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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1220-1222, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473679

RESUMO

In-person instruction during the COVID-19 pandemic concerns educators, unions, parents, students, and public health officials as they plan to create a safe and supportive learning environment for children and adolescents (1). Los Angeles County (LAC), the nation's largest county, has an estimated population of 10 million, including 1.7 million children and adolescents aged 5-17 years (2). LAC school districts moved to remote learning for some or all students in transitional kindergarten* through grade 12 (TK-12) schools during the 2020-21 school year (3). Schools that provided in-person instruction were required by LAC Health Officer orders to implement prevention measures such as symptom screening, masking, physical distancing, cohorting, and contact tracing (4). This analysis compares COVID-19 case rates in TK-12 schools among students and staff members who attended school in person with LAC case rates during September 2020-March 2021.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 660289, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497790

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected Latino adults aged 50 and older in California. Among adults aged 50-64, Latinos constitute approximately one-third (32%) of the population, but over half (52%) of COVID-19 cases, and more than two-thirds (64%) of COVID-related deaths as of June 2, 2021. These health disparities are also prevalent among Latinos 65 years and older who constitute 22% of the population, but 40% of confirmed COVID-19 cases and 50% of COVID-related deaths. Emergency medical services (EMS) are an essential component of the United States healthcare system and a vital sector in COVID-19 response efforts. Using data from the California Emergency Medical Services Information System (CEMSIS), this study examines racial and ethnic differences in respiratory distress related EMS calls among adults aged 50 and older in all counties except Los Angeles. This study compares the early pandemic period, January to June 2020, to the same time period in 2019. Between January and June 2019, Latinos aged 50 and older had statistically significantly lower odds of respiratory distress related EMS calls compared to Blacks, Asians, and Whites. During the early pandemic period, January to June 2020, Latinos aged 50 and older had statistically significantly lower odds of respiratory distress related EMS calls compared to Blacks but slightly higher odds compared to Whites. Differences by race/ethnicity and region were statistically significant. Understanding EMS health disparities is crucial to inform policies that create a more equitable prehospital care system for the heterogeneous population of middle aged and older adults.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
4.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 227: 108916, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358770

RESUMO

California's Welfare and Institutions code 5150 allows for a temporary psychiatric hold (TPH) of individuals who present a danger to themselves or others and/or may be gravely disabled due to mental illness. Little is known about the frequency and predictors of involuntary holds among people who inject drugs (PWID). METHODS: We sought to identify the prevalence and predictors of recent TPHs (within the past 12 months) among a community-recruited sample of PWID in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California during 2017-2018 (N = 531). Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate demographic (e.g., age), economic (e.g., homelessness), drug use (e.g., types of drugs used), incarceration (e.g., recent arrest history) and mental health (e.g., lifetime mental health diagnosis) variables associated with recent TPH. RESULTS: Age (40-49 years old vs age 50 or older: AOR = 5.85; 95 % CI = 2.18, 15.67), current homelessness (AOR = 3.75; 95 % CI = 1.28, 11.0), lifetime mental health history (AOR = 6.23; 95 % CI = 2.08, 18.66), and frequency of methamphetamine use (AOR = 1.01; 95 % CI = 1.00, 1.01) were statistically associated with increased odds of having experienced a TPH, while frequency of past month heroin/opioid use was associated with decreased odds of reporting a TPH (AOR = 0.99; 95 % CI = 0.99, 1.00) in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Diverse factors were associated with TPH among PWID. Our analysis underscores the need for research on PWID with co-occurring substance-use and mental illness disorders and homelessness. There is urgent need for expanding access to lower barrier publicly funded mental health treatment from a harm-reduction approach.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Adulto , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(34): 1170-1176, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34437525

