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1.
Tob Control ; 31(Suppl 3): s187-s196, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328463

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Local e-cigarette sales restrictions (ESRs) may impact e-cigarette use. This study examined the associations between living in localities with various ESR policies and changes in e-cigarette use among young adults in Los Angeles (LA) County, California, USA. METHODS: Data were from a cohort of LA County young adults (18-21 years; n=2100) who completed two waves of surveys (Fall 2018-Summer 2019 and Summer-Fall 2020). Local flavoured (n=9) and comprehensive (n=2) ESRs in LA County implemented between June 2019 and May 2020 were identified, coded and merged with the baseline data. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between living in ESR localities and e-cigarette use at follow-up, controlling for covariates and stratified by cigarette smoking at baseline. RESULTS: Overall, 20.9% and 14.3% of participants lived in localities with flavoured and comprehensive ESRs, respectively. Participants who were non-Hispanic, had higher socioeconomic statuses and were currently using e-cigarettes were generally more likely to live in ESR localities than their counterparts. The associations between living in ESR localities and e-cigarette use at follow-up were not found among baseline non-e-cigarette users regardless of their cigarette smoking status; a positive relationship was found among baseline e-cigarette users who also smoked cigarettes but not among non-smokers. DISCUSSION: Participants who lived in localities with various ESR policies were different in their baseline e-cigarette use and socioeconomic backgrounds. Future research examining the potential impact of ESRs on e-cigarette use change should consider the localities' overall sociodemographic and tobacco-using characteristics and individuals' cigarette smoking histories.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Adulto Jovem , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Aromatizantes
2.
J Infect Dis ; 226(Suppl 3): S346-S352, 2022 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of engaging unhoused peer ambassadors (PAs) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination efforts to reach people experiencing unsheltered homelessness in Los Angeles County. METHODS: From August to December 2021, vaccinated PAs aged ≥18 years who could provide informed consent were recruited during vaccination events for same-day participation. Events were held at encampments, service providers (eg, housing agencies, food lines, and mobile showers), and roving locations around Los Angeles. PAs were asked to join outreach alongside community health workers and shared their experience getting vaccinated, receiving a $25 gift card for each hour they participated. Postevent surveys evaluated how many PAs enrolled and how long they participated. In October 2021, we added a preliminary effectiveness evaluation of how many additional vaccinations were attributable to PAs. Staff who enrolled the PAs estimated the number of additional people vaccinated because of talking with the PA. RESULTS: A total of 117 PAs were enrolled at 103 events, participating for an average of 2 hours. At events with the effectiveness evaluation, 197 additional people were vaccinated over 167 PA hours ($21.19 gift card cost per additional person vaccinated), accounting for >25% of all vaccines given at these events. DISCUSSION: Recruiting same-day unhoused PAs is a feasible, acceptable, and preliminarily effective technique to increase COVID-19 vaccination in unsheltered settings. The findings can inform delivery of other health services for people experiencing homelessness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Vacinação
3.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 246: 114048, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308780

RESUMO

There is a great heterogeneity in smoking prevalence and tobacco control policy across different countries. However, it is unknown whether this heterogeneity could cause increased passive smoking and adverse health effects among international travelers. In this pilot study, we collected 190 urine samples from 26 Los Angeles residents before (LA-before), during (Beijing), and after (LA-after) a 10-week visit to Beijing to measure biomarkers of passive smoking (cotinine), exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs), and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, 8-isoprostane, and uric acid). The geometric mean concentrations of urinary cotinine were 0.14, 1.52, and 0.22 µg/g creatinine in LA-before, Beijing, and LA-after, respectively. Likewise, OH-PAH levels were significantly higher in Beijing as compared to LA-before or LA-after, in association with the urinary cotinine levels. One-fold increase in urinary cotinine levels was associated with 10.1% (95% CI: 5.53-14.8%), 8.75% (95% CI: 2.33-15.6%), and 25.4% (95%CI: 13.1-39.1%) increases in urinary levels of malondialdehyde, 8-isoprotane, and uric acid, respectively. OH-PAHs mediated 9.1-23.3% of the pro-oxidative effects associated with passive smoking. Taken together, our findings indicate that traveling to a city with higher smoking prevalence may increase passive smoking exposure, in association with pro-oxidative effects partially mediated by PAHs.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Cotinina/urina , Projetos Piloto , Pequim , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Ácido Úrico , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Biomarcadores/urina , Malondialdeído/urina , Estresse Oxidativo
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1796, 2022 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study describes the development and impact of a social marketing campaign in early 2020 intended to prevent and reduce methamphetamine use in Los Angeles County (LAC). We used social marketing principles and the transtheoretical model to design the campaign, which was intended to avoid stigmatization of methamphetamine users and communicate compassion, empathy, and support. METHODS: To evaluate its impact, we collected cross-sectional online survey data post-campaign (n = 1,873) from LAC residents in population segments considered higher risk for methamphetamine use. We examine associations between campaign exposure and outcomes using bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression models, which control for the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on methamphetamine use or likelihood of use. RESULTS: The analyses revealed that campaign exposure was associated with having more negative attitudes toward methamphetamine, calling LAC's substance abuse service helpline, using methamphetamine fewer days, and considering abstaining. Frequency of exposure to campaign advertisements was positively associated with calling the helpline, suggesting a campaign dose effect. COVID-19-related factors were associated with using methamphetamine in the past 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: Social marketing campaigns hold promise for impacting methamphetamine prevention and cessation behaviors. This study adds to the limited literature on mass marketing interventions to address this major health issue.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Metanfetamina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Marketing Social
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078743

