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1.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1279, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34837975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer risk is poorly quantified in relation to the temporal presentation of medical comorbidities and lifestyle. This study aimed to examine this aspect, with possible influence of demographics. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study on the ethnically-diverse population of East London, UK, using linked electronic health records. We evaluated the independent and two-way interaction effects of 19 clinico-demographic factors in patients with pancreatic cancer (N = 965), compared with non-malignant pancreatic conditions (N = 3963) or hernia (control; N = 4355), reported between April 1, 2008 and March 6, 2020. Risks were quantified by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: We observed increased odds of pancreatic cancer incidence associated with recent-onset diabetes occurring within 6 months to 3 years before cancer diagnosis (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.25-3.03), long-standing diabetes for over 3 years (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.32-2.29), recent smoking (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.36-2.4) and drinking (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.31-2.35), as compared to controls but not non-malignant pancreatic conditions. Pancreatic cancer odds was highest for chronic pancreatic disease patients (recent-onset: OR 4.76, 95% CI 2.19-10.3, long-standing: OR 5.1, 95% CI 2.18-11.9), amplified by comorbidities or harmful lifestyle. Concomitant diagnosis of diabetes, upper gastrointestinal or chronic pancreatic conditions followed by a pancreatic cancer diagnosis within 6 months were common, particularly in South Asians. Long-standing cardiovascular, respiratory and hepatobiliary conditions were associated with lower odds of pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Several factors are, independently or via effect modifications, associated with higher incidence of pancreatic cancer, but some established risk factors demonstrate similar magnitude of risk measures of developing non-malignant pancreatic conditions. The findings may inform refined risk-stratification strategies and better surveillance for high-risk individuals, and also provide a means for systematic identification of target population for prospective cohort-based early detection research initiatives.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Etnicidade , Feminino , Hérnia Abdominal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Londres/epidemiologia , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatopatias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etnologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246626, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with treatment-naïve diabetic macula oedema (DMO) treated with Aflibercept in routine clinic settings in ethnically diverse North West London (NWL) and compare to outcomes reported in the VIVID and VISTA clinical trials. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicentre interventional case series. Two hundred and seventy eyes of 221 treatment-naïve patients at three NWL hospitals initiated on Aflibercept and who had at least 12 months follow-up were included in the study. Visual acuity, central subfield thickness and macula volume were recorded at baseline, month 3, 6 and 12. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the NWL cohort and participants in the VIVID and VISTA trials at baseline including higher HbA1c and a higher proportion of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the NWL cohort. The mean VA, mean CSFT and mean MV at baseline was 66.4 (± 14.6) letters, 417 (± 94) µm and 10.3 (± 1.9) mm3. The mean VA gain at 12 months was 4.0 (± 11.8) letters (p < 0.001); a total of 26% of eyes gained ≥ 10 letters, 15% of eyes gained ≥ 15 letters and 6% lost ≥15 letters. At 12-months, the mean reduction in CSFT was 108 (± 96) µm (p<0.001) and the mean reduction in MV was 1.05 (± 1.21) mm3 (p<0.001). An average of 6.2 (± 2.3) injections was given over 12 months. There was a significant association between functional and anatomical response category at 3 months and response category at 12 months (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of treatment with Aflibercept for patients in NWL was meaningfully lower than was reported in the VIVID and VISTA clinical trials. A high proportion of patients with good visual acuity at baseline, poorer glycaemic control, worse diabetic retinopathy and under-treatment likely contributed to lower functional and anatomical outcomes.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Londres/etnologia , Edema Macular/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 172(2): 214-226, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared δ15 N and δ13 C values from bone and dentine collagen profiles of individuals interred in famine-related and attritional burials to evaluate whether individuals in medieval London who experienced nutritional stress exhibit enriched nitrogen in bone and tooth tissue. Dentine profiles were evaluated to identify patterns that may be indicative of famine during childhood and were compared with the age of enamel hypoplasia (EH) formation to assess whether isotopic patterns of undernutrition coincide with the timing of physiological stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: δ15 N and δ13 C isotope ratios of bone collagen were obtained from individuals (n = 128) interred in attritional and famine burials from a medieval London cemetery (c. 1120-1539). Temporal sequences of δ15 N and δ13 C isotope profiles for incrementally forming dentine collagen were obtained from a subset of these individuals (n = 21). RESULTS: Results indicate that individuals from attritional graves exhibit significantly higher δ15 N values but no significant differences were found between burial types for the sexes. Analyses of dentine profiles reveal that a lower proportion of famine burials exhibit stable dentine profiles and that several exhibit a pattern of opposing covariance between δ15 N and δ13 C. EH were also observed to have formed during or after the opposing covariance pattern for some individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study may reflect differences in diet between burial types rather than nutritional stress. Though nutritional stress could not be definitively identified using bone and dentine collagen, the results from dentine analysis support previous observations of biochemical patterns associated with nutritional stress during childhood.