RESUMO

COVID-19 vaccines fully approved or currently authorized for use through Emergency Use Authorization from the Food and Drug Administration are critical tools for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic; however, even with highly effective vaccines, a proportion of fully vaccinated persons will become infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). To characterize postvaccination infections, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LACDPH) used COVID-19 surveillance and California Immunization Registry 2 (CAIR2) data to describe age-adjusted infection and hospitalization rates during May 1-July 25, 2021, by vaccination status. Whole genome sequencing (WGS)-based SARS-CoV-2 lineages and cycle threshold (Ct) values from qualitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for two SARS-CoV-2 gene targets, including the nucleocapsid (N) protein gene region and the open reading frame 1 ab (ORF1ab) polyprotein gene region,* were reported for a convenience sample of specimens. Among 43,127 reported SARS-CoV-2 infections in Los Angeles County residents aged ≥16 years, 10,895 (25.3%) were in fully vaccinated persons, 1,431 (3.3%) were in partially vaccinated persons, and 30,801 (71.4%) were in unvaccinated persons. Much lower percentages of fully vaccinated persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 were hospitalized (3.2%), were admitted to an intensive care unit (0.5%), and required mechanical ventilation (0.2%) compared with partially vaccinated persons (6.2%, 1.0%, and 0.3%, respectively) and unvaccinated persons (7.6%, 1.5%, and 0.5%, respectively) (p<0.001 for all comparisons). On July 25, the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate among unvaccinated persons was 4.9 times and the hospitalization rate was 29.2 times the rates among fully vaccinated persons. During May 1-July 25, the percentages of B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant infections estimated from 6,752 samples with lineage data increased among fully vaccinated persons (from 8.6% to 91.2%), partially vaccinated persons (from 0% to 88.1%), and unvaccinated persons (from 8.2% to 87.1%). In May, there were differences in median Ct values by vaccination status; however, by July, no differences were detected among specimens from fully vaccinated, partially vaccinated, and unvaccinated persons by gene targets. These infection and hospitalization rate data indicate that authorized vaccines were protective against SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 during a period when transmission of the Delta variant was increasing. Efforts to increase COVID-19 vaccination, in coordination with other prevention strategies, are critical to preventing COVID-19-related hospitalizations and deaths.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255246, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329350

RESUMO

People experiencing homelessness (PEH) are at high risk for COVID-19 complications and fatality, and have been prioritized for vaccination in many areas. Yet little is known about vaccine acceptance in this population. The objective of this study was to determine the level of vaccine hesitancy among PEH in Los Angeles, CA and to understand the covariates of hesitancy in relation to COVID-19 risk, threat perception, self-protection and information sources. A novel mobile survey platform was deployed to recruit PEH from a federally qualified health center (FQHC) in Los Angeles to participate in a monthly rapid response study of COVID-19 attitudes, behaviors, and risks. Of 90 PEH surveyed, 43 (48%) expressed some level of vaccine hesitancy based either on actual vaccine offers (17/90 = 19%) or a hypothetical offer (73/90 = 81%). In bivariate analysis, those with high COVID-19 threat perception were less likely to be vaccine hesitant (OR = 0.34, P = 0.03), while those who frequently practiced COVID-19 protective behaviors were more likely to be vaccine hesitant (OR = 2.21, P = 0.08). In a multivariate model, those with high threat perception (AOR = 0.25, P = 0.02) were less likely to be hesitant, while those engaging in COVID-19 protective behaviors were more hesitant (AOR = 3.63, P = 0.02). Those who trusted official sources were less hesitant (AOR = 0.37, P = 0.08) while those who trusted friends and family for COVID-19 information (AOR = 2.70, P = 0.07) were more likely to be hesitant. Findings suggest that targeted educational and social influence interventions are needed to address high levels of vaccine hesitancy among PEH.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , COVID-19 , Telefone Celular , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , SARS-CoV-2 , Recusa de Vacinação , Vacinação , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
J Hosp Med ; 16(8): 480-483, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328848

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the percentage of COVID-19- associated hospitalizations reported to Los Angeles County (LAC) Public Health that might have been misclassified because of incidentally detected SARS-CoV-2. We retrospectively reviewed medical records from a randomly selected set of hospital discharges reported to LAC Public Health from August to October 2020 for a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 or a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Among the 13,813 discharges from 85 hospitals reported to LAC Public Health as COVID-19-associated hospitalizations from August to October 2020, 346 were randomly selected and reviewed. SARS-CoV-2 detection was incidental to the reason for hospitalization in 12% (95% confidence limit, 9%-16%) of COVID-19 classified hospital discharges. Adjusting COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates to account for incidental SARS-CoV-2 detection could help public health policymakers and emergency preparedness personnel improve resource planning.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalização , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Appetite ; 166: 105586, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217761

