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1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249414, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793642

RESUMO

In response to the pandemic in early 2020, cities implemented states of emergency and stay at home orders to reduce virus spread. Changes in social dynamics due to local restrictions impacted human behavior and led to a shift in crime dynamics. We analyze shifts in crime types by comparing crimes before the implementation of stay at home orders and the time period shortly after these orders were put in place across three cities. We find consistent changes across Chicago, Baltimore, and Baton Rouge with significant declines in total crimes during the time period immediately following stay at home orders. The starkest differences occurred in Chicago, but in all three cities the crime types contributing to these declines were related to property crime and statutory crime rather than interpersonal crimes.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Quarentena , Baltimore , Chicago , Humanos , Louisiana
2.
Psychiatry Res ; 298: 113821, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662840

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has contributed to over 500,000 deaths, and hospitalization of thousands of individuals worldwide. Cross-sectional data indicate that anxiety and depression levels are greater during the pandemic, yet no known prospective studies have tested this assertion. Further, individuals with elevated trait anxiety prior to a global pandemic may theoretically be more apt to experience greater pandemic-related anxiety and/or impairment. The current study tested whether anxiety and depression increased from the month before the state's Stay-At-Home order to the period of the Stay-At-Home order among 120 young adults in Louisiana, a state with especially high rates of COVID-19 related infections and deaths. We also tested whether pre-pandemic social anxiety was related to greater pandemic related anxiety, depression, and COVID-related worry and impairment. Depression but not anxiety increased during the Stay-At-Home order. Further, pre-pandemic trait anxiety, social anxiety, and depression were statistically significant predictors of anxiety and depression during the Stay-At-Home order, although only social anxiety was robustly related to COVID-related worry and impairment. Emotional distress increased during the COVID-19 pandemic Stay-At-Home order and this is especially the case among individuals with pre-pandemic elevations in trait anxiety (especially social anxiety) and depression.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572674

RESUMO

Spatial crime analysis, together with perceived (crime) safety analysis have tremendously benefitted from Geographic Information Science (GISc) and the application of geospatial technology. This research study discusses a novel methodological approach to document the use of emerging geospatial technologies to explore perceived urban safety from the lenses of fear of crime or crime perception in the city of Baton Rouge, USA. The mixed techniques include a survey, spatial video geonarrative (SVG) in the field with study participants, and the extraction of moments of stress (MOS) from biosensing wristbands. This study enrolled 46 participants who completed geonarratives and MOS detection. A subset of 10 of these geonarratives are presented here. Each participant was driven in a car equipped with audio recording and spatial video along a predefined route while wearing the Empatica E4 wristbands to measure three physiological variables, all of them linked by timestamp. The results show differences in the participants' sentiments (positive or negative) and MOS in the field based on gender. These mixed-methods are encouraging for finding relationships between actual crime occurrences and the community perceived fear of crime in urban areas.


Assuntos
Crime , Cidades , Humanos , Louisiana , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 80(2): 461-473, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528594

RESUMO

When oil is spilled into the environment its toxicity is affected by abiotic conditions. The cumulative and interactive stressors of chemical contaminants and environmental factors are especially relevant in estuaries where tidal fluctuations cause wide variability in salinity, temperature, and ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, which is an important modifying factor for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) toxicity. Characterizing the interactions of multiple stressors on oil toxicity will improve prediction of environmental impacts under various spill scenarios. This study examined changes in crude oil toxicity with temperature, salinity, and UV light. Oil exposures included high-energy, water-accommodated fractions (HEWAFs) and thin oil sheens. Larval (24-48 h post hatch) estuarine species representing different trophic levels and habitats were evaluated. Mean 96 h LC50 values for oil prepared as a HEWAF and tested under standard conditions (20 ppt, 25 °C, No-UV) were 62.5 µg/L tPAH50 (mud snails), 198.5 µg/L (grass shrimp), and 774.5 µg/L (sheepshead minnows). Thin oil sheen 96 h LC50 values were 5.3 µg/L tPAH50 (mud snails), 14.7 µg/L (grass shrimp), and 22.0 µg/L (sheepshead minnows) under standard conditions. UV light significantly increased the toxicity of oil in all species tested. Oil toxicity also was greater under elevated temperature and lower salinity. Multi-stressor (oil combined with either increased temperature, decreased salinity, or both) LC50 values were reduced to 3 µg/L tPAH50 for HEWAFs and < 1.0 µg/L tPAH50 for thin oil sheens. Environmental conditions at the time of an oil spill will significantly influence oil toxicity and organismal response and should be taken into consideration in toxicity testing and oil spill damage assessments.