RESUMO

Limited previous work has identified a relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and aggressive somatic lung tumor mutations. More work is needed to confirm this relationship, especially using spatially resolved air pollution. We aimed to quantify the association between different air pollution metrics and aggressive tumor biology. Among patients treated at City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center in Duarte, CA (2013-2018), three non-small cell lung cancer somatic tumor mutations, TP53, KRAS, and KRAS G12C/V, were documented. PM2.5 exposure was assessed using state-of-the art ensemble models five and ten years before lung cancer diagnosis. We also explored the role of NO2 using inverse-distance-weighting approaches. We fitted logistic regression models to estimate odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among 435 participants (median age: 67, female: 51%), an IQR increase in NO2 exposure (3.5 µg/m3) five years before cancer diagnosis was associated with an increased risk in TP53 mutation (OR, 95% CI: 1.30, 0.99-1.71). We found an association between highly-exposed participants to PM2.5 (>12 µg/m3) five and ten years before cancer diagnosis and TP53 mutation (OR, 95% CI: 1.61, 0.95-2.73; 1.57, 0.93-2.64, respectively). Future studies are needed to confirm this association and better understand how air pollution impacts somatic profiles and the molecular mechanisms through which they operate.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Material Particulado , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)
6.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(11): e453-e455, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102721

RESUMO

We describe the epidemiology of COVID-19 exposure, preceding illness, and SARS-CoV-2 testing in a large population with MIS-C during the first 18 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of cases had exposure, preceding illness, or positive SARS-CoV-2 testing 4-8 weeks before MIS-C onset. Serology can help establish epidemiological link to COVID-19 when past infection or exposure are unknown.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Criança , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia
7.
Prev Med ; 165(Pt A): 107241, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084751

RESUMO

Gun violence rates increased in U.S. cities in 2020 and into 2021. Gun violence rates in U.S. cities is typically concentrated in racially segregated neighborhoods with higher poverty levels. However, poverty levels and demographics alone do not explain the high concentration of violence or its relative change over time. In this paper, we examine the extent to which the increase in shooting victimization in Philadelphia, New York, and Los Angeles during the 2020-2021 pandemic was concentrated in gun violence hot spots, and how the increase impacted race and ethnic disparities in shooting victimization rates. We find that 36% (Philadelphia), 47% (New York), and 55% (Los Angeles) of the increase in shootings observed during the period 2020-2021 occurred in the top decile of census block groups, by aggregate number of shootings, and that the race/ethnicity of victims in these gun violence hot spots were disproportionately Black and Hispanic. We discuss the implications of these findings as they relate to racial disparities in victimization and place-based efforts to reduce gun violence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Armas de Fogo , Violência com Arma de Fogo , Humanos , Pandemias , New York/epidemiologia , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Philadelphia/epidemiologia
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(18): e026472, 2022 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073630