Assuntos
Dieta/etnologia , Fome Epidêmica/etnologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropologia Física , Osso e Ossos/química , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colágeno/química , Feminino , História Medieval , Humanos , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Estado Nutricional/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(5)2019 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365196

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is limited evidence on the prevalence and odds of antenatal common mental disorders (CMDs) among migrant women and the effect on risk of intersecting variables such as immigration status and ethnicity. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of antenatal CMDs among migrant women compared to UK-born women in an inner-London maternity service. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey stratified by response to depression screening questions was administered at first antenatal appointment. CMDs were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Recruitment took place between November 2014 and June 2016. RESULTS: Prevalence of antenatal CMDs was 21% (95% CI, 16-28) among migrant women (n = 283) and 24% (95% CI, 18-31) among UK-born women (n = 262). There was no significant difference in the odds of CMDs among migrant women compared to UK-born women (OR = 0.86; P = .57; 95% CI, 0.51-1.44). Migrant women, particularly those with insecure immigration status, had increased odds of posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 29.08; P < .01; 95% CI, 4-188). When analyses were stratified by ethnicity, there was no effect of migrant status for white women, but for ethnic minority (nonwhite) women, migrant status decreased odds of having a CMD (OR = 0.31; P = .02; 95% CI, 0.12-0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal common mental disorders are prevalent among migrant women, but migrant status is unlikely to increase risk on its own. Immigration status, ethnicity, and other intersecting variables of social disadvantage must be investigated simultaneously to examine the perinatal mental health of heterogeneous migrant populations.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Londres/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7070, 2019 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068656

RESUMO

Reducing health inequalities requires improved understanding of the causes of variation. Local-level variation reflects differences in local population characteristics and health system performance. Identifying low- and high-performing localities allows investigation into these differences. We used Multilevel Regression with Post-stratification (MRP) to synthesise data from multiple sources, using chlamydia testing as our example. We used national probability survey data to identify individual-level characteristics associated with chlamydia testing and combined this with local-level census data to calculate expected levels of testing in each local authority (LA) in England, allowing us to identify LAs where observed chlamydia testing rates were lower or higher than expected, given population characteristics. Taking account of multiple covariates, including age, sex, ethnicity, student and cohabiting status, 5.4% and 3.5% of LAs had testing rates higher than expected for 95% and 99% posterior credible intervals, respectively; 60.9% and 50.8% had rates lower than expected. Residual differences between observed and MRP expected values were smallest for LAs with large proportions of non-white ethnic populations. London boroughs that were markedly different from expected MRP values (≥90% posterior exceedance probability) had actively targeted risk groups. This type of synthesis allows more refined inferences to be made at small-area levels than previously feasible.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/etnologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , População Negra , Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Etnicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Branca , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211972, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768624

