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2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 22793-22799, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868443

RESUMO

Resource sharing has always been a central component of human sociality. Children require heavy investments in human capital; during working years, help is needed due to illness, disability, or bad luck. While hunter-gatherer elders assisted their descendants, more recently, elderly withdraw from work and require assistance as well. Willingness to share has been critically important for our past evolutionary success and our present daily lives. Here, we document a strong linear relationship between the public and private sharing generosity of a society and the average length of life of its members. Our findings from 34 countries on six continents suggest that survival is higher in societies that provide more support and care for one another. We suggest that this support reduces mortality by meeting urgent material needs, but also that sharing generosity may reflect the strength of social connectedness, which itself benefits human health and wellbeing and indirectly raises survival.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Longevidade/fisiologia , Alocação de Recursos/tendências , Bases de Dados Factuais , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Modelos Estatísticos , Alocação de Recursos/economia , Comportamento Social
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0228367, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976485

RESUMO

The Zigzag ladybird beetle, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is a biological control agent that feeds on a variety of aphid species. Life table and predation data of C. sexmaculata were collected under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C, 60±5% RH and L14: D10 h in connection with feeding on four different aphid species; Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis nerii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) and Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Larval development of C. sexmaculata was long when fed on M. persicae (12.18 days) and shorter on D. noxia (10.64 days). The male's lifespan was longer on M. persicae (26.70 days) and shorter on L. erysimi (23.67 days). Fecundity was maximum when the beetle was fed D. noxia (316.8 eggs/female) and minimum on M. persicae (199.1 eggs/female). Net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest on D. noxia with values of 158.4 (offspring individual-1), 0.22 d-1, and 1.24 d-1, respectively whereas the respective parameters were lowest on L. erysimi (99.5 offspring individual-1, 0.19 d-1, and 1.20 d-1, respectively). However, the mean of the generation (T) was shorter on A. nerii (22.48 d-1) and longer on M. persicae (24.68 d-1). Based on life table parameters obtained under laboratory conditions, the most appropriate host of C. sexmaculata was D. noxia. This study should help us to improve mass rearing and use of C. sexmaculata in the biological control of aphids on field and horticultural crops.


Assuntos
Afídeos/parasitologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Larva , Tábuas de Vida , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Paquistão
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4496, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901024

RESUMO

Aging is characterized by the loss of homeostasis and the general decline of physiological functions, accompanied by various degenerative diseases and increased rates of mortality. Aging targeting small molecule screens have been performed many times, however, few have focused on endogenous metabolic intermediates-metabolites. Here, using C. elegans lifespan assays, we conducted a worm metabolite screen and identified an eukaryotes conserved metabolite, myo-inositol (MI), to extend lifespan, increase mobility and reduce fat content. Genetic analysis of enzymes in MI metabolic pathway suggest that MI alleviates aging through its derivative PI(4,5)P2. MI and PI(4,5)P2 are precursors of PI(3,4,5)P3, which is negatively related to longevity. The longevity effect of MI is dependent on the tumor suppressor gene, daf-18 (homologous to mouse Pten), independent of its classical pathway downstream genes, akt or daf-16. Furthermore, we found MI effects on aging and lifespan act through mitophagy regulator PTEN induced kinase-1 (pink-1) and mitophagy. MI's anti-aging effect is also conserved in mouse, indicating a conserved mechanism in mammals.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Inositol/metabolismo , Longevidade/fisiologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Locomoção/fisiologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Mitofagia/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA-Seq
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236249, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The insect predator Coccinella septempunctata can effectively control many types of pests, such as aphids, whiteflies, and small lepidopteran larvae. We previously found that C. septempunctata fed an artificial diet showed diminished biological properties(e.g. fecundity, egg hatching rate, survival rate, etc.) compared with those fed natural prey (Aphis craccivora), likely due to different nutritional characteristics of the diet. In this study, we used transcriptome sequencing analysis to identify nutrition- and metabolism-related genes of C. septempunctata that were differentially expressed depending on diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 691,942,058 total clean reads from artificial diet-fed and A. craccivora-fed C. septempunctata libraries, and the clean reads were assembled using Trinity de novo software (Tabel 2). Comparison of transcriptome sequences revealed that expression of 38,315 genes was affected by the artificial diet, and 1,182 of these genes showed a significant change in expression levels (FDR ≤ 0.05,|log2FC|≥1, "FC" stands for "fold change"). These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were likely associated with the decreased egg laying capacity, hatching rate, longevity, and increased sex ratio (♀:♂) of adult C. septempunctata observed in the group fed the artificial diet. Furthermore, in the most DEGs metabolic pathways for C. septempunctata feeding on the artificial diet accumulated amino acid metabolic pathways, lipid metabolic pathways, and starch and glucose metabolism were down-regulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found some differentially expressed genes and metabolic pathways are related to nutrition, from which a more informative feedback for diet formulation was obtained and the artificial diet could be more efficiently optimized.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Afídeos , Besouros/fisiologia , Genes de Insetos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Longevidade/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Razão de Masculinidade , Amido/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3820, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732919

