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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 40-43, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945035

RESUMO

Multiple genetically distinct influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses have cocirculated in the United States recently, circulating sporadically during the 2018-19 season and more frequently early during the 2019-20 season (1). The beginning of the 2019-20 influenza season in Louisiana was unusually early and intense, with infections primarily caused by influenza B/Victoria lineage viruses. One large pediatric health care facility in New Orleans (facility A) reported 1,268 laboratory-confirmed influenza B virus infections, including 23 hospitalizations from July 31 to November 21, 2019, a time when influenza activity is typically low. During this period, Louisiana also reported one pediatric death associated with influenza B virus infection. An investigation of the influenza B virus infections in Louisiana, including medical and vaccine record abstraction on 198 patients, primarily from facility A, with sporadic cases from other facilities in the state, found that none of the patients had received 2019-20 seasonal influenza vaccine, in part because influenza activity began before influenza vaccination typically occurs. Among 83 influenza B viruses sequenced from 198 patients in Louisiana, 81 (98%) belonged to the recently emerged B/Victoria V1A.3 genetic subclade. Nationally, to date, B/Victoria viruses are the most commonly reported influenza viruses among persons aged <25 years (2). Of the 198 patients in the investigation, 95% were aged <18 years. Although most illnesses were uncomplicated, the number of hospitalizations, clinical complications, and the reported pediatric death in Louisiana serve as a reminder that, even though influenza B viruses are less common than influenza A viruses in most seasons, influenza B virus infection can be severe in children. All persons aged ≥6 months should receive an annual influenza vaccination if they have not already received it (3). Antiviral treatment of influenza is recommended as soon as possible for all hospitalized patients and for outpatients at high risk for influenza complications (including children aged <2 years and persons with underlying medical conditions) (4).


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza B/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Econ Entomol ; 112(6): 2751-2760, 2019 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815287

RESUMO

The emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire, Coleoptera: Buprestidae) will have untold impacts on the contributions hardwood timber products provide Louisiana's economy. We modeled a scenario where ash mortality was assumed to follow a PERT-Beta distribution to kill essentially all Louisiana ash within 25 yr. Future ash mortality volumes were discounted to the present and valued using market prices to estimate a present effect on timber receipts. Assuming the dead timber would have otherwise been typical trees of average quality, stumpage was presently valued at US$1.57 million, with deliveries totaling US$3.48 million. A salvage arrangement using the double declining balance method coupled with a second PERT-Beta distribution centered upon Louisiana's current 2.84% harvest-to-inventory proportion depreciated the timber's value monthly over 1 yr. Following salvage, average stumpage revenue declined -US$1.54 million, mill deliveries fell -US$3.41 million, whereas state timber severance tax collections declined by -US$46,800. The value added and employment direct effects to Louisiana's economy averaged -US$882,400 and -41.6 jobs, respectively. The multiplier effects of these losses emanating from the timber industry resulted in additional declines averaging -US$2.56 million in value added and -45.6 jobs across the state economy on the drop in output of -US$4.51 million. The total economic effects summed to -US$3.44 million in value added and -87.1 jobs on output declines of -US$9.46 million.


Assuntos
Besouros , Fraxinus , Animais , Larva , Louisiana , Árvores
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 54, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853660

RESUMO

Sensor-based environmental monitoring networks are beginning to provide the large-scale, long-term data required to address important fundamental and applied questions in ecology. However, the data quality from deployed sensors can be difficult and costly to ensure. In this study, we use maintenance records from the 12-year history of Louisiana's Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) to assess the relationship between various dimensions of data quality and the frequency of field visits to the sensors. We use hierarchical Bayesian models to estimate the probability of missing data, the probability that a corrective offset of the sensor is required, and the magnitude of required offsets for water elevation and salinity data. We compared these estimates to predetermined risk thresholds to the help identify maintenance schedules that balanced the efficient use of labor resources without sacrificing data quality. We found that the relationship between data quality and increasing maintenance interval varied across metrics. Additionally, for most metrics, the maintenance interval when the metric's credible interval and risk threshold intersected varied throughout the year and with wetland type. These results suggest that complex maintenance schedules, in which field visits vary in frequency throughout the year and with environmental context, are likely to provide the best tradeoff between labor cost and data quality. This analysis demonstrates that quantitative assessment of maintenance records can positively impact the sustainability of long-term data collection projects by helping identify new potential efficiencies in monitoring program management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Áreas Alagadas , Teorema de Bayes , Coleta de Dados , Ecologia , Louisiana , Probabilidade
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684143