RESUMO

Recurrence of TB in an individual can occur due to relapse of the same strain or reinfection by a different strain. The contribution of reinfection and relapse to TB incidence, and the factors associated with each are unknown. We aimed to quantify and describe cases attributable to relapse or reinfection, and identify associated risk factors in order to reduce recurrence. We categorised recurrent TB cases from notifications in London (2002-2015) as relapse or reinfection using molecular (MIRU VNTR strain type) and epidemiological information (hierarchical approach using time since notification, site of disease and method of case finding). Factors associated with each outcome were determined using logistic regression in Stata Version 13.1 (2009-2015 only). Of 43,465 TB cases, 1.4% (618) were classified as relapse and 3.8% (1,637) as reinfection. The proportion with relapse decreased from 2002 (2.3%) to 2015 (1.3%), while the proportion of reinfection remained around 4%. Relapse was more common among recent migrants (<1 year, odds ratio (OR) = 1.99, p = 0.005), those with a social risk factor (OR = 1.51, p = 0.033) and those with central nervous system, spinal, miliary or disseminated TB (OR = 1.75, p = 0.001). Reinfection was more common among long term migrants (>11 years, OR = 1.67, p = <0.001), those with a social risk factor (OR = 1.96, p = <0.001) and within specific areas in London. Patients with social risk factors were at increased risk of both relapse and reinfection. Characterising those with relapsed disease highlights patients at risk and factors associated with reinfection suggest groups where transmission is occurring. This will inform TB control programs to target appropriate treatment and interventions in order to reduce the risk of recurrence.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Londres/epidemiologia , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Recidiva , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Migrantes , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 272: 618-627, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616132

RESUMO

Black ethnicity is associated with increased risk for psychosis in South London. This study explored the distribution of ethnicity among services users at ultra high risk for psychosis (UHR) and examined the influence of ethnicity on service access, treatment uptake and incidence of psychosis. The ethnic distribution of 228 people at UHR for psychosis, seen in an early detection clinical service over 10 years, was compared with 146 people with first episode psychosis from the same geographic region and census figures for the local population. Black service users were significantly over-represented in the UHR group compared to the background population (34% vs 21%; p < 0.05); but less so than in the first episode sample (58% vs 19%; p < 0.05). Within the UHR sample, there was no strong evidence of differences between ethnic groups in the types of treatment provided, nor in the rate of transition to psychosis over 2 years. The absence of differences between ethnic groups in rates of transition to psychosis raises the possibility that access to mental health care at the high risk stage might have reduced the influence of ethnicity on the incidence of psychosis in this sample. This would need to be replicated in a larger sample.


Assuntos
Etnicidade/psicologia , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Acessibilidade aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Incidência , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychol Med ; 49(10): 1639-1651, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is associated with increased mortality, however, little is known about its variation by ethnicity. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of individuals with ICD-10 unipolar depression from secondary mental healthcare, from an ethnically diverse location in southeast London, followed for 8 years (2007-2014) linked to death certificates. Age- and sex- standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), with the population of England and Wales as a standard population were derived. Hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality were derived through multivariable regression procedures. RESULTS: Data from 20 320 individuals contributing 91 635 person-years at risk with 2366 deaths were used for analyses. SMR for all-cause mortality in depression was 2.55(95% CI 2.45-2.65), with similar trends by ethnicity. Within the cohort with unipolar depression, adjusted HR (aHRs) for all-cause mortality in ethnic minority groups relative to the White British group were 0.62(95% CI 0.53-0.74) (Black Caribbean), 0.53(95% CI 0.39-0.72) (Black African) and 0.69(95% CI 0.52-0.90) (South Asian). Male sex and alcohol/substance misuse were associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk [aHR:1.94 (95% CI 1.68-2.24) and aHR:1.18 (95% CI 1.01-1.37) respectively], whereas comorbid anxiety was associated with a decreased risk [aHR: 0.72(95% CI 0.58-0.89)]. Similar associations were noted for natural-cause mortality. Alcohol/substance misuse and male sex were associated with a near-doubling in unnatural-cause mortality risk, whereas Black Caribbean individuals with depression had a reduced unnatural-cause mortality risk, relative to White British people with depression. CONCLUSIONS: Although individuals with depression experience an increased mortality risk, marked heterogeneity exists by ethnicity. Research and practice should focus on addressing tractable causes underlying increased mortality in depression.