RESUMO

Supercentenarians (those aged ≥110 years) are approaching the current human longevity limit by preventing or surviving major illness. Identifying specific biomarkers conducive to exceptional survival might provide insights into counter-regulatory mechanisms against aging-related disease. Here, we report associations between cardiovascular disease-related biomarkers and survival to the highest ages using a unique dataset of 1,427 oldest individuals from three longitudinal cohort studies, including 36 supercentenarians, 572 semi-supercentenarians (105-109 years), 288 centenarians (100-104 years), and 531 very old people (85-99 years). During follow-up, 1,000 participants (70.1%) died. Overall, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), interleukin-6, cystatin C and cholinesterase are associated with all-cause mortality independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and plasma albumin. Of these, low NT-proBNP levels are statistically associated with a survival advantage to supercentenarian age. Only low albumin is associated with high mortality across age groups. These findings expand our knowledge on the biology of human longevity.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Albumina Sérica/análise , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
7.
Nature ; 584(7821): 415-419, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641829

RESUMO

Sexual dimorphism arises from genetic differences between male and female cells, and from systemic hormonal differences1-3. How sex hormones affect non-reproductive organs is poorly understood, yet highly relevant to health given the sex-biased incidence of many diseases4. Here we report that steroid signalling in Drosophila from the ovaries to the gut promotes growth of the intestine specifically in mated females, and enhances their reproductive output. The active ovaries of the fly produce the steroid hormone ecdysone, which stimulates the division and expansion of intestinal stem cells in two distinct proliferative phases via the steroid receptors EcR and Usp and their downstream targets Broad, Eip75B and Hr3. Although ecdysone-dependent growth of the female gut augments fecundity, the more active and more numerous intestinal stem cells also increase female susceptibility to age-dependent gut dysplasia and tumorigenesis, thus potentially reducing lifespan. This work highlights the trade-offs in fitness traits that occur when inter-organ signalling alters stem-cell behaviour to optimize organ size.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Longevidade/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Animais , Carcinogênese , Proliferação de Células , Copulação/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/anatomia & histologia , Drosophila melanogaster/citologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Ecdisona/metabolismo , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/anatomia & histologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/citologia , Intestinos/patologia , Masculino , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores de Esteroides/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 319(2): R203-R210, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609535

RESUMO

Canids are a morphological and physiological diverse group of animals, with the most diversity found within one species, the domestic dog. Underlying observed morphological differences, there must also be differences at other levels of organization that could lead to elucidating aging rates and life span disparities between wild and domestic canids. Furthermore, small-breed dogs live significantly longer lives than large-breed dogs, while having higher mass-specific metabolic rates and faster growth rates. At the cellular level, a clear mechanism underlying whole animal traits has not been fully elucidated, although oxidative stress has been implicated as a potential culprit of the disparate life spans of domestic dogs. We used plasma and red blood cells from known aged domestic dogs and wild canids, and measured several oxidative stress variables: total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid damage, and enzymatic activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). We used phylogenetically informed general linear mixed models and nonphylogenetically corrected linear regression analysis. We found that lipid damage increases with age in domestic dogs, whereas TAC increases with age and TAC and GPx activity increases as a function of age/maximum life span in wild canids, which may partly explain longer potential life spans in wolves. As body mass increases, TAC and GPx activity increase in wild canids, but not domestic dogs, highlighting that artificial selection may have decreased antioxidant capacity in domestic dogs. We found that small-breed dogs have significantly higher circulating lipid damage compared with large-breed dogs, concomitant to their high mass-specific metabolism and higher growth rates, but in opposition to their long life spans.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Canidae , Catalase/sangue , Cães , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Masculino , Oxirredução , Filogenia , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue
9.
Cell Metab ; 32(1): 31-43, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640245

