humanos , Matemática
19.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(12): 2576-2586, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grit has been defined as "perseverance and passion for long-term goals" and is characterized by maintaining focus and motivation toward a challenging ambition despite setbacks. There are limited data on the impact of grit on burnout and psychologic well-being in orthopaedic surgery, as well as on which factors may be associated with these variables. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Is grit inversely correlated with burnout in orthopaedic resident and faculty physicians? (2) Is grit positively correlated with psychologic well-being in orthopaedic resident and faculty physicians? (3) Which demographic characteristics are associated with grit in orthopaedic resident and faculty physicians? (4) Which demographic characteristics are associated with burnout and psychologic well-being in orthopaedic resident and faculty physicians? METHODS: This study was an institutional review board-approved interim analysis from the first year of a 5-year longitudinal study of grit, burnout, and psychologic well-being in order to assess baseline relationships between these variables before analyzing how they may change over time. Orthopaedic residents, fellows, and faculty from 14 academic medical centers were enrolled, and 30% (335 of 1129) responded. We analyzed for the potential of response bias and found no important differences between sites in low versus high response rates, nor between early and late responders. Participants completed an email-based survey consisting of the Duckworth Short Grit Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services (Medical Personnel) Survey, and Dupuy Psychological Well-being Index. The Short Grit Scale has been validated with regard to internal consistency, consensual and predictive validity, and test-retest stability. The Psychological Well-being Index has similarly been validated with regard to reliability, test-retest stability, and internal consistency, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory has been validated with regard to internal consistency, reliability, test-retest stability, and convergent validity. The survey also obtained basic demographic information such as survey participants' age, gender, race, ethnicity, marital status, current year of training or year in practice (as applicable), and region of practice. The studied population consisted of 166 faculty, 150 residents, and 19 fellows. Beyond the expected age differences between sub-populations, the fellow population had a higher proportion of women than the faculty and resident populations did. Pearson correlations and standardized ß coefficients were used to assess the relationships of grit, burnout, psychologic well-being, and continuous participant characteristics. RESULTS: We found moderate, negative relationships between grit and emotional exhaustion (r = -0.30; 95% CI -0.38 to -0.21; p < 0.001), depersonalization (r = -0.34; 95% CI -0.44 to -0.23; p < 0.001), and the overall burnout score (r = -0.39; 95% CI -0.48 to -0.31; p < 0.001). The results also showed a positive correlation between grit and personal accomplishment (r = 0.39; 95% CI 0.29 to 0.48; p < 0.001). We also found a moderate, positive relationship between grit and psychologic well-being (r = 0.39; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.49; p < 0.001). Orthopaedic surgeons with 21 years or more of practice had higher grit scores than physicians with 10 to 20 years of practice. Orthopaedic surgeons in practice for 21 years or more also had lower burnout scores than those in practice for 10 to 20 years. Married physicians had higher psychologic well-being than unmarried physicians did. CONCLUSION: Among orthopaedic residents, fellows, and faculty, grit is inversely related to burnout, with lower scores for emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and higher scores for personal accomplishment as grit increases. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The results suggest that grit could be targeted as an intervention for reducing burnout and promoting psychologic well-being among orthopaedic surgeons. Other research has suggested that grit is influenced by internal characteristics, life experiences, and the external environment, suggesting that there is potential to increase one's grit. Residency programs and faculty development initiatives might consider measuring grit to assess for the risk of burnout, as well as offering curricula or training to promote this psychologic characteristic.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Ortopedia/educação , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Logro , Adulto , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
20.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 673-688, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410742

RESUMO

Model minority stereotypes of Asian Americans as high educational and occupational achievers are perpetuated by conceptual and methodological issues in career development research that aggregate across Asian ethnicities and oversample high achievers. These issues render those marginalized, such as working-class immigrants with limited English proficiency, as well as their children, as invisible within research, practice, and policy. A new theoretical framework, entitled the Asian American Intergenerational Model of Psychology of Working (AAIM), questions the mainstream career development assumptions of linearity, stability, and upward mobility that reveal inherent classism. Building on the Psychology of Working Theory (Duffy et al., 2016); the AAIM broadens the scope and definition of work beyond career, and acknowledges the significance of structural and cultural forces on people's work and life. An expanded qualitative analysis of interviews with 17 low-income, working-class, Chinese immigrant parents (Tu et al., 2019) provides an empirical illustration of the intergenerational and coethnic dynamics of vocational experiences central to the AAIM. The working-class immigrants relied on coethnic networks to secure employment within a narrow range of options, many straddling helplessly between arduous manual labor and family demands. Though they had immigrated primarily to provide a better future for their children, many parents struggled to participate meaningfully in their children's development. These findings highlight the need to expand Asian American psychology of working to incorporate systems and social justice perspectives. Research, practice, and policy implications of AAIM advocate for maximal inclusivity and offer directions to address invisibility of the most marginalized and disenfranchised Asian American workers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Logro , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Emprego/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Classe Social , Justiça Social , Marginalização Social , Estereotipagem , Adulto Jovem
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