RESUMO

Background Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is known to reduce morbidity and mortality for patients with cardiac conditions. Sociodemographic disparities in accessing CR persist and could be related to the distance between where patients live and where CR facilities are located. Our objective is to determine the association between sociodemographic characteristics and geographic proximity to CR facilities. Methods and Results We identified actively operating CR facilities across Los Angeles County and used multivariable Poisson regression to examine the association between sociodemographic characteristics of residential proximity to the nearest CR facility. We also calculated the proportion of residents per area lacking geographic proximity to CR facilities across sociodemographic characteristics, from which we calculated prevalence ratios. We found that racial and ethnic minorities, compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, more frequently live ≥5 miles from a CR facility. The greatest geographic disparity was seen for non-Hispanic Black individuals, with a 2.73 (95% CI, 2.66-2.79) prevalence ratio of living at least 5 miles from a CR facility. Notably, the municipal region with the largest proportion of census tracts comprising mostly non-White residents (those identifying as Hispanic or a race other than White), with median annual household income <$60 000, contained no CR facilities despite ranking among the county's highest in population density. Conclusions Racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic characteristics are significantly associated with lack of geographic proximity to a CR facility. Interventions targeting geographic as well as nongeographic factors may be needed to reduce disparities in access to exercise-based CR programs. Such interventions could increase the potential of CR to benefit patients at high risk for developing adverse cardiovascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Etnicidade , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia
9.
Public Health Rep ; 137(6): 1170-1177, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35989598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Understanding COVID-19-related mortality among the large population of people experiencing homelessness (PEH) in Los Angeles County (LA County) may inform public health policies to protect this vulnerable group. We investigated the impact of COVID-19 on PEH compared with the general population in LA County. METHODS: We calculated crude COVID-19 mortality rates per 100 000 population and mortality rates adjusted for age, race, and sex/gender among PEH and compared them with the general population in LA County from March 1, 2020, through February 28, 2021. RESULTS: Among adults aged ≥18 years, the crude mortality rate per 100 000 population among PEH was 20% higher than among the general LA County population (348.7 vs 287.6). After adjusting for age, the mortality rate among PEH was 570.7 per 100 000 population. PEH had nearly twice the risk of dying from COVID-19 as people in the general LA County population; PEH aged 18-29 years had almost 8 times the risk of dying compared with their peers in the general LA County population. PEH had a higher risk of mortality than the general population after adjusting for race (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] = 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6) and sex/gender (SMR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5). CONCLUSIONS: A higher risk of COVID-19-related death among PEH compared with the general population indicates the need for public health policies and interventions to protect this vulnerable group.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Problemas Sociais
10.
Public Health Rep ; 137(6): 1207-1216, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36004572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Achieving widespread vaccine acceptance across various employment sectors is key to a successful public health response to COVID-19, but little is known about factors influencing vaccine acceptance among essential non-health care workers. We examined factors influencing vaccine acceptance among a sample of essential non-health care workers in California. METHODS: We conducted a survey in early spring 2021 at 2 corporations in Los Angeles County, California, to identify and describe factors influencing vaccine acceptance and the ability of incentives to increase this acceptance. We used modified Poisson regression analysis to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios and a best-subset selection algorithm to identify the strongest factors influencing vaccine acceptance. RESULTS: Of 678 workers who completed the survey, 450 were unvaccinated. Among unvaccinated participants, having trust in information about the vaccine from public health experts, having ≥1 chronic health condition related to COVID-19 severity, being Asian, and perceiving risk for COVID-19 were factors that most influenced vaccine acceptance. Most (271 of 296, 91.6%) participants who had trust in information from public health experts and 30.6% (30 of 98) of participants who did not have trust in information from public health experts said that they would accept the vaccine. Seventeen of 24 (70.8%) vaccine-hesitant workers who had trust in information from public health experts and 12 of 72 (16.7%) vaccine-hesitant workers who did not have trust in this information said that they would be more likely to accept the vaccine if an incentive were offered. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to increase vaccine coverage at workplaces should focus on improving trust in the vaccine and increasing public awareness that the vaccine is free.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Confiança
11.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 36(8): 300-312, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951446