RESUMO

Poor diets are historically the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States (U.S.), causing over 44,000 deaths each month. Dietary patterns have likely changed during the COVID-19 pandemic due to major shifts and crises in social, economic, and food systems. This study examines self-reported dietary changes in Los Angeles (L.A.) County during COVID-19, and identifies factors associated with making healthy and unhealthy changes. Data are from the Understanding Coronavirus in America Study, an internet panel of adults representative of L.A. County households (N = 1080). Multinomial logistic regression was used to test if self-reported change in diet healthiness assessed in July 2020 was associated with socio-ecological factors known to be associated with diet, assessed between April-July 2020. More than half of L.A. County residents reported making changes to their diet: 28.3% reported eating healthier food since the beginning of the pandemic, while 24.8% reported eating less healthy food. Individuals who were significantly more likely to report healthy changes were Non-Hispanic Black or Hispanic/Latino (vs. Non-Hispanic White), had received unemployment insurance, or had larger social networks. Individuals who were significantly more likely to report unhealthy changes were younger, of mixed race, had children in their household, had transportation barriers, or had obesity. Individuals who were significantly more likely to report both healthy and unhealthy changes were Asian, had experienced food insecurity, or had challenges getting food due to store closures. The pandemic may be exacerbating diet-related disease risk in some groups, such as communities of color, and among individuals with obesity and those facing transportation barriers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117049, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279648

RESUMO

Importance: Despite the contentious immigration environment and disproportionate rates of COVID-19 infection among Latinx individuals in the US, immigrants' concerns about engaging in COVID-19-related testing, treatment, and contact tracing have been largely unexplored. Objective: To examine the proportions of Latinx immigrants who endorse statements about the potential negative immigration ramifications of seeking and using COVID-19-related testing and treatment services and engaging in contact tracing. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional survey study, 25 COVID-19-related items were incorporated into the online Spanish-language survey of an ongoing study. Data were collected between July 15 and October 9, 2020, in Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles, California; and Phoenix, Arizona. A nonrandom sample of 379 adult, Spanish-speaking, noncitizen Latinx immigrants (with either documented or undocumented immigration status) were sent surveys. Of those, 336 individuals (88.7% participation rate) returned surveys, and 43 individuals did not. An additional 213 individuals were screened but ineligible. Descriptive statistics were computed, and mean comparisons and bivariate correlations between sociodemographic variables, indices of immigration risk, and COVID-19-related survey items were conducted. Main Outcomes and Measures: Items elicited agreement or disagreement with statements about immigrants' access to COVID-19-related testing and treatment services and the potential immigration ramifications of using these services. Willingness to identify an undocumented person during contact tracing was also assessed. Results: A total of 336 Latinx immigrants completed surveys. The mean (SD) age of participants was 39.7 (8.9) years; 210 participants (62.5%) identified as female, and 216 participants (64.3%) had undocumented immigration status. In total, 89 participants (26.5%) agreed that hospital emergency departments were the only source of COVID-19 testing or treatment for uninsured immigrants, and 106 participants (31.6%) agreed that using public testing and health care services for COVID-19 could jeopardize one's immigration prospects. A total of 96 participants (28.6%) and 114 participants (33.9%), respectively, would not identify an undocumented household member or coworker during contact tracing. Reluctance to identify an undocumented household member or coworker was associated with having had deportation experiences (r = -0.17; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.27; P = .003) but not with the number of years lived in the US (r = 0.07; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.17; P = .15) or immigration status (r = 0.03; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.13; P = .56). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional survey study, a substantial number of immigrants endorsed statements about immigrants' restricted access to COVID-19-related testing and treatment services and the potential negative immigration ramifications of using these services. These results suggest that programs for COVID-19-related testing, contact tracing, and vaccine administration that are designed to allay immigration concerns are needed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Arizona/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Chicago/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(12): e019635, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058862