Assuntos
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Crustáceos , Peixes Listrados/fisiologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Louisiana , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Salinidade , Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura , Testes de Toxicidade , Raios Ultravioleta
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 64, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital syphilis is completely preventable through screening and treatment, but rates have been rising in the United States. Certain areas are at particularly high risk. We aimed to assess attitudes, knowledge, and barriers around effective prevention of congenital syphilis among health care providers and community women potentially at risk. METHODS: Two parallel studies were conducted: in-depth interviews with health care providers and focus groups with community women in the area of Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Each group was questioned about their experience in providing or seeking prenatal care, knowledge and attitudes about congenital syphilis, sources of information on testing and treatment, perceptions of risk, standards of and barriers to treatment. Results were transcribed into QSR NVivo V10, codes developed, and common themes identified and organized. RESULTS: Providers identified delays in testing and care, lack of follow-through with partner testing, and need for community connection for prevention, as major contributors to higher rates of congenital syphilis. Women identified difficulties in accessing Medicaid contributing to delayed start of prenatal care, lack of transportation for prenatal care, and lack of knowledge about testing and prevention for congenital syphilis. CONCLUSIONS: Providers and community members were in broad agreement about factors contributing to higher rates of congenital syphilis, although some aspects were emphasized more by one group or another. Evidence-based interventions, likely at multiple levels, need to be tested and implemented to eliminate congenital syphilis.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Sífilis Congênita/psicologia , Treponema pallidum , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430355

RESUMO

Background: This year has seen the emergence of two major crises, a significant increase in the frequency and severity of hurricanes and the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known as to how each of these two events have impacted the other. A rapid qualitative assessment was conducted to determine the impact of the pandemic on preparedness and response to natural disasters and the impact of past experiences with natural disasters in responding to the pandemic. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 representatives of 24 different community-based programs in southern Louisiana. Data were analyzed using procedures embedded in the Rapid Assessment Procedure-Informed Community Ethnography methodology, using techniques of immersion and crystallization and focused thematic analysis. Results: The pandemic has impacted the form and function of disaster preparedness, making it harder to plan for evacuations in the event of a hurricane. Specific concerns included being able to see people in person, providing food and other resources to residents who shelter in place, finding volunteers to assist in food distribution and other forms of disaster response, competing for funds to support disaster-related activities, developing new support infrastructures, and focusing on equity in disaster preparedness. However, several strengths based on disaster preparedness experience and capabilities were identified, including providing a framework for how to respond and adapt to COVID and integration of COVID response with their normal disaster preparedness activities. Conclusions: Although prior experience has enabled community-based organizations to respond to the pandemic, the pandemic is also creating new challenges to preparing for and responding to natural disasters.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Pandemias , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Humanos , Louisiana
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 421-429, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395380

RESUMO

To assess transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a detention facility experiencing a coronavirus disease outbreak and evaluate testing strategies, we conducted a prospective cohort investigation in a facility in Louisiana, USA. We conducted SARS-CoV-2 testing for detained persons in 6 quarantined dormitories at various time points. Of 143 persons, 53 were positive at the initial test, and an additional 58 persons were positive at later time points (cumulative incidence 78%). In 1 dormitory, all 45 detained persons initially were negative; 18 days later, 40 (89%) were positive. Among persons who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, 47% (52/111) were asymptomatic at the time of specimen collection; 14 had replication-competent virus isolated. Serial SARS-CoV-2 testing might help interrupt transmission through medical isolation and quarantine. Testing in correctional and detention facilities will be most effective when initiated early in an outbreak, inclusive of all exposed persons, and paired with infection prevention and control.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , /isolamento & purificação , Adulto , /transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prisões , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Chemosphere ; 268: 129266, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360143