Assuntos
População Negra/etnologia , Causas de Morte , Transtorno Depressivo/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo/mortalidade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , População Branca/etnologia , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etnologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia
9.
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil ; 31(6): 1133-1143, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29974586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the lives of parents with intellectual disabilities from minority ethnic communities. Previous research suggests that what it means to live with intellectual disabilities varies across cultural contexts. The current research aimed to explore how cultural values and practices impact upon the experiences of parents with intellectual disabilities within the Bangladeshi community in London, England. METHOD: Six members of the Bangladeshi community, four Bangladeshi parents with intellectual disabilities and four of their family members were interviewed. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes. RESULTS: Both parenting and intellectual disability are thought about in this community in ways that make parenting more accessible for people with learning disabilities, but also create tensions to be negotiated. CONCLUSIONS: Bangladeshi family carers face dilemmas balancing the benefits and risks of promoting parenting for sons and daughters with intellectual disabilities, particularly in the context of service principles of autonomy and informed consent.


Assuntos
Filhos Adultos/etnologia , Deficiência Intelectual/etnologia , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Adulto , Bangladesh/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Nephrol ; 18(1): 201, 2017 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Membranous nephropathy (MN) is the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. MN is a clinically heterogeneous disease and it is difficult to accurately predict outcomes (including end stage renal failure) at presentation and whom to treat with potentially toxic therapies. We aimed to identify factors predicting outcome in MN in our cohort from two large tertiary London units by undertaking a retrospective data analysis of 148 biopsy-proven MN patients from North East and Central London between 1995 and 2015. METHODS: Review of clinical and biochemistry databases. RESULTS: Surprisingly, patients that reached end stage renal failure (ESRF) had a less severe nephrosis compared to those that did not develop ESRF; serum albumin 33 g/L (3.3 g/dL) versus 24 g/L (2.4 g/dL), p = 0.002 and urinary protein creatinine ratio (uPCR) 550 mg/mmol (5500 mg/g) versus 902 mg/mmol (9020 mg/g), p = 0.0124. The correlation with ESRF was strongest with the presenting creatinine; 215 µmol/L (2.43 mg/dL) compared to 81 µmol/L (0.92 mg/dL), p < 0.0001. Patients presenting with creatinine of >120 µmol/L (1.36 mg/dL; corresponding to an eGFR of ≤60 ml/min in non-Black males) had an increased rate of ESRF and a faster decline. Other traditional risk factors for progression were not significantly associated with ESRF. Black patients presented with higher serum creatinine but no statistically significant difference in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, a higher rate of progression to ESRF and had a poorer response to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This ethnically diverse cohort does not demonstrate the traditional risk profile associated with development of ESRF. Thus, careful consideration of therapeutic options is crucial, as current risk modelling cannot accurately predict the risk of ESRF. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of antibodies and risk genes.


Assuntos
Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/diagnóstico , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/etnologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/terapia , Humanos , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0179332, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28640854

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ethnicity-specific association between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes in pregnancy, with a focus on the appropriateness of using BMI cut-offs to identify pregnant women at risk of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Analysis of routinely-collected data from a maternity unit in London, UK. Data were available on 53 264 women delivering between 2004 and 2012. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between diabetes in pregnancy and BMI among women of different ethnicities, and adjusted probability estimates were used to derive risk equivalent cut-offs. ROC curve analysis was used to assess the performance of BMI as a predictor of diabetes in pregnancy. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy was 2.3% overall; highest in South and East Asian women (4.6% and 3.7%). In adjusted analysis, BMI category was strongly associated with diabetes in all ethnic groups. Modelled as a continuous variable with a quadratic term, BMI was an acceptable predictor of diabetes according to ROC curve analysis. Applying a BMI cut-off of 30 kg/m2 would identify just over half of Black women with diabetes in pregnancy, a third of White (32%) and South Asian (35%) women, but only 13% of East Asian women. The 'risk equivalent' (comparable to 30 kg/m2 in White women) threshold for South Asian and East Asian women was approximately 21 kg/m2, and 27.5 kg/m2 for Black women. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that current BMI thresholds are likely to be ineffective for diabetes screening in South and East Asian women, as many cases of diabetes will occur at low BMI levels. Our results suggest that East Asian women appear to face a similarly high risk of diabetes to South Asian women. Current UK guidelines recommend diabetes screening should be offered to all pregnant South Asian women; extending this recommendation to include women of East Asian ethnicity may be appropriate.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/etnologia , Gravidez , Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Soc Sci Med ; 177: 27-34, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157566