RESUMO

Background Public health emergencies may significantly impact emergency medical services responses to cardiovascular emergencies. We compared emergency medical services responses to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and ST-segment‒elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic to 2018 to 2019 and evaluated the impact of California's March 19, 2020 stay-at-home order. Methods and Results We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study using Los Angeles County emergency medical services registry data for adult patients with paramedic provider impression (PI) of OHCA or STEMI from February through May in 2018 to 2020. After March 19, 2020, weekly counts for PI-OHCA were higher (173 versus 135; incidence rate ratios, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.19‒1.37; P<0.001) while PI-STEMI were lower (57 versus 65; incidence rate ratios, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78‒0.97; P=0.02) compared with 2018 and 2019. After adjusting for seasonal variation in PI-OHCA and decreased PI-STEMI, the increase in PI-OHCA observed after March 19, 2020 remained significant (P=0.02). The proportion of PI-OHCA who received defibrillation (16% versus 23%; risk difference [RD], -6.91%; 95% CI, -9.55% to -4.26%; P<0.001) and had return of spontaneous circulation (17% versus 29%; RD, -11.98%; 95% CI, -14.76% to -9.18%; P<0.001) were lower after March 19 in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019. There was also a significant increase in dead on arrival emergency medical services responses in 2020 compared with 2018 and 2019, starting around the time of the stay-at-home order (P<0.001). Conclusions Paramedics in Los Angeles County, CA responded to increased PI-OHCA and decreased PI-STEMI following the stay-at-home order. The increased PI-OHCA was not fully explained by the reduction in PI-STEMI. Field defibrillation and return of spontaneous circulation were lower. It is critical that public health messaging stress that emergency care should not be delayed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Cardioversão Elétrica , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , COVID-19/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Incidência , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Distanciamento Físico , Sistema de Registros , Retorno da Circulação Espontânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(3): 161-165, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads heterogeneously, disproportionately impacting poor and minority communities. The relationship between poverty and race is complex, with a diverse set of structural and systemic factors driving higher rates of poverty among minority populations. The factors that specifically contribute to the disproportionate rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection, however, are not clearly understood. METHODS: We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 test results from community-based testing sites in Los Angeles, California, between June and December, 2020. We used tester zip code data to link those results with United States Census report data on average annual household income, rates of healthcare coverage, and employment status by zip code. RESULTS: We analyzed 2 141 127 SARS-CoV-2 test results, of which 245 154 (11.4%) were positive. Multivariable modeling showed a higher likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity among Hispanic communities than among other races. We found an increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 positivity among individuals from zip codes with an average annual household income

Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
12.
Resuscitation ; 165: 110-118, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The goal of this analysis is to spatiotemporally identify and categorize areas in a large urban city according to Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) rates and No Bystander CPR (NBCPR) risk levels. STUDY AREA AND PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised all cardiac arrests within the administrative geographic boundary of the City of Los Angeles. The final sample included 15,904 cases that were geolocated within 985 census tracts. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was stratification of census tracts into risk levels of OHCA and NBCPR by observed spatiotemporal patterns. RESULTS: Of 985 census tracts in the analytical sample, 182 census tracts (18.5%) were identified as having higher risk of OHCA and NBCPR. This assessment resulted in 129 census tracts in Tier 3 (moderate risk), 36 in Tier 2 (moderate-high risk), and 17 in Tier 1 (highest risk). Census tracts in Tiers 2 and 3 had higher amounts incident OHCA, while those in tier 1 had more OHCA events with NBCPR. These areas were largely contiguous and located in the Central and South areas of Los Angeles. CONCLUSIONS: Using a novel three-tiered neighborhood risk classification tool, specific neighborhoods have been identified in the second largest city in the U.S. with consistently high or accelerating rates of OHCA and low bystander CPR. Further study of bystander response and community-based public health campaigns are needed in these communities.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Cidades , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 225: 108759, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States. Providing people who inject drugs (PWID) with naloxone is essential to preventing deaths. However, research regarding gaps in naloxone delivery is limited. METHODS: We interviewed 536 PWID in San Francisco and Los Angeles, California from 2017 to 2018. We described naloxone engagement and re-engagement cascades, and identified factors associated with receiving naloxone in the past six months and currently owning naloxone. RESULTS: The engagement cascade showed 72 % of PWID ever received naloxone, 49 % received it in the past six months, and 35 % currently owned naloxone. The re-engagement cascade showed, among PWID who received naloxone in the past six months, 74 % used and/or lost naloxone, and 67 % refilled naloxone. In multivariable analyses, identifying as Latinx (aRR = 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.39, 0.72) and Black (aRR = 0.73; 95 % CI: 0.57, 0.94) vs White were negatively associated with receiving naloxone in the past six months, while using opioids 1-29 times (aRR = 1.35; 95 % CI: 1.04, 1.75) and 30+ times (aRR = 1.52; 95 % CI: 1.17, 1.99) vs zero times in the past 30 days and witnessing an overdose in the past six months (aRR = 1.69; 95 % CI: 1.37, 2.08) were positively associated with receiving naloxone in the past six months. In multivariable analyses, being unhoused vs housed (aRR = 0.82; 95 % CI: 0.68, 0.99) was negatively associated with currently owning naloxone. CONCLUSIONS: Our study adds to the literature by developing naloxone engagement and re-engagement cascades to identify disparities. Naloxone scale-up should engage populations facing inequitable access, including people of color and those experiencing homelessness.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , São Francisco/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/tratamento farmacológico , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
14.
J Surg Res ; 266: 284-291, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal imaging strategy in hemodynamically stable pediatric blunt trauma remains to be defined. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences between selective and liberal computed tomography (CT) strategy in a pediatric trauma population with respect to radiation exposure and outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of hemodynamically stable blunt pediatric trauma patients (≤16 y) who were admitted to a Level I trauma center between 2013-2016. Patients were stratified into selective and liberal imaging cohorts. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to compare outcomes between the groups. Outcomes included radiation dose, hospital and ICU length of stay, complications and mortality. RESULTS: Of the 485 patients included, 176 underwent liberal and 309 selective CT imaging. The liberal cohort were more likely to be severely injured (ISS>15: 34.1 versus 8.4%, P< 0.001). The odds of exposure to a radiation dose of >15 mSv were higher with liberal scanning in patients with both ISS > 15 (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.76-5.19, P< 0.001) and ISS ≤ 15 (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.19-8.44, P < 0.001). Adjusted outcomes regarding mortality, ICU length of stay, and complications were similar between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Selective CT imaging in hemodynamically stable blunt pediatric trauma patients was associated with reduced radiation exposure and similar outcomes when compared to a liberal CT strategy.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Exposição à Radiação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(19): 702-706, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983916