RESUMO

Racial and ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in Los Angeles County (LAC), an important epicenter in the battle to end HIV. We examine tradeoffs between effectiveness and equality of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) allocation strategies among different racial and ethnic groups of MSM in LAC and provide a framework for quantitatively evaluating disparities in HIV outcomes. To do this, we developed a microsimulation model of HIV among MSM in LAC using county epidemic surveillance and survey data to capture demographic trends and subgroup-specific partnership patterns, disease progression, patterns of PrEP use, and patterns for viral suppression. We limit analysis to MSM, who bear most of the burden of HIV/AIDS in LAC. We simulated interventions where 3000, 6000, or 9000 PrEP prescriptions are provided annually in addition to current levels, following different allocation scenarios to each racial/ethnic group (Black, Hispanic, or White). We estimated cumulative infections averted and measures of equality, after 15 years (2021-2035), relative to base case (no intervention). By comparing allocation strategies on the health equality impact plane, we find that, of the policies evaluated, targeting PrEP preferentially to Black individuals would result in the largest reductions in incidence and disparities across the equality measures we considered. This result was consistent over a range of PrEP coverage levels, demonstrating that there are "win-win" PrEP allocation strategies that do not require a tradeoff between equality and efficiency.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Etnicidade , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Políticas
12.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0268374, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Los Angeles (SPA6), with mostly Black (27.4%) and Latinx (68.2%) residents, has the second highest rates of new HIV diagnoses (31 per 100,000) in Los Angeles County. However, there is limited understanding of the HIV testing-to-care continuum among newly diagnosed in this setting. METHODS: We conducted an exploratory study that analyzed de-identified data, including demographic characteristics and biomedical outcomes, from the electronic medical records of individuals newly diagnosed with HIV from 2016-2020 at the only public safety-net, county-run health department HIV clinic in SPA 6. We used Pearson Chi-square and Fisher's Exact test to explore associations with HIV outcomes and a Kaplan-Meier survival curve to assess the time to linkage to care. RESULTS: A total of 281 patients were identified. The majority (74.1%) presented with a baseline CD4 <500, many of which presented with a CD4<200 (39.2%). We found twice as many newly diagnosed Black individuals in our study population (48.2%) when compared to LAC (23%), despite only accounting for 27.4% of residents in SPA 6. The majority were linked to care within 30 days of positive test and prescribed anti-retroviral therapy. Viral suppression (59.8%) and undetectable VL (52.6%) were achieved within the year following diagnosis, with 9.3% lost to follow-up. Of those who became virally suppressed, 20.7% experienced viral rebound within the year following diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The large proportion of patients with a baseline CD4 <500 raises concerns about late diagnoses. Despite high rates of linkage to care and ART prescription, achievement of sustained viral suppression remains low with high rates of viral rebound. Longitudinal studies are needed to understand the barriers to early testing, retention in care, and treatment adherence to develop strategies and interventions with community organizations that respond to the unique needs of people living with HIV in South Los Angeles.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Teste de HIV , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Carga Viral
13.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(7): e443-e452, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35902325

