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2.
Yi Chuan ; 43(6): 545-570, 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284987

RESUMO

With the increase of life expectancy, the world's population is aging rapidly. Previous work in the field of aging greatly increases our understanding of biological mechanisms underlying longevity. Researchers have unraveled a number of longevity pathways conserved from yeast to mammals. However, recent evidence shows that mechanisms regulating the life span and those regulating age-related behavioral decline could be dissociated. The regulatory mechanisms underlying behavioral and cognitive aging is largely unknown. Previous work has described a significant age-related decline in cognitive behaviors including episodic memory, working memory, processing speed, as well as motor function deterioration and circadian dysfunction. With the advance of neuroscience and technology, more and more studies have focused on the age-related changes in structure and function of the brain. In this review, we briefly describe the deterioration of cognitive function and other behaviors in the aging process, and survey the role of age-related changes in brain structure and network, neuron morphology and function, transcriptome in brain and some conserved biological pathways on age-related cognitive and behavioral decline. Further studies on the mechanisms underpinning age-related cognitive and behavioral decline may provide clues not only for improving the quality of life for the ageing population, but also for developing intervention approaches for neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Cognição , Longevidade , Qualidade de Vida
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205297

RESUMO

A cross-sectional observational study was conducted to describe the lifestyle of people ≥90 years, living in Evdilos or Raches, two municipalities of the Greek island of Ikaria, classified a longevity blue zone. The 71 participants were interviewed and underwent the Mediterranean Islands study food frequency questionnaire (MEDIS-FFQ) and the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). The frequency of social contacts was daily for 77.9% of participants, weekly for 16.1%, and monthly for 5.9%. Most participants (90.0%) believed in God, and 81.4% took part in religious events. A total of 62.0% attended Panigiria festivals. Access to primary health care was considered difficult in the past for 66.2% of participants, while 22.1% felt that it remained difficult at the time of the survey. The level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet was 62.7% (61.6% in women and 64.0% in men). Physical activity levels were moderate or high for 71.8% of participants (59.5% of women and 85.3% of men). In conclusion, the participants had a very high level of family solidarity, social interaction and physical activity. The results concerning the Mediterranean diet are less convincing. It would be interesting to study the impact of these factors on the longevity of the oldest old aged people living in Ikaria.


Assuntos
Dieta Mediterrânea , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Masculino
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202991

RESUMO

Sleep health, operationalized as a multidimensional construct consisting of sleep regularity, satisfaction, alertness, timing, efficiency, and duration, is an emerging concept in the field of sleep medicine which warrants further investigation. The purpose of the present study was to: (1) compare sleep health across the lifespan, (2) determine lifestyle factors associated with sleep health, and (3) examine whether lifestyle factors associated with sleep health varied between and within age groups. Participants consisted of 3284 individuals (Mean age = 42.70; 45% male) who participated in a cross-sectional online survey of sleep and health. Sleep health was measured using the RU-SATED scale, while demographic and lifestyle factors (e.g., daily social media use, sedentary activity, fast food consumption, etc.) were all self-reported. Sleep health was the highest among older adults (M = 8.09) followed by middle-aged (M = 7.65) and younger adults (M = 7.16). Across age groups, fast-food consumption, daily regularity, and daily TV, social media, or internet use were all negatively correlated with sleep health (ps < 0.05). Few differences in the association between lifestyle factors and sleep health across age groups were found. Overall, these findings may help to inform sleep health promotion efforts by targeting the most pertinent lifestyle factors for promoting sleep health.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Longevidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Fast Foods , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300683

RESUMO

The automation of lifespan assays with C. elegans in standard Petri dishes is a challenging problem because there are several problems hindering detection such as occlusions at the plate edges, dirt accumulation, and worm aggregations. Moreover, determining whether a worm is alive or dead can be complex as they barely move during the last few days of their lives. This paper proposes a method combining traditional computer vision techniques with a live/dead C. elegans classifier based on convolutional and recurrent neural networks from low-resolution image sequences. In addition to proposing a new method to automate lifespan, the use of data augmentation techniques is proposed to train the network in the absence of large numbers of samples. The proposed method achieved small error rates (3.54% ± 1.30% per plate) with respect to the manual curve, demonstrating its feasibility.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Aprendizado Profundo , Animais , Automação , Longevidade , Redes Neurais de Computação
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201322