RESUMO

Housing is a significant determinant of health and substandard housing is a public health issue. East London has long had a shortage of social and affordable housing, worsened in recent years by a combination of stressors. In one of East London's most deprived boroughs, Newham, changes brought about by the 2011 Localism Act and the unique demands of being the host Olympic borough in 2012 have brought considerable pressures to bear on social infrastructure. This paper examines how these pressures were experienced by local residents via their narratives of social housing and health. The data reported here are from a qualitative study comprising two waves of data collection. Narrative family interviews and go-along interviews were conducted with 40 Newham residents at wave one and 28 at wave two. A narrative analysis with a Bakhtinian interpretation was undertaken. This revealed that residents framed experiences of social housing in terms of an inherent system-level ideology based on notions of need and waiting. A particularly striking feature of this ideology was the extent to which descriptions of ill health and impairment were implicated in constructions of housing need; participants directly attributed a range of health complaints to their housing predicaments, including stress, depression, cancer scares, panic attacks and loss of sleep. Understanding the contested ideology of social housing can illuminate both the dynamic processes of social exclusion and the ways in which its subjects seek to resist it.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Habitação/tendências , Narração , Percepção , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/tendências , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Raciais/psicologia , Grupos Raciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Sociológicos
13.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 76: 144-153, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27923182

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) measures are crucial for research into stress and stress-related disorders. Most HPA measures fluctuate depending on diurnal rhythms and state confounders. Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are less susceptible to such fluctuations, but less is known about trait-like confounders. Using a community sample, we tested the relationship between HCC and a range of variables including demographic variables, hair treatment, and medication, as well as psychosocial variables, namely childhood trauma, critical life events, and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Hair samples were collected from 144 individuals from the South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study. Childhood trauma, life events, and depressive symptoms were measured, together with age, sex, ethnicity, relationship status, educational attainment, employment status, occupational social class, hair washing frequency, hair treatments, season reflected in the hair sample, hazardous drinking, smoking, medication intake, and body mass index. Hair samples reflecting the past 3 months were collected and analysed using immunoassays. First, correlations (continuous variables) and simple linear regressions (dichotomous variables) were conducted to identify sociodemographic, hair-related, and lifestyle determinants of HCC. Next, multiple linear regressions were conducted to test the relationship between psychosocial variables and HCC when controlling for the identified confounders. RESULTS: Age (r=-0.17, p=0.050), White British ethnicity (ß=-0.19, p=0.023), heat-based treatments (ß=-0.22, p=0.010), and winter season (ß=-0.18, p=0.024) were associated with lower HCC, whereas summer season (ß=0.24, p=0.024), painkillers (ß=0.25, p=0.003), anxiolytics/antidepressants (ß=0.21, p=0.014), and hormonal contraceptives (ß=0.27, p=0.006) were associated with higher HCC. Controlling for these confounders, physical neglect during childhood (ß=-0.17, p=0.057), war-related experiences (ß=0.20, p=0.027), separation (ß=0.18, p=0.054), and being the victim of a serious crime (ß=-0.17, p=0.062) were linked with altered HCC. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that variation in HCC occurs according to sociodemographic, hair-related, and lifestyle variables, and that certain associations between stress and altered HCC can only be revealed when accounting for these confounders.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 47(2): 393-404, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27873140