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hispanics living in the United States have higher rates of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mutations compared with Non-Hispanic Whites. While this higher incidence is like Asian patients living in the United States, the outcomes for Hispanic patients differ. We looked to compare the variances in mutational profiles between Hispanics and Asians in Los Angeles. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred ninety three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated at Los Angeles County + University of Southern California (LAC + USC) Medical Center and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center who received comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) were evaluated from July 2017 to August 2020. CGP was done using tissue biopsies (n = 211) from Caris Life Sciences and liquid biopsies (n = 231) from Guardant Health. Multivariate logistic regression evaluated the role of race between Hispanics and Asians. RESULTS: In the Hispanic cohort (n = 90), 50.0% were male, median age of diagnosis was 62, 54.5% were non-smokers, and 85.5% had adenocarcinoma. In Asians (n = 142), 47.5% were male, median age of diagnosis was 65, 59.6% were non-smokers, and 83.8% had adenocarcinoma. Hispanic patients had greater prevalence of Kirsten rat sarcoma virus (KRAS) mutations (odds ratio [OR] 4.42, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.63-12.83) and lesser prevalence of EGFR mutations (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.16-0.59). There were a greater proportion of Hispanic smokers with KRAS mutations (14/41; 34.1%) than Asian smokers (4/58; 6.9%). CONCLUSION: We saw a greater percentage of Hispanics with KRAS mutations despite similar smoking percentages along with a greater percentage of Asians with EGFR mutations. This study shows that ethnic and racial backgrounds of the patient can influence the effects of potentially carcinogenic exposures leading to variances of mutation frequency of NSCLC among different ethnicities.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Feminino , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Mutação/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética
14.
Int J Infect Dis ; 122: 514-520, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize SARS-CoV-2 infection patterns in Los Angeles (LA) County youth followed at our institution during the first pandemic year. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of patients aged < 25 years who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays between March 13, 2020, and March 31, 2021, was evaluated at a large LA County health network. Demographics, age distribution, and disease severity were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 28,088 youth aged < 25 years tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR, with 1849 positive results identified (7%). Among the positive results, 475 of 11,922 (4%) were identified at the pandemic onset (March-September 2020) (Cohort 1) and 1374 of 16,166 (9%) between October 2020 and March 2021 (Cohort 2), P < 0.001. When disease severity was compared across cohorts, Cohort 2 had a greater proportion of asymptomatic and mild/moderate disease categories than Cohort 1 (98% vs 80%, respectively); conversely, Cohort 1 had a near-10-fold higher proportion of severe disease than Cohort 2 (17% vs 1.8%). Cohort 2 comprised younger patients with a mean age of 13.7 years vs 17.3 years in Cohort 1. Older age was associated with a higher percentage of infection, with 63% of all confirmed cases found in participants aged 19 to 25 years in Cohort 1, compared with 38% of confirmed cases in Cohort 2. Age increase was also associated with greater disease severity by linear regression modeling (P< 0.001). CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease severity in youth decreased over time in LA County during the first pandemic year, likely a reflection of changing demographics, with younger children infected. A higher infection rate in youth did not lead to higher disease severity over time.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adolescente , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 83(4): 502-511, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cannabis and tobacco retailers are believed to cluster in areas with more racial/ethnic minorities, which could account for the disproportionate use of blunts in Black and Hispanic communities. The current study examined the spatial relationship between cannabis and licensed tobacco retailers in Los Angeles County, California, and assessed whether various neighborhood and business factors influenced the spatial patterning. METHOD: Generalized additive models were used to test the association between the location of cannabis retailers (N = 429) and their accessibility potential (AP) to tobacco retailers (N = 8,033). The covariates included cannabis licensure status, median household income, population density, percentages of racial/ ethnic minorities and young adults (18-34), unemployment status, families living in poverty, minimum completion of high school/General Educational Development (GED) credential, and industrial businesses by census tract. RESULTS: The location of cannabis retailers was significantly associated with AP in all adjusted models (p < .005). The percentage of racial/ethnic minorities, age (18-34 years), and nonlicensure of cannabis retailers, which were positively correlated with AP (p < .05), confounded the association between AP and cannabis retailer location. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration of unlicensed cannabis retailers and tobacco retailers in young and racially/ethnically diverse neighborhoods may increase access to and use of cigarillos for blunt smoking. Jurisdictions within Los Angeles County should consider passing ordinances requiring minimum distances between cannabis and tobacco retailers.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Comércio , Minorias Étnicas e Raciais , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial , Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pediatr Obes ; 17(11): e12954, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35762192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complex multifactorial nature of childhood obesity makes community interventions difficult to evaluate using traditional approaches; innovative methods are needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of various interventions targeting childhood obesity-related behaviours, and classified as using a micro-level (e.g., home visitation programs) or macro-level (e.g., business practices) strategy, on obesity among children enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). METHODS: We simulated a population of 1500 children enrolled in WIC, with specific diet, physical activity, breastfeeding behaviours and body mass index z-scores (BMIz), following them from age 2 to 5 years. RESULTS: Combined interventions targeting breastfeeding appeared to be moderately effective, reducing BMIz by 0.03 (95% CI -005, -0.01). Two strategy-specific interventions, home visitation programs and business practices targeting obesity-related behaviours, appeared to be moderately effective at reducing BMIz by 0.04 (95% CI -0.06, -0.02) and 0.02 (95% CI -0.04, 0.00), respectively. Contrary to expectation, combining all micro and macro interventions appeared to have no impact or moderately increased the proportion of obesity/overweight among children. CONCLUSION: Interventions targeting breastfeeding behaviour were most effective when both micro and macro strategies were implemented. Interventions targeting obesity-related behaviours in general were effective for two strategies, home visitation and business practices.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Pobreza
17.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0268688, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35731726