RESUMO

Loneliness and lack of social well-being are associated with adverse health outcomes and have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Smartphone communication data have been suggested to help monitor loneliness, but this requires further evidence. We investigated the informative value of smartphone communication app data for predicting subjective loneliness and social well-being in a sample of 364 participants ranging from 18 to 78 years of age (52.2% female; mean age = 42.54, SD = 13.22) derived from the CORONA HEALTH APP study from July to December 2020 in Germany. The participants experienced relatively high levels of loneliness and low social well-being during the time period characterized by the COVID-19 pandemic. Apart from positive associations with phone call use times, smartphone communication app use was associated with social well-being and loneliness only when considering the age of participants. Younger participants with higher use times tended to report less social well-being and higher loneliness, while the opposite association was found for older adults. Thus, the informative value of smartphone communication use time was rather small and became evident only in consideration of age. The results highlight the need for further investigations and the need to address several limitations in order to draw conclusions at the population level.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Idoso , Comunicação , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Solidão , Longevidade , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 406, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The existence of a super-select group of centenarians that demonstrates increased survivorship has been hypothesized. However, it is unknown if this super-select group possesses similar characteristics apart from extreme longevity. METHODS: In this study, we analyse high-quality health and survival data of Danish centenarians born in 1895, 1905 and 1910. We use Latent Class Analysis to identify unobserved health classes and to test whether these super-select lives share similar health characteristics. RESULTS: We find that, even after age 100, a clear and distinct gradient in health exists and that this gradient is remarkably similar across different birth cohorts of centenarians. Based on the level of health, we identify three clusters of centenarians - robust, frail and intermediate - and show that these groups have different survival prospects. The most distinctive characteristic of the robust centenarians is the outperformance in different health dimensions (physical, functional and cognitive). Finally, we show that our health class categorizations are good predictors of the survival prospects of centenarians. CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear stratification in health and functioning among those over 100 years of age and these differences are associated with survival beyond age 100.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos
8.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74(suppl 2): e20200612, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Analyze the coefficient, associated factors, and causes of mortality in community-dwelling elderly. METHOD: Longitudinal and analytical study. Data collection, at baseline, was performed in the elderly's home. The first wave occurred after 42 months. Complementary data collection identified the cause of death. Variables analyzed: demographic, social, economic, and clinical. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The coefficient of mortality was 7.9%. The variables associated with mortality were longevity, inability to read, absence of religious practice, stroke, consultation, and hospitalization in the last 12 months. The main groups of primary causes of death were ill-defined and unspecified causes of mortality, respiratory system diseases, and neoplasms. CONCLUSION: The coefficient of mortality in community-dwelling elderly was lower than national and international studies investigated.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Vida Independente , Idoso , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Longevidade
9.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204683

RESUMO

The average life expectancy of the world population has increased remarkably in the past 150 years and it is still increasing. A long life is a dream of humans since the beginning of time but also a dream is to live it in good physical and mental condition. Nutrition research has focused on recent decades more on food combination patterns than on individual foods/nutrients due to the possible synergistic/antagonistic effects of the components in a dietary model. Various dietary patterns have been associated with health benefits, but the largest body of evidence in the literature is attributable to the traditional dietary habits and lifestyle followed by populations from the Mediterranean region. After the Seven Countries Study, many prospective observational studies and trials in diverse populations reinforced the beneficial effects associated with a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet in reference to the prevention/management of age-associated non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, depression, respiratory diseases, and fragility fractures. In addition, the Mediterranean diet is ecologically sustainable. Therefore, this immaterial world heritage constitutes a healthy way of eating and living respecting the environment.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Longevidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Dieta Mediterrânea/história , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade
10.
Gene ; 799: 145811, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224829