RESUMO

For centuries, people believed that bats possessed sinister powers. Bats are thought to be ancestral hosts to many deadly viruses affecting humans including Ebola, rabies, and most recently SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. However, bats themselves tolerate these viruses without ill effects. The second power that bats have is their longevity. Bats live much longer than similar-sized land mammals. Here we review how bats' ability to control inflammation may be contributing to their longevity. The underlying mechanisms may hold clues to developing new treatments for age-related diseases. Now may be the time to use science to exploit the secret powers of bats for human benefit.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Animais , Quirópteros/imunologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
10.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1874(1): 188383, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535158

RESUMO

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the primary systemic therapy for treating locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Despite its positive effect on PCa patient survival, ADT causes various adverse effects, including increased cardiovascular risk factors and cardiotoxicity. Lifespans extension, early use of ADT, and second-line treatment with next-generation androgen receptor pathway inhibitors would further extend the duration of ADT and possibly increase the risk of ADT-induced cardiotoxicity. Meanwhile, information on the molecular mechanisms underlying ADT-induced cardiotoxicity and measures to prevent it is limited, mainly due to the lack of specifically designed preclinical studies and clinical trials. This review article compiles up-to-date evidence obtained from observational studies and clinical trials, in order to gain new insights for deciphering the association between ADT use and cardiotoxicity. In addition, potential cardioprotective strategies involving GnRH receptors and second messenger cGMP are discussed.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Androgênios/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Cardiotoxicidade/epidemiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/etiologia , Cardiotoxicidade/fisiopatologia , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/metabolismo , Humanos , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/farmacologia , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Receptores LHRH/agonistas , Receptores LHRH/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores LHRH/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Clin Interv Aging ; 15: 733-742, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546991

RESUMO

Purpose: Reduced kidney function has been associated with an increased risk for adverse outcomes. Accurate assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is key to diagnosis and management of kidney disfunction. Debate exists on the best GFR estimation equation for elderly people. This study aimed to compare the predictive validity and discriminative ability of four GFR equations in relation to 2-year and 6-year mortality in exceptional longevity (EL) (those over 95 years old with intact health) individuals and is an ideal model to address factors relating to life span and age-related diseases. Patients and Methods: This study used 6 years' data of 278 EL from the Rugao longevity cohort. Baseline GFR was estimated using four equations: Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study (MDRD) equation, Berlin Initiative Study-1 (BIS) equation, and modified MDRD equation. Predictive validity was tested using Cox proportional hazards analysis. Overall improvement in reclassification based on estimated GFR (eGFR) was assessed applying net reclassification improvement (NRI). Results: Mean age of participants was 97±2 years with median follow-up of 2.6 years. Median (IQR) eGFR by CKD-EPI, MDRD, BIS, and modified MDRD equations were 73.9 (62.2-77.6), 82.3 (67.4-98.6), 56.4 (47.9-63.9), and 101.5 (83.1-121.6) mL/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. Higher eGFREPI was associated with lower mortality after multivariate adjustment (for continuous eGFREPI, HRtwo-year 1.018, 95% CI 1.002-1.033, P=0.023; HRsix-year 1.013, 95% CI 1.002-1.025, P=0.022), while eGFR from other equations did not show any associations with mortality. NRI for two-year mortality was 0.14 and approximately significant, which may favor the CKD-EPI when compared to BIS equation (P=0.052). Conclusion: The CKD-EPI equation showed more accurate estimation of kidney function in the elderly with respect to GFR distribution and predictability of mortality risk.