RESUMO

Diagnosing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is important throughout the lifespan. The objective was to investigate the transcultural diagnostic validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a clinical sample of 451 adults with Intellectual Developmental Disorder (IDD) with and without ASD in Germany, the U.S.A. and Great Britain. Variables associated with higher SCQ sum-scores were higher levels of IDD, male gender, a diagnosis of ASD and the study site (Germany > U.S.A > G.B.). An ROC analysis revealed a cut-score of 13, which resulted in a sensitivity of 0.87 and a specificity of 0.58. It is recommended to adjust the cut-score according to level of IDD and gender. Further research is needed to align diagnostic assignment of ASD across different sites and countries.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Comunicação , Comparação Transcultural , Deficiência Intelectual/etnologia , Relações Interpessoais , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Berlim/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Ohio/etnologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Fontilles, Rev. leprol ; 30(6): 597-609, sept.-dic. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-159090

RESUMO

Objetivos: La prednisolona y la talidomida se administran frecuentemente en el control del eritema nodoso leproso (ENL) y proporcionan alivio a los pacientes con esta condición en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, tanto el ENL como sus tratamientos causan gran morbilidad. Este trabajo describe el espectro del ENL observado en el Hospital para Enfermedades Tropicales de Londres (HTD), la utilización de esteroides y el uso de esteroides y talidomida en su control y las consiguientes complicaciones. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo una revisión retrospectiva de los pacientes diagnosticados con ENL entre 1996 y 2013. Los datos se obtuvieron de los archivos clínicos, incluyendo la severidad y duración del episodio, además del tratamiento y efectos adversos. Resultados: Entre 1996 y 2013 se diagnosticaron 30 pacientes con ENL. El índice bacteriológico (IB) promedio en el momento del diagnóstico fue > 4.65, superior al aceptado en otros estudios. La mayoría de los pacientes desarrollaron ENL durante el tratamiento (67%) y presentaron ENL crónico (57%). La duración media del ENL fue de 60 meses (rango 9-192); los pacientes con IB > 4.5 presentaron períodos de tiempo más largos. El 87% de los pacientes recibieron prednisolona durante 9 meses; 33% desarrolló efectos adversos, incluyendo diabetes e hipertensión; el 87% de los pacientes recibió talidomida durante 16 meses y el 65% presentó efectos adversos. No hubo casos de embarazo o tromboembolismo. El 77% de los pacientes dejó la prednisolona a los dos meses de iniciar la talidomida. No hubo casos de fallecimiento en nuestro grupo. Conclusión: Describimos el curso clínico del ENL en un país no endémico con acceso a la talidomida y prednisolona. El ENL puede durar mucho más que el tiempo descrito anteriormente y tiene un gran impacto sobre la salud del paciente. En el Reino Unido, la talidomida es esencial para cesar la administración de los esteroides, prevenir efectos adversos y la mortalidad por esteroides, lo cual esté documentado en otros trabajos


Objectives: Prednisolone and thalidomide are commonly used in the management of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) and bring relief to patients with this condition worldwide. However, both ENL and its treatments can cause significant morbidity. This study describes the spectrum of ENL seen at The Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London (HTD), the use of steroids and thalidomide in its management and the complications of their use. Study Design: We conducted a retrospective audit of patients diagnosed with ENL between 1996 and 2013. Data were obtained from hospital records including severity and length of disease, together with treatments received and adverse effects. Results: Between 1996 and 2013, 30 patients were diagnosed with ENL. The median bacillary index (BI) at diagnosis was 4.65, higher than in previous studies. Most patients developed ENL during leprosy treatment (67%) and had chronic ENL (57%). The median length of ENL was 60 months (range 9-192); patients with BI. 4.5 had significantly longer duration of disease. 87% patients received prednisolone for median nine months; 35% developed adverse effects including diabetes and hypertension. 87% patients received thalidomide for median 16 months; 65% complained of side effects. There were no pregnancies or venous thromboembolisms. 77% patients stopped prednisolone within two months of starting thalidomide. There were no deaths in our cohort. Conclusion: We describe the clinical course of ENL in a non-endemic country with access to thalidomide and prednisolone. ENL may last far longer than previously described and has significant impact on a patient’s health. In the UK, thalidomide is essential as a steroid-sparing agent, to prevent the adverse effects and mortality of longterm steroids which have been documented elsewhere