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder with motor symptoms linked to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the brain. α-Synuclein is an aggregation-prone neural protein that plays a role in the pathogenesis of PD. In our previous paper, we found that saffron; the stigma of Crocus sativus Linné (Iridaceae), and its constituents (crocin and crocetin) suppressed aggregation of α-synuclein and promoted the dissociation of α-synuclein fibrils in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary saffron and its constituent, crocetin, in vivo on a fly PD model overexpressing several mutant α-synuclein in a tissue-specific manner. Saffron and crocetin significantly suppressed the decrease of climbing ability in the Drosophila overexpressing A30P (A30P fly PD model) or G51D (G51D fly PD model) mutated α-synuclein in neurons. Saffron and crocetin extended the life span in the G51D fly PD model. Saffron suppressed the rough-eyed phenotype and the dispersion of the size histogram of the ocular long axis in the eye of A30P fly PD model. Saffron had a cytoprotective effect on a human neuronal cell line with α-synuclein fibrils. These data showed that saffron and its constituent crocetin have protective effects on the progression of PD disease in animals in vivo and suggest that saffron and crocetin can be used to treat PD.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacologia , Crocus/química , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Mutação , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Degeneração Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Vitamina A/farmacologia , alfa-Sinucleína/genética , alfa-Sinucleína/metabolismo , alfa-Sinucleína/toxicidade
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3666, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135334

RESUMO

Is it possible to slow the rate of ageing, or do biological constraints limit its plasticity? We test the 'invariant rate of ageing' hypothesis, which posits that the rate of ageing is relatively fixed within species, with a collection of 39 human and nonhuman primate datasets across seven genera. We first recapitulate, in nonhuman primates, the highly regular relationship between life expectancy and lifespan equality seen in humans. We next demonstrate that variation in the rate of ageing within genera is orders of magnitude smaller than variation in pre-adult and age-independent mortality. Finally, we demonstrate that changes in the rate of ageing, but not other mortality parameters, produce striking, species-atypical changes in mortality patterns. Our results support the invariant rate of ageing hypothesis, implying biological constraints on how much the human rate of ageing can be slowed.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Longevidade , Primatas/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Mortalidade
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3486, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108489

RESUMO

The metabolome represents a complex network of biological events that reflects the physiologic state of the organism in health and disease. Additionally, specific metabolites and metabolic signaling pathways have been shown to modulate animal ageing, but whether there are convergent mechanisms uniting these processes remains elusive. Here, we used high resolution mass spectrometry to obtain the metabolomic profiles of canonical longevity pathways in C. elegans to identify metabolites regulating life span. By leveraging the metabolomic profiles across pathways, we found that one carbon metabolism and the folate cycle are pervasively regulated in common. We observed similar changes in long-lived mouse models of reduced insulin/IGF signaling. Genetic manipulation of pathway enzymes and supplementation with one carbon metabolites in C. elegans reveal that regulation of the folate cycle represents a shared causal mechanism of longevity and proteoprotection. Such interventions impact the methionine cycle, and reveal methionine restriction as an underlying mechanism. This comparative approach reveals key metabolic nodes to enhance healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Carbono/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Longevidade/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Insulina/metabolismo , Longevidade/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metaboloma , Metionina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mutação , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/genética , Tetra-Hidrofolato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/metabolismo , Timidilato Sintase/genética , Timidilato Sintase/metabolismo
13.
Blood Adv ; 5(11): 2550-2562, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100903

RESUMO

Neutrophils help to clear pathogens and cellular debris, but can also cause collateral damage within inflamed tissues. Prolonged neutrophil residency within an inflammatory niche can exacerbate tissue pathology. Using both genetic and pharmacological approaches, we show that BCL-XL is required for the persistence of neutrophils within inflammatory sites in mice. We demonstrate that a selective BCL-XL inhibitor (A-1331852) has therapeutic potential by causing apoptosis in inflammatory human neutrophils ex vivo. Moreover, in murine models of acute and chronic inflammatory disease, it reduced inflammatory neutrophil numbers and ameliorated tissue pathology. In contrast, there was minimal effect on circulating neutrophils. Thus, we show a differential survival requirement in activated neutrophils for BCL-XL and reveal a new therapeutic approach to neutrophil-mediated diseases.