RESUMO

Marsh edge erosion results in soil organic matter (SOM) loss from coastal wetlands and is differentially affected by wind waves, soil properties, and vegetation cover. The degradation of SOM may make the marsh edge susceptible to erosion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of in situ biogeochemical degradations of SOM on marsh edge erosion using porewater spectroscopic analyses. Edge erosion was monitored at 12 transects in one of the highly eroding coastal basins of Louisiana. A total of 36 cores were collected at different distances from the edge of the marsh. Porewater was extracted and analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and spectroscopic indicators. The north and west side had greater erosion rates (102.38 ± 5.2 cm yr-1) than east and south side (78.47 ± 3.3 cm yr-1). However, the north and east side had greater DOC and refractory carbon but less microbial activity indicating SOM degradation alone did not correlate to edge erosion. The intersecting trend between erosion rate and SOM degradation among four sides of the island indicates the complex nature of edge erosion drivers. The estuarine bottom indicators suggest the eroded SOM is not reburied but rather degraded and emitted back into the atmosphere as CO2, potentially contributing to global change. The coastlines projected to experience high sea-level rise in the coming century are vulnerable to losing a large amount of stored carbon in the absence of efficient mitigation measures.


Assuntos
Solo , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono , Louisiana , Vento
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 749: 141350, 2020 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370896