RESUMO

Los Angeles, California became a warzone of COVID-19 infections with up to one death every 10 minutes at the end of 2020. As resources thinned, and ICU beds and ventilators became scarce, physicians began agonizing over potentially rationing medical care. In this study, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 7,429 confirmed COVID-19 positive patients from two community hospitals in Los Angeles, California between March 16, 2020 and June 9, 2021. We applied the Cox proportional hazards regression model to determine the risk factors most strongly associated with in-hospital mortality. Using the multivariable Cox proportional hazards model, there was a higher hazard ratio (HR) for mortality in patients who were older (age ≥60 years) [HR 2.189, 95% CI 1.991-2.407, p<0.001], had low triage oxygenation < 90% [HR 1.439, 95% CI 1.339-1.546, p<0.001], had chronic kidney disease (CKD) [HR 1.348, 95% CI 1.234-1.496, p = 0.001)], and who were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m^2) [HR 1.221, 95% CI 1.155-1.340, p = 0.003)]. Overall, our study concluded that age ≥ 60 years, low triage oxygenation less than 90%, chronic kidney disease, and obesity were the top patient characteristics associated with increased mortality for both the univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analyses. Furthermore, by separating our data set into a development and validation set, we created a novel prediction tool to forecast in-hospital mortality and achieved 86% accuracy.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triagem
19.
J Appl Lab Med ; 7(5): 1169-1174, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this analysis was to compare the performance sensitivity and specificity of manufacturer-recommended signal-to-cutoff (S/Co) thresholds with modified S/Co values to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in a cohort of firefighters with a known infection history. METHODS: Plasma venipuncture samples were used for serologic analysis of firefighters in Los Angeles, CA, USA, in October 2020. Seropositivity was assessed using the manufacturer's recommended S/Co (≥1.4 IgG) and modified S/Co thresholds based on measured antibody levels in 178 negative control patients who had blood drawn prior to the emergence of COVID-19. Optimal S/Co threshold was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. RESULTS: Of 585 firefighters included in the study, 52 (8.9%) reported having a PCR-positive test history prior to antibody testing. Thirty-five (67.3%) firefighters with a previous PCR-positive test were seropositive based on the manufacturer S/Co thresholds, consistent with an estimated 67.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity. After evaluating multiple modified S/Co thresholds based on pre-pandemic negative samples, a modified S/Co of 0.36 was found to yield optimal sensitivity (88.5%) and specificity (99.4%) by ROC curve analysis. This modified threshold improved serostatus classification accuracy by 21.2%. CONCLUSIONS: S/Co thresholds based on known negative samples significantly increase seropositivity and more accurately estimate cumulative incidence of disease compared to manufacturer-based thresholds.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Bombeiros , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(S1): S167-S176, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is essential to ending HIV. Yet, uptake remains uneven across racial and ethnic groups. We aimed to estimate the impacts of alternative PrEP implementation strategies in Los Angeles County. SETTING: Men who have sex with men, residing in Los Angeles County. METHODS: We developed a microsimulation model of HIV transmission, with inputs from key local stakeholders. With this model, we estimated the 15-year (2021-2035) health and racial and ethnic equity impacts of 3 PrEP implementation strategies involving coverage with 9000 additional PrEP units annually, above the Status-quo coverage level. Strategies included PrEP allocation equally (strategy 1), proportionally to HIV prevalence (strategy 2), and proportionally to HIV diagnosis rates (strategy 3), across racial and ethnic groups. We measured the degree of relative equalities in the distribution of the health impacts using the Gini index (G) which ranges from 0 (perfect equality, with all individuals across all groups receiving equal health benefits) to 1 (total inequality). RESULTS: HIV prevalence was 21.3% in 2021 [Black (BMSM), 31.1%; Latino (LMSM), 18.3%, and White (WMSM), 20.7%] with relatively equal to reasonable distribution across groups (G, 0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.34). During 2021-2035, cumulative incident infections were highest under Status-quo (n = 24,584) and lowest under strategy 3 (n = 22,080). Status-quo infection risk declined over time among all groups but remained higher in 2035 for BMSM (incidence rate ratio, 4.76; 95% CI: 4.58 to 4.95), and LMSM (incidence rate ratio, 1.74; 95% CI: 1.69 to 1.80), with the health benefits equally to reasonably distributed across groups (G, 0.32; 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.35). Relative to Status-quo, all other strategies reduced BMSM-WMSM and BMSM-LMSM disparities, but none reduced LMSM-WMSM disparities by 2035. Compared to Status-quo, strategy 3 reduced the most both incident infections (% infections averted: overall, 10.2%; BMSM, 32.4%; LMSM, 3.8%; WMSM, 3.5%) and HIV racial inequalities (G reduction, 0.08; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: Microsimulation models developed with early, continuous stakeholder engagement and inputs yield powerful tools to guide policy implementation.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino
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