Assuntos
Neutropenia , Neutrófilos , Animais , Apoptose , Longevidade , Camundongos , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 84(3): 497-527, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125333

RESUMO

Sex dimorphism is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom and can be influenced by environmental factors. However, relatively little is known about how the degree and direction of sex difference vary with environmental factors, including food quality and temperature. With the spider mites from the family Tetranychidae as subjects, the sex difference of life-history traits in responses to host plant and temperature were determined in this meta-analytic review. Across the 42 studies on 26 spider mite species (N = 8057 and 3922 for female and male mites, respectively), female spider mites showed longer developmental duration than the males in all except two species. The direction of sex difference in development was consistent regardless of temperature and host plant. The 16 spider mite species in 33 studies generally showed female-biased longevity, with an overall effect size of 0.6043 [95%CI = 0.4054-0.8031]. Host plant significantly influenced the sex difference in longevity, where the males lived longer than females below 22.5 ℃, but the reverse was true at higher and fluctuating temperature. Host plant also influenced the magnitude of sex difference in longevity, with females living longer than males when reared on herbs but not on trees. This study indicated that life-history traits are highly variable between sexes under temperature and host plant influence, highlighting that environmental conditions can significantly shape the direction and magnitude of sexual dimorphism of life-history traits.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Ácaros , Tetranychidae , Animais , Feminino , Longevidade , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
15.
Biol Lett ; 17(6): 20200916, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102068

RESUMO

Recently, nine Caenorhabditis elegans genes, grouped into two pathways/clusters, were found to be implicated in healthspan in C. elegans and their homologues in humans, based on literature curation, WormBase data mining and bioinformatics analyses. Here, we further validated these genes experimentally in C. elegans. We downregulated the nine genes via RNA interference (RNAi), and their effects on physical function (locomotion in a swim assay) and on physiological function (survival after heat stress) were analysed in aged nematodes. Swim performance was negatively affected by the downregulation of acox-1.1, pept-1, pak-2, gsk-3 and C25G6.3 in worms with advanced age (twelfth day of adulthood) and heat stress resistance was decreased by RNAi targeting of acox-1.1, daf-22, cat-4, pig-1, pak-2, gsk-3 and C25G6.3 in moderately (seventh day of adulthood) or advanced aged nematodes. Only one gene, sad-1, could not be linked to a health-related function in C. elegans with the bioassays we selected. Thus, most of the healthspan genes could be re-confirmed by health measurements in old worms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Caenorhabditis elegans , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Humanos , Longevidade/genética
16.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067055

RESUMO

Fasting potentials are the most interesting topics in the Nutritional Era. Fasting consists of the catabolism of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates to maintain blood glucose levels in a normal range. The action mechanisms of fasting were firstly understood in minor organisms and later in humans. Nutritional interventions of caloric restriction could attenuate age-associated epigenetic alterations and could have a protective effect against cellular alterations, promoting longevity and health span. While most fasting studies point out the weight and fat mass decreases, it is important to define specific guidelines for fasting and non-fasting days to enhance adherence, minimize the dropout rates of the interventions, and maximize body composition improvement. Although the panorama of evidence on fasting and caloric restriction is wide, there is a lack of a safe fasting protocol to guide physicians in its prescription. The main goal is to identify a how to use guide, a major posology of fasting, inserted within a huge dietetic personalized strategy leading to an optimal and healthy nutritional status.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/métodos , Dietética/métodos , Jejum/fisiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Composição Corporal , Humanos , Longevidade
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 115: 70-74, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089887