RESUMO

Odontocetes are apex predators that, despite accumulating mercury (Hg) to high concentrations in their tissues, show few signs of Hg toxicity. One method of Hg detoxification in odontocetes includes the sequestering of Hg in toxicologically inert mercury selenide (HgSe) compounds. To explore the tissue-specific accumulation of Hg and Se and the potential protective role of Se against Hg toxicity, we measured the concentrations of total mercury (THg) and selenium (Se) in multiple tissues from 11 species of odontocetes that stranded along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast [Florida (FL) and Louisiana (LA)]. Tissues were collected primarily from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus; n = 93); however, individuals from species in the following 8 genera were also sampled: Feresa (n = 1), Globicephala (n = 1), Grampus (n = 2), Kogia (n = 5), Mesoplodon (n = 1), Peponocephala (n = 4), Stenella (n = 9), and Steno (n = 1). In all species, mean THg concentrations were greatest in the liver and lowest in the blubber, lung, or skin. In contrast, in most species, mean Se concentrations were greatest in the liver, lung, or skin, and lowest in the blubber. For all species combined, Se:Hg molar ratios decreased with increasing THg concentration in the blubber, kidney, liver, lung, and skin following an exponential decay relationship. In bottlenose dolphins, THg concentrations in the kidney, liver, and lung were significantly greater in FL dolphins compared to LA dolphins. On average, in bottlenose dolphins, Se:Hg molar ratios were approximately 1:1 in the liver and >1:1 in blubber, kidney, lung, and skin, suggesting that Se likely protects against Hg toxicity. However, more research is necessary to understand the variation in Hg accumulation within and among species and to assess how Hg, in combination with other environmental stressors, influences odontocete population health.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Selênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florida , Golfo do México , Humanos , Louisiana , Mercúrio/análise , Selênio/análise
11.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1922, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual perceptions of personal and national threats posed by COVID-19 shaped initial response to the pandemic. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in residents' awareness about COVID-19 and to characterize those who were more aware and responsive during the early stages of the pandemic in Louisiana. METHODS: In response to the mounting threat of COVID-19, we added questions to an ongoing food preference study held at Louisiana State University from March 3rd through March 12th, 2020. We asked how likely it was that the spread of the coronavirus will cause a national public health crisis and participants' level of concern about contracting COVID-19 by attending campus events. We used regression and classification tree analysis to identify correlations between these responses and (a) national and local COVID case counts; (b) personal characteristics and (c) randomly assigned information treatments provided as part of the food preference study. RESULTS: We found participants expressed a higher likelihood of an impending national crisis as the number of national and local confirmed cases increased. However, concerns about contracting COVID-19 by attending campus events rose more slowly in response to the increasing national and local confirmed case count. By the end of this study on March 12th, 2020 although 89% of participants agreed that COVID-19 would likely cause a public health crisis, only 65% of the participants expressed concerns about contracting COVID-19 from event attendance. These participants were significantly more likely to be younger students, in the highest income group, and to have participated in the study by responding to same-day, in-person flyer distribution. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide initial insights about the perceptions of the COVID-19 public health crisis during its early stages in Louisiana. We concluded with suggestions for universities and similar institutions as in-person activities resume in the absence of widespread vaccination.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Saúde Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Percepção , Análise de Regressão , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008932, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected zoonosis of growing concern in the southern US, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. We genotyped parasites in a large cohort of PCR positive dogs to shed light on parasite transmission cycles and assess potential relationships between parasite diversity and serological test performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a metabarcoding approach based on deep sequencing of T. cruzi mini-exon marker to assess parasite diversity. Phylogenetic analysis of 178 sequences from 40 dogs confirmed the presence of T. cruzi discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI and TcIV, as well as TcII, TcV and TcVI for the first time in US dogs. Infections with multiple DTUs occurred in 38% of the dogs. These data indicate a greater genetic diversity of T. cruzi than previously detected in the US. Comparison of T. cruzi sequence diversity indicated that highly similar T. cruzi strains from these DTUs circulate in hosts and vectors in Louisiana, indicating that they are involved in a shared T. cruzi parasite transmission cycle. However, TcIV and TcV were sampled more frequently in vectors, while TcII and TcVI were sampled more frequently in dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations point to ecological host-fitting being a dominant mechanism involved in the diversification of T. cruzi-host associations. Dogs with negative, discordant or confirmed positive T. cruzi serology harbored TcI parasites with different mini-exon sequences, which strongly supports the hypothesis that parasite genetic diversity is a key factor affecting serological test performance. Thus, the identification of conserved parasite antigens should be a high priority for the improvement of current serological tests.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Genótipo , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia , Zoonoses
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379385

RESUMO

We investigated if adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and ACE sub-types were associated with increased odds of planning to have children and adolescent pregnancy. The Gulf Resilience on Women's Health (GROWH) is a diverse cohort of reproductive-age women living in southeastern Louisiana during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill. In our sample of 1482 women, we used multinomial logistic regression to model odds ratios of wanting future children and assessed effect measure modification by educational attainment. We also estimated odds ratios of adolescent pregnancy with binomial logistic regression. Exposure to ACEs increased odds of wanting future children across all ACE sub-types. Among women with lower educational attainment, three or more ACEs (overall, childhood, and adolescence) had over two times the odds of wanting future children. History of ACE and the various sub-types, except for emotional abuse, were associated with increased risk of adolescent pregnancy. ACEs may be linked to adolescent pregnancy and reproductive plans, and variations by educational status highlighted social discrepancies and importance of social context in evaluation and intervention.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Gravidez na Adolescência , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Louisiana , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
14.
Orthopedics ; 43(6): 351-355, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211903