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Esteroides/provisão & distribuição , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Eritema Nodoso/metabolismo , Eritema Nodoso/patologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Registros Médicos/classificação , Morbidade , Neurite (Inflamação)/patologia , Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Esteroides/farmacologia , Talidomida/provisão & distribuição , Eritema Nodoso/complicações , Eritema Nodoso/prevenção & controle , Londres/etnologia , Neurite (Inflamação)/metabolismo
16.
Psychol Med ; 46(14): 3051-3059, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27523979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been observed that mental disorders, such as psychosis, are more common for people in some ethnic groups in areas where their ethnic group is less common. We set out to test whether this ethnic density effect reflects minority status in general, by looking at three situations where individual characteristics differ from what is usual in a locality. METHOD: Using data from the South East London Community Health study (n = 1698) we investigated associations between minority status (defined by: ethnicity, household status and occupational social class) and risk of psychotic experiences, common mental disorders and parasuicide. We used a multilevel logistic model to examine cross-level interactions between minority status at individual and neighbourhood levels. RESULTS: Being Black in an area where this was less common (10%) was associated with higher odds of psychotic experiences [odds ratio (OR) 1.34 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.67], and attempted suicide (OR 1.84 95% CI 1.19-2.85). Living alone where this was less usual (10% less) was associated with increased odds of psychotic experiences (OR 2.18 95% CI 0.91-5.26), while being in a disadvantaged social class where this was less usual (10% less) was associated with increased odds of attempted suicide (OR 1.33 95% CI 1.03-1.71). We found no evidence for an association with common mental disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between minority status and mental distress was most apparent when defined in terms of broad ethnic group but was also observed for individual household status and occupational social class.


Assuntos
População Negra/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Classe Social , Tentativa de Suicídio/etnologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 161(4): 620-633, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27535009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine hot flashes in relation to climate and activity patterns, and to compare subjective and objective hot flashes among Bangladeshi immigrants to London, their white London neighbors, and women still living in their community of origin, Sylhet, Bangladesh ("sedentees"). METHODS: Ninety-five women, aged 40-55, wore the Biolog ambulatory hot flash monitor. Objective measurements and subjective hot flash reports were examined in relation to demographic, reproductive, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables; temperature and humidity at 12:00 and 18:00; and time spent on housework and cooking. Concordance of objective and subjective hot flashes was assessed by Kappa statistics and by sensitivity of hot flash classification. RESULTS: During the study period, Bangladeshi sedentees reported more subjective hot flashes (p < .05), but there was no difference in number of objective hot flashes. White Londoners were more likely to describe hot flashes on their face and neck compared to Bangladeshis (p < .05). Sedentees were more likely to describe hot flashes on their feet (p < .05). Postmenopausal status, increasing parity, and high levels of housework were significant determinants of subjective hot flashes, while ambient temperature and humidity were not. Measures of subjective/objective concordance were low but similar across groups (10-20%). The proportion of objective hot flashes that were also self-reported was lowest among immigrants. DISCUSSION: Hot flashes were not associated with warmer temperatures, but were associated with housework and with site-specific patterns of cooking. The number of objective hot flash measures did not differ, but differences in subjective experience suggest the influence of culture.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fogachos/etnologia , Fogachos/epidemiologia , Bangladesh/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/etnologia , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Temperatura
18.
Neurol Sci ; 37(11): 1759-1763, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351545