RESUMO

The polymerization of monomeric antigens can be a strategy to overcome the low immunogenicity of subunit vaccines. IMX313 is a hybrid oligomerization domain of chicken C4bp, and has been demonstrated to have potent activity as adjuvants for the fused antigens in mammals. In the present study, we investigated whether the oligomerization of α-enolase of Streptococcus iniae by fusion with IMX313 affected on antibody induction and on protection against S. iniae infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The oligomerization of S. iniae enolase by fusion with IMX313 (enolase-IMX313) was verified by non-reducing PAGE, and the antibody titer against enolase in olive flounder immunized with enolase-IMX313 was significantly higher than that in fish immunized with enolase alone. Furthermore, although the survival of olive flounder immunized with enolase alone was low, fish immunized with enolase-IMX313 showed much higher survival (RPS 50%) in accordance with higher serum antibody titer, suggesting that fusion of antigens with IMX313 can be an effective way to enhance protective efficacy of subunit vaccines in olive flounder.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Linguados , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/genética , Animais , Anisóis , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Longevidade , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização NOD/genética , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus iniae/enzimologia , Triazinas , Triazóis
18.
J Affect Disord ; 291: 307-314, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric problem across the lifespan, with typical onset during the pediatric period. Prior literature has examined cognitive mechanisms associated with youth anxiety and identified interpretation bias, the threatening appraisal of ambiguity, as a ubiquitous correlate and likely mechanism. A small set of studies have examined interpretation bias and anxiety in parent-child dyads, although results about this potential relationship are conflicted. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the association between parent interpretation bias with child interpretation bias and child anxiety. METHODS: Eight studies met the rigorous inclusion criteria, which required direct assessment of interpretation bias in both youth and parent. RESULTS: Meta-analysis with a random effects model indicated a small and significant correlation between parent and child interpretation biases (r = 0.14, p < .01), as well as a small and significant correlation between parent interpretation bias and child anxiety (r =  = 0.20, p = .01). LIMITATIONS: As only eight studies were included in this meta-analysis, reflecting the state of the extant literature, it is possible that, as data accumulate and this work continues in the future, results may or may not be replicated. CONCLUSIONS: Despite variability in findings across the included empirical studies, the current meta-analysis suggests that a correlational relationship between parent interpretation bias and child bias/anxiety exists. This work has implications for conceptualizing parent interpretation bias as a possible explanatory mechanism underlying youth interpretation bias and anxiety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Ansiedade , Adolescente , Viés , Criança , Humanos , Longevidade , Pais
19.
J Exp Biol ; 224(11)2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087935

RESUMO

Early life conditions can affect individuals for life, with harsh developmental conditions resulting in lower fitness, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We hypothesized that immune function may be part of the underlying mechanism, when harsh developmental conditions result in less effective immune function. We tested this hypothesis by comparing innate immune function between zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in adulthood (n=230; age 108-749 days) that were reared in either small or large broods. We used this experimental background to follow up our earlier finding that finches reared in large broods have a shorter lifespan. To render a broad overview of innate immune function, we used an array of six measures: bacterial killing capacity, hemagglutination, hemolysis, haptoglobin, nitric oxide and ovotransferrin. We found no convincing evidence for effects of natal brood size on any of the six measures of innate immune function. This raised the question whether the origin of variation in immune function was genetic, and we therefore estimated heritabilities using animal models. However, we found heritability estimates to be low (range 0.04-0.11) for all measured immune variables, suggesting variation in innate immune function can largely be attributed to environmental effects independent of early-life conditions as modified by natal brood size.


Assuntos
Tentilhões , Animais , Imunidade , Longevidade
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067475

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and critical complication in the clinical setting. In rodents, AKI can be effectively prevented through caloric restriction (CR), which has also been shown to increase lifespan in many species. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), longevity studies revealed that a marked CR-induced reduction of endocannabinoids may be a key mechanism. Thus, we hypothesized that regulation of endocannabinoids, particularly arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA), might also play a role in CR-mediated protection from renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in mammals including humans. In male C57Bl6J mice, CR significantly reduced renal IRI and led to a significant decrease of AEA. Supplementation of AEA to near-normal serum concentrations by repetitive intraperitoneal administration in CR mice, however, did not abrogate the protective effect of CR. We also analyzed serum samples taken before and after CR from patients of three different pilot trials of dietary interventions. In contrast to mice and C. elegans, we detected an increase of AEA. We conclude that endocannabinoid levels in mice are modulated by CR, but CR-mediated renal protection does not depend on this effect. Moreover, our results indicate that modulation of endocannabinoids by CR in humans may differ fundamentally from the effects in animal models.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Endocanabinoides/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Ácidos Araquidônicos/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Restrição Calórica/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
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