Assuntos
Creatinina/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal/diagnóstico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Insuficiência Renal/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15748-15754, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571943

RESUMO

Trade-offs between growth, reproduction, and lifespan constrain animal life histories, leading to evolutionary diversification of life history cycles in different environments. In female mammals, gestation and lactation are expected to impose the major costs of reproduction, driving reproductive trade-offs, although mating also requires interactions with males that could themselves influence life history. Here we show that a male's presence by itself leads to lifelong alterations in life history in female mice. Housing C57BL/6J female mice with sterilized males early in life led to an increase in body weight, an effect that persisted across life even when females were later allowed to produce pups. We found that those females previously housed with sterile males also showed enhanced late-life offspring production when allowed to reproduce, indicating that earlier mating can influence subsequent fecundity. This effect was the opposite to that seen in females previously housed with intact males, which showed the expected trade-off between early-life and late-life reproduction. However, housing with a sterile male early in life came at a cost to lifespan, which was observed in the absence of females ever undergoing fertilization. Endocrinologically, mating also permanently reduced the concentration of circulating prolactin, a pituitary hormone influencing maternal care. Changes in hormone axes that influence reproduction could therefore help alter life history allocation in response to opposite-sex stimuli. Our results demonstrate that mating itself can increase growth and subsequent fecundity in mammals, and that responses to sexual stimuli could account for some lifespan trade-offs normally attributed to pregnancy and lactation.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biológicos , Peso Corporal/genética , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Comunicação Celular , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/genética , Lactação , Longevidade/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Reprodução/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379772

RESUMO

The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is a powerful metabolic regulator in vertebrates and invertebrates. At cellular concentrations in the nanomolar range, and simultaneously reduced internal oxygen partial pressures (pO2), NO completely inhibits cytochrome-c-oxidase (CytOx) activity and hence mitochondrial- and whole-tissue respiration. The infaunal clam Arctica islandica regulates pO2 of hemolymph and mantle cavity water to mean values of <5 kPa, even in a completely oxygen-saturated environment of 21 kPa. These low internal pO2 values support a longer NO lifespan and NO accumulation in the body fluids and can thus trigger a depression of metabolic rate in the clams. Measurable amounts of NO formation were detected in hemocyte cells (~110 pmol NO 100-1 hemocytes h-1 at 6 kPa), which was not prevented in the presence of the NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME, and in the gill filaments of A. islandica. Adding a NO donor to intact gills and tissue homogenate significantly inhibited gill respiration and CytOx activity below 10 kPa. Meanwhile, the addition of the NO-oxidation product nitrite did not affect metabolic rates. The high nitrite levels found in the hemolymph of experimental mussels under anoxia do not indicate cellular NO production, but could be an indication of nitrate reduction by facultative anaerobic bacteria associated with tissue and/or hemolymph biofilms. Our results suggest that NO plays an important role in the initiation of metabolic depression during self-induced burrowing and shell closure of A. islandica. Furthermore, NO appears to reduce mitochondrial oxygen radical formation during surfacing and cellular reoxygenation after prolonged periods of hypoxia and anoxia.


Assuntos
Bivalves/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bivalves/fisiologia , Respiração Celular , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Longevidade/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Nitritos/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2376, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398747

RESUMO

Naked mole-rat (NMR), the longest-living rodent, produces very-high-molecular-mass hyaluronan (vHMM-HA), compared to other mammalian species. However, it is unclear if exceptional polymer length of vHMM-HA is important for longevity. Here, we show that vHMM-HA (>6.1 MDa) has superior cytoprotective properties compared to the shorter HMM-HA. It protects not only NMR cells, but also mouse and human cells from stress-induced cell-cycle arrest and cell death in a polymer length-dependent manner. The cytoprotective effect is dependent on the major HA-receptor, CD44. We find that vHMM-HA suppresses CD44 protein-protein interactions, whereas HMM-HA promotes them. As a result, vHMM-HA and HMM-HA induce opposing effects on the expression of CD44-dependent genes, which are associated with the p53 pathway. Concomitantly, vHMM-HA partially attenuates p53 and protects cells from stress in a p53-dependent manner. Our results implicate vHMM-HA in anti-aging mechanisms and suggest the potential applications of vHMM-HA for enhancing cellular stress resistance.


Assuntos
Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Citoproteção/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/química , Ácido Hialurônico/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Longevidade/fisiologia , Camundongos , Ratos-Toupeira/fisiologia , Peso Molecular , Cultura Primária de Células , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Estresse Fisiológico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
16.
Science ; 368(6493)2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439765

RESUMO

The social environment, both in early life and adulthood, is one of the strongest predictors of morbidity and mortality risk in humans. Evidence from long-term studies of other social mammals indicates that this relationship is similar across many species. In addition, experimental studies show that social interactions can causally alter animal physiology, disease risk, and life span itself. These findings highlight the importance of the social environment to health and mortality as well as Darwinian fitness-outcomes of interest to social scientists and biologists alike. They thus emphasize the utility of cross-species analysis for understanding the predictors of, and mechanisms underlying, social gradients in health.