RESUMO

Iran has the highest prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Middle East and Asia. Rate of emigration has been significantly raised among Iranians and though, multiple studies have been published on prevalence of MS among Iranian emigrants. Here we systematically reviewed these publications. We performed a comprehensive literature search was performed on April 30, 2015 in data bases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and Google Scholar for the terms 'multiple sclerosis', 'incidence', 'prevalence', 'epidemiology', 'migration', 'emigrant', 'immigrant', 'Iran', 'Parsis' and 'Persian'. Study location, prevalence day or period, and age of at disease onset were recorded for all the included publications. Nine publications from Sweden, Canada, Norway, UK, and India were included. Only three reported age-adjusted prevalence and six reported age of disease onset. MS prevalence among Iranian emigrants varied from 21 per 100,000 people in Bombay, India in 1985 to 433 per 100,000 people in British Columbia, Canada in 2012. Five studies reported the prevalence in the region of interest, ranging from 1.33 in Bombay, India to 240 in British Columbia, Canada. Five studies also reported the prevalence of MS in the population of the destination country, and in all of them, the prevalence of MS was higher in Iranian immigrants compared to native people. Prevalence studies performed in Iran and also on Iranian emigrants indicate roles for both genetic and environmental factors in MS susceptibility. Data might indicate that living in a high-risk area increases the susceptibility to MS.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Esclerose Múltipla/etnologia , Colúmbia Britânica/etnologia , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Irã (Geográfico)/etnologia , Londres/etnologia , Noruega/etnologia , Prevalência , Suécia/etnologia
19.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 55(3): 522-43, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27256485

RESUMO

Research suggests that positive intergenerational contact can improve young people's attitudes towards older adults. However, today's age-segregated society may not provide ample opportunities for positive contact between younger and older adults to occur on a regular basis. In three studies, we investigated whether the positive attitudinal outcomes associated with direct contact might also stem from a more indirect form of intergenerational relationship: extended contact. In Study 1 (N = 70), extended contact was associated with more positive attitudes towards older adults even when controlling for direct intergenerational contact (contact frequency and contact quality). In Study 2 (N = 110), the positive effects of direct and extended contact on young people's age-related attitudes were mediated by reductions in intergroup anxiety and ageing anxiety. The mediational effects of intergroup anxiety were replicated in Study 3 (N = 95) and ingroup norms additionally emerged as a mediator of the positive effects of extended contact on young people's attitudes towards older adults. Discussion focuses on the implications for strategies aimed at tackling ageism.


Assuntos
Etarismo/etnologia , Ansiedade/etnologia , Atitude/etnologia , Processos Grupais , Relação entre Gerações/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Londres/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychol Med ; 46(6): 1321-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26879871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have linked ethnic differences in depression rates with neighbourhood ethnic density although results have not been conclusive. We looked at this using a novel approach analysing whole population data covering just over one million GP patients in four London boroughs. METHOD: Using a dataset of GP records for all patients registered in Lambeth, Hackney, Tower Hamlets and Newham in 2013 we investigated new diagnoses of depression and antidepressant use for: Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, black Caribbean and black African patients. Neighbourhood effects were assessed independently of GP practice using a cross-classified multilevel model. RESULTS: Black and minority ethnic groups are up to four times less likely to be newly diagnosed with depression or prescribed antidepressants compared to white British patients. We found an inverse relationship between neighbourhood ethnic density and new depression diagnosis for some groups, where an increase of 10% own-ethnic density was associated with a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduced odds of depression for Pakistani [odds ratio (OR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.93], Indian (OR 0.88, CI 0.81-0.95), African (OR 0.88, CI 0.78-0.99) and Bangladeshi (OR 0.94, CI 0.90-0.99) patients. Black Caribbean patients, however, showed the opposite effect (OR 1.26, CI 1.09-1.46). The results for antidepressant use were very similar although the corresponding effect for black Caribbeans was no longer statistically significant (p = 0.07). CONCLUSION: New depression diagnosis and antidepressant use was shown to be less likely in areas of higher own-ethnic density for some, but not all, ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/etnologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Etnicidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , População Negra , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Análise de Regressão , Características de Residência , População Branca , Adulto Jovem
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