RESUMO

Prompt and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has been important during public health responses for containing the spread of COVID-19, including in hospital settings (1-3). In vitro diagnostic nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), such as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be expensive, have relatively long turnaround times, and require experienced laboratory personnel.* Antigen detection tests can be rapidly and more easily performed and are less expensive. The performance† of antigen detection tests, compared with that of NAATs, is an area of interest for the rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The Quidel Sofia 2 SARS Antigen Fluorescent Immunoassay (FIA) (Quidel Corporation) received Food and Drug Administration Emergency Use Authorization for use in symptomatic patients within 5 days of symptom onset (4). The reported test positive percentage agreement§ between this test and an RT-PCR test result is 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.3%-99.4%), and the negative percentage agreement is 100.0% (95% CI = 97.9%-100.0%) in symptomatic patients.¶ However, performance in asymptomatic persons in a university setting has shown lower sensitivity (5); assessment of performance in a clinical setting is ongoing. Data collected during June 30-August 31, 2020, were analyzed to compare antigen test performance with that of RT-PCR in a hospital setting. Among 1,732 paired samples from asymptomatic patients, the antigen test sensitivity was 60.5%, and specificity was 99.5% when compared with RT-PCR. Among 307 symptomatic persons, sensitivity and specificity were 72.1% and 98.7%, respectively. Health care providers must remain aware of the lower sensitivity of this test among asymptomatic and symptomatic persons and consider confirmatory NAAT testing in high-prevalence settings because a false-negative result might lead to failures in infection control and prevention practices and cause delays in diagnosis, isolation, and treatment.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/análise , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Med Ref Serv Q ; 40(2): 188-204, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970820

RESUMO

The UCLA Science Libraries improved upon our single service points by creating a team-based, tiered research assistance model to foster student employee skill development. This model was further developed to expand training for public services staff, enabling librarians and student research assistants to move beyond desk-based services. This multi-phased approach involved restructured training and the development of collaborative, tiered services. Librarians utilized train-the-trainer sessions, detailed documentation toolkits, and a robust outreach plan to ensure success. After initial implementation of this new model, librarians observed above average use of the service and excellent user feedback. Its versatility has also played a direct role in the successful transition from physical to virtual services in light of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Bibliotecas Médicas/organização & administração , Biblioteconomia/educação , Modelos Organizacionais , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Melhoria de Qualidade , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 158: 106153, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034073