RESUMO

Exposure to natural disasters like hurricanes negatively impacts the mental and physical health of populations, and evacuation is an important step taken to prevent these adverse health events. This study uses data from a large representative sample of U.S. Gulf Coast residents to explore the determinants of hurricane evacuation. In December 2017, data were collected from 3030 residents of the U.S. Gulf Coast, including Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida-2557 of whom reported being impacted during the 2017 hurricane season. Bivariate analyses were conducted using prevalence differences and tested for statistical significance with chi-square tests. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with hurricane evacuation. One-third of the respondents (919 of 2557; 35.9%) evacuated from a hurricane that impacted the U.S. Gulf Coast in 2017. The determinants of hurricane evacuation in this population were: residing in a mobile home, higher perception of storm surge risk, higher perception of wind risk, self-sufficiency, carrying flood insurance, and reliance on media and family for evacuation decisions. These findings may be relevant for reducing the adverse health effects of hurricanes by improving emergency planning and evacuation in this highly vulnerable region.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Planejamento em Desastres/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alabama , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Florida , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Louisiana , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mississippi , Análise Multivariada , Texas , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 777-787, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638028

RESUMO

Naegleria fowleri causes the usually fatal disease primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), typically in people who have been swimming in warm, untreated freshwater. Recently, some cases in the United States were associated with exposure to treated drinking water. In 2013, a case of PAM was reported for the first time in association with the exposure to water from a US treated drinking water system colonized with culturable N. fowleri. This system and another were found to have multiple areas with undetectable disinfectant residual levels. In response, the water distribution systems were temporarily converted from chloramine disinfection to chlorine to inactivate N. fowleri and reduced biofilm in the distribution systems. Once >1.0 mg/L free chlorine residual was attained in all systems for 60 days, water testing was performed; N. fowleri was not detected in water samples after the chlorine conversion. This investigation highlights the importance of maintaining adequate residual disinfectant levels in drinking water distribution systems. Water distribution system managers should be knowledgeable about the ecology of their systems, understand potential water quality changes when water temperatures increase, and work to eliminate areas in which biofilm growth may be problematic and affect water quality.


Assuntos
Infecções Protozoárias do Sistema Nervoso Central , Água Potável/parasitologia , Naegleria fowleri , Purificação da Água/métodos , Desinfetantes , Humanos , Louisiana , Estados Unidos
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 200-207, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590776

RESUMO

A community-based participatory research was utilized to address the coastal community's concern regarding Deepwater Horizon oil contamination of seafood. Therefore, we analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), major toxic constituents of crude oil, in the seafood collected from gulf coast (Louisiana, Alabama and Mississippi) during December 2011-February 2014. PAHs were extracted from edible part of shrimp, oysters, and crabs by the QuEChERS/dsPE procedure and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total PAHs data were further analyzed using the General Linear Mixed Model procedure of the SAS (Version 9.3, SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC) statistical software. Brown shrimp showed statistically significant differences in PAHs levels with respect to time and locations while white shrimp showed differences at various time points. PAHs levels in oyster and crab samples were not statistically different at the Type I error of 0.05. Overall, the PAHs levels are far below FDA levels of concern for human consumption.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Alabama , Animais , Braquiúros/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Louisiana , Mississippi , Ostreidae/química , Penaeidae/química , Poluição por Petróleo/análise
7.
J Environ Qual ; 48(5): 1472-1480, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589731

RESUMO

The macrolide antibiotic tylosin is widely used in animal production, but its environmental fate is not fully understood. Objectives of this study were to determine the effect of pH on tylosin A sorption and desorption in three sandy loam soils from Louisiana, USA, that had long histories of poultry waste application, to model sorption and desorption, and to estimate the effect of high soil organic matter on sorption. Twenty-four-hour sorption isotherms (5 to 200 mg L in 0.01 M CaCl) at pH 4.5, 6.0, and pH 7.5 were described by the Freundlich model. Desorption from the 200-mg L set at constant pH by 10 24-h extractions with 0.01 M CaCl recovered 43 to 98% of the added tylosin A, and further desorption with methanol increased recovery from 66 to 100%. Single-point distribution coefficient, as a function of pH from 4 to 9 in 0.01 M CaCl exhibited maxima from pH 6 to 7, reflecting increasing sorption of the positively charged form with increasing pH up to about the pKa. The data were well described, modeling pH-dependent negative charge according to Henderson-Hasselbalch along with tylosin speciation. Using soil from which organic matter had been removed by HO gave three to six times greater K at pH 6 to 7, but without or with reduced maxima. The data could be approximately described without invoking pH-dependent surface charge. Further study is needed to confirm whether an increase in soil organic matter with poultry waste application decreases tylosin sorption, thus increasing environmental risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Tilosina , Adsorção , Animais , Louisiana , Solo
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 149: 110527, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543478