RESUMO

This study was performed to analyze the effect that coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has had on orthopedic surgeons' practices, their patients, and orthopedic surgeons themselves through a survey distributed to members of the Louisiana Orthopaedic Association (LOA). An anonymous 22-question online survey was created and distributed to 323 LOA members. Of the 323 recipients of the survey, 99 (30.7%) responded. As a part of a multiple response set, in which respondents could choose more than one answer, the majority reported delayed care for routine orthopedic injuries (81 of 97, 83.5%). Almost every surgeon (n=95, 96.0%) reported stopping or delaying elective surgery because of COVID-19 and an increase in pain/disability/deformity in patients due to delay in elective procedures (73 of 97, 75.3%) and delay in seeking care (66 of 97, 68.0%). The majority reported an increased use of telehealth visits (68 of 97, 70.1%), a decrease in patient volume (88 of 97, 90.7%), and a reduction in income (79 of 98, 80.6%) during the past 6 months. A majority of surgeons (58 of 98, 59.2%) reported that they had applied for government assistance or took out loans. Via a multiple response set, respondents indicated that as a result of the pandemic, telehealth will become more widespread (64 of 98, 65.3%) and hospitals will exert a stronger influence over health care (64 of 98, 65.3%). The COVID-19 pandemic has had lasting effects on orthopedic surgeons in Louisiana and their practices, with a substantial decrease in the number of patients treated (90.5%), surgical volume, and revenue (80.6%). Orthopedic surgeons affected by the pandemic could use these data to further understand future challenges with patient care and changing orthopedic practice dynamics during this unique time. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(6):351-355.].


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Betacoronavirus , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Administração Hospitalar , Humanos , Renda , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos/economia , Pandemias , Consulta Remota
15.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 78(5): 499-518, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026346

RESUMO

The French society of clinical biology "Biochemical markers of COVID-19" has set up a working group with the primary aim of reviewing, analyzing and monitoring the evolution of biological prescriptions according to the patient's care path and to look for markers of progression and severity of the disease. This study covers all public and private sectors of medical biology located in metropolitan and overseas France and also extends to the French-speaking world. This article presents the testimonies and data obtained for the "Overseas and French-speaking countries" sub-working group made up of 45 volunteer correspondents, located in 20 regions of the world. In view of the delayed spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the overseas regions and the French-speaking regions have benefited from feedback from the first territories confronted with COVID-19. Thus, the entry of the virus or its spread in epidemic form could be avoided, thanks to the rapid closure of borders. The overseas territories depend very strongly on air and/or sea links with the metropolis or with the neighboring continent. The isolation of these countries is responsible for reagent supply difficulties and has necessitated emergency orders and the establishment of stocks lasting several months, in order to avoid shortages and maintain adequate patient care. In addition, in countries located in tropical or intertropical zones, the diagnosis of COVID-19 is complicated by the presence of various zoonoses (dengue, Zika, malaria, leptospirosis, etc.).


Assuntos
Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Medicina de Viagem/organização & administração , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Camboja/epidemiologia , Criança , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/organização & administração , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Busca de Comunicante/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Idioma , Laos/epidemiologia , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/organização & administração , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Sobrevida , Medicina de Viagem/métodos , Medicina de Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Clima Tropical , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Medicina Tropical/organização & administração , Medicina Tropical/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã/epidemiologia
16.
J Water Health ; 18(5): 820-834, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095203

RESUMO

Private well water systems in rural areas that are improperly maintained will result in poor drinking water quality, loss of water supply, and pose human health risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and opportunistic pathogens in private well water in rural areas surrounding New Orleans, Louisiana. Our results confirmed the ubiquitous nature of Legionella (86.7%) and mycobacteria (68.1%) in private well water in the study area, with gene concentration ranged from 0.60 to 5.53 and 0.67 to 5.95 Log10 of GC/100 mL, respectively. Naegleria fowleri target sequence was detected in 16.8% and Escherichia coli was detected in 43.4% of the water samples. Total coliform, as well as Legionella and mycobacteria genetic markers' concentrations were significantly reduced by 3-minute flushing. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data indicated that the abundance of bacterial species was significantly increased in water collected in kitchens compared with samples from wells directly. This study provided integrated knowledge on the persistence of pathogenic organisms in private well water. Further study is needed to explore the presence of clinical species of those opportunistic pathogens in private well water systems to elucidate the health risk.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Engenharia Sanitária , Humanos , Legionella/genética , Louisiana , Abastecimento de Água
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