Assuntos
Longevidade/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Animais , Aptidão Genética , Humanos , Longevidade/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Meio Social
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2476, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424161

RESUMO

Birds (Aves) display high metabolic rates and oxygen consumption relative to mammals, increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Although excess ROS reduces lifespan by causing extensive cellular dysfunction and damage, birds are remarkably long-lived. We address this paradox by identifying the constitutive activation of the NRF2 master antioxidant response in Neoaves (~95% of bird species), providing an adaptive mechanism capable of counterbalancing high ROS levels. We demonstrate that a KEAP1 mutation in the Neoavian ancestor disrupted the repression of NRF2 by KEAP1, leading to constitutive NRF2 activity and decreased oxidative stress in wild Neoaves tissues and cells. Our evidence suggests this ancient mutation induced a compensatory program in NRF2-target genes with functions beyond redox regulation-including feather development-while enabling significant metabolic rate increases that avoid trade-offs with lifespan. The strategy of NRF2 activation sought by intense clinical investigation therefore appears to have also unlocked a massively successful evolutionary trajectory.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aves/fisiologia , Plumas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Longevidade/fisiologia , Animais , Metabolismo Basal , Evolução Biológica , Aves/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Genômica , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Filogenia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Ubiquitinação , Regulação para Cima/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230970, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287318

RESUMO

The ability to predict when an individual will die can be extremely useful for many research problems in aging. A technique for predicting death in the model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, has been proposed which relies on an increase in the permeability of the fly intestinal system, allowing dyes from the diet to permeate the body of the fly shortly before death. In this study we sought to verify this claim in a large cohort study using different populations of D. melanogaster and different dyes. We found that only about 50% of the individuals showed a visible distribution of dye before death. This number did not vary substantially with the dye used. Most flies that did turn a blue color before death did so within 24 hours of death. There was also a measurable effect of the dye on the fly mean longevity. These results would tend to limit the utility of this method depending on the application the method was intended for.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Corantes/administração & dosagem , Corantes/farmacocinética , Corantes/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Permeabilidade
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232144, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330204

RESUMO

The black soldier fly Hermetia illucens is gaining growing interest as a tool for the valorisation of bio-waste in a circular economy perspective. Although a wide variety of studies are available for larvae rearing, the indoor breeding of adults still presents a great challenge for industrial purposes. This study was designed to assess the simultaneous influence of 3 different light sources (the Mix of LED UV:blue:green 1:1:3, White LED, Neon light) and 3 types of nutrition (sugar and water, only water, no sugar no water) on adult performances, obtaining different egg production parameters that included the number and weight of the egg masses and single eggs laid by the females, the duration of pre-oviposition and oviposition period, the adult life span, the hatchability of the eggs. Our results showed that production parameters are influenced mainly by nutrition rather than light factor, although light plays an important secondary role. Moreover, the presence of sugar positively affects the egg production (12,93-27,10 mg eggs/female) and increases oviposition period (18,2-31,8 days) and adult lifespan (20,79-27,11 days). Light sources also affect egg production parameters, with the exposure to the Mix of LEDs resulting in the best performance of flies. Results obtained from this study are very useful for the design and management of an efficient industrial black soldier fly mass rearing process.


Assuntos
Larva/fisiologia , Oviposição/fisiologia , Simuliidae/anatomia & histologia , Simuliidae/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Feminino , Luz , Longevidade/fisiologia , Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 290, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306918

RESUMO

In the context of global aging, HIV infection has become a new chronic disease and requires innovative models of care. Treating isolated comorbidities represents a useless and potentially harmful practice at advanced age. Therefore, a patient-centered approach, in which the interventions are focused on the biology and function of the individual, with understanding of the importance of securing social and home environment that provides psychosocial support, better suits unmet health needs. We present a paradigmatic case of healthy aging: the first reported HIV-infected patient who achieved 100th of life - the Lisbon patient. The construct of healthy aging, recently introduced by the World Health Organization, is the best example of this comprehensive model and could represent the fourth target of UNAIDS agenda of the end of AIDS.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Objetivos , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Centrada no Paciente
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