RESUMO

Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill, oil residues were found in all five Gulf states of the United States (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida). However, only a small amount was found in Texas, leading to speculation that it may have arrived there via ship through bilge water instead of naturally via currents. We report on a numerical modeling effort to simulate surface drifters during and after the DWH spill to demonstrate that surface water parcels - and therefore oil carried by those parcels - could reasonably have reached Texas waters at the appropriate time and location from known oiled locations without human interference. We additionally give context for the conditions in 2010 through a study of summer connectivity with the Galveston Bay coastline, which shows that in some years oil from the DWH pipe likely would not have reached Texas.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Alabama , Praias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florida , Golfo do México , Hidrodinâmica , Louisiana , Mississippi , Texas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Rev Environ Health ; 34(3): 293-301, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494642

RESUMO

Introduction Community resilience, the ability of a community to respond positively to adverse situations, is an increasingly important topic in public health. Many resilience frameworks are grounded in concepts initially developed by ecologists to describe and explain the capacity of complex systems, such as a community, to persist or return to its original state following disturbances. As a result, much of the research on resilience is concerned with maintaining systems in their current form, preventing degradation, or promoting recovery. However, for a system that is stuck in a trap, or an unfavorable state, deliberate efforts to build the components that contribute to resilience, called adaptive capacities, may enable that system to reorganize after a disturbance to reach a more favorable state. Objective The purpose of this research was to apply a resilience framework to analyze how the community of St. Gabriel, Louisiana adapted in response to environmental change. Methods We used qualitative case-study methodologies to systematically collect newspaper articles, which served as primary data sources to examine how resilience and adaptive capacity evolved in the community of St. Gabriel, Louisiana. Results Key events in the recent history of St. Gabriel include industrial development, growing concern about environmental health and pollution, the environmental justice (EJ) movement, and the incorporation of the community as a self-governing municipality. Two events, the community's organized resistance to a large hazardous waste facility and the change in government structure, represent critical transformations, or fundamental changes in how the community functions. Conclusion The incorporation of St. Gabriel gave community members more input in planning and development decisions. As a result, the community has taken steps to improve public health in the form of zoning ordinances to prevent new exposure risks and building community infrastructure, such as a new sewer system and a recreation center.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resiliência Psicológica , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Locais de Resíduos Perigosos , Humanos , Louisiana , Saúde Pública
10.
Rev Environ Health ; 34(3): 235-244, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473690

RESUMO

The presence of legacy pollutants, on-going chemical manufacturing activities, and population shifts have introduced complex, cumulative exposure risks to residents of many highly industrialized communities. These "industrial corridors" present unique challenges to environmental health science professionals, public and private sector decision makers, and residents seeking to make their communities safer and healthier. Social-ecological resilience theory offers a useful framework for the design and implementation of community engagement efforts to help stakeholders take action to reduce their exposure risks. A resilience framework views the human community as a coupled social-ecological system, wherein disturbances to the equilibrium of the system - acute and/or chronic - are common rather than rare events. It recognizes three key capacities of more resilient communities. These are the abilities of community members to self-organize to address changing threat levels, to hold scientifically sound understandings of the risks, and to learn from past experiences and take action - individually or collectively - to adapt to or mitigate the hazards in their local environment. We apply this resilience theory framework to a case study from Camp Minden, Louisiana, conducted through the Louisiana State University (LSU) Superfund Research Center's Community Engagement program and supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). The case illuminates a critical path by which resilience theory can be applied to guide bi-directional communication and information-gathering, and co-development of risk-reducing strategies at the community level. These are central elements of community engagement within a contentious, real-world setting. The three components of the resilience framework were supported by specific program mechanisms and activities. The capacity for self-organization among community stakeholders was furthered through the convening of a Dialogue Committee which brought together representatives of concerned residents, regulatory agencies, research scientists, and others. This collaborative problem-solving approach supported a more holistic and scientifically sound understanding of the problem through a series of interactive meetings in which members discussed site-remediation options with thermal-treatment experts and regulators, and shared how recent explosions and concerns about air quality affected them. The members co-developed selection criteria and reached consensus on two types of disposal methods that would best reduce the significant threats to public health and the local environment. We also include a brief summary of our recent randomized survey of over 550 residents of Louisiana's industrialized communities to determine the influences on household-level adaptive behaviors to reduce acute and chronic environmental exposure risks. The results of the logistic