RESUMO

Due to the burgeoning demand for freight movement, freight related road safety threats have been growing substantially. In spite of some research on the factors influencing freight truck-related crashes in major cities, the literature offers limited evidence about the effects of the built environment on the occurrence of those crashes by injury severity. This article uses data from the Los Angeles region in 2010-2019 to explore the relationships between the built environment factors and the spatial distribution of freight truck-related crashes using XGBoost and SHAP methods. Results from the XGBoost model show that variables related to the built environment, in particular demographics, land uses and road network, are highly correlated to freight truck related crashes of all three injury types. The SHAP value plots further indicate the important nonlinear relationships between independent variables and dependent variables. This study also emphasizes the differences in modeling mechanisms between the XGBoost model and traditional statistical models. The findings will help transport planners develop operational measures for resolving the emerging freight truck related traffic safety problems in local communities.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Veículos Automotores , Ambiente Construído , Cidades , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1769-1775, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979564

RESUMO

Worksites with on-site operations have experienced coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreaks. We analyzed data for 698 nonresidential, nonhealthcare worksite COVID-19 outbreaks investigated in Los Angeles County, California, USA, during March 19, 2020‒September 30, 2020, by using North American Industry Classification System sectors and subsectors. Nearly 60% of these outbreaks occurred in 3 sectors: manufacturing (n = 184, 26.4%), retail trade (n = 137, 19.6%), and transportation and warehousing (n = 73, 10.5%). The largest number of outbreaks and largest number and highest incidence rate of outbreak-associated cases occurred in manufacturing. Furthermore, 7 of the 10 industry subsectors with the highest incidence rates were within manufacturing. Approximately 70% of outbreak-associated case-patients reported Hispanic ethnicity. Facilities employing more on-site staff had larger and longer outbreaks. Identification of highly affected industry sectors and subsectors is necessary for targeted public health planning, outreach, and response, including ensuring vaccine access, to reduce burden of COVID-19 in vulnerable workers.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Local de Trabalho , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
19.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 23(5): 936-945, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983476

RESUMO

We examine whether exposure to the US, experienced under certain conditions of disadvantage, namely immigrant legal status, is associated with body weight. Using the pooled, cross-sectional 2001 and 2008 Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LAFANS) (n = 2063), we examine whether body mass index (BMI) and obesity vary by Hispanic immigrants' legal status and time exposure to the US. The increased risk of obesity associated with greater US exposure is more pronounced among unauthorized Hispanic immigrants compared to their legally resident coethnic peers, after adjusting for age and age-at-arrival. It is not only residing in the US that is associated with increases in body weight, but residing in the US as an unauthorized immigrant. Improved data and methods are needed to facilitate research of greater policy significance and a refined understanding of how health integration processes vary by legal status.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Estudos Transversais , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Obesidade
20.
J Surg Res ; 264: 158-162, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hangings are an infrequent wounding mechanism among patients arriving alive to hospital but are frequently encountered by the Coroner's Office. It is unclear if classically described hanging injuries, such as the Hangman's fracture, are common among contemporary hangings patients who typically do not suspend from height. This study was undertaken to define patient and injury characteristics after hangings causing death. METHODS: All patients presenting to the Los Angeles County Medical Examiner/Coroner's Office (January 2016 - May 2020) who died by hanging were included. Demographics, psychiatric history, hanging details, autopsy type, and sustained injuries were collected. Data variables were summarized with descriptive statistics and the diagnostic yield of a ligature mark in the diagnosis/exclusion of cervical injuries was calculated. RESULTS: Over the study, 1,401 patients died by hanging. Patients underwent external exam alone (n = 1,282, 92%), traditional neck autopsy (n = 114, 8%), or traditional neck autopsy plus postmortem computed tomography scan (n = 5, <1%). Home was the most frequent hanging setting (n = 1,028, 73%) followed by public spaces (n = 80, 6%) and jail (n = 28, 2%). The manner of death was almost exclusively suicide (n = 1,395, >99%) and psychiatric disease was common (n = 968, 69%). Of the patients undergoing traditional autopsy, most had a ligature mark (n = 109, 92%) and only 9 (8%) had a cervical injury (hyoid fractures, n = 6, 5%; thyroid cartilage fractures, n = 4, 3%). None had a vertebral fracture/dislocation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of a ligature mark were 100%, 5%, 8%, and 100%. CONCLUSIONS: Hangings are a frequent cause of death in Los Angeles County. Patients typically have a psychiatric history and die almost exclusively from suicide. Hangings commonly occur at home, in public places, and in jail. Injuries were exceedingly rare and no patient sustained a Hangman's fracture, which may be related to the lack of significant suspension with modern hangings.


Assuntos
Asfixia/epidemiologia , Medicina Legal/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Lesões do Pescoço/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Asfixia/etiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões do Pescoço/etiologia , Suicídio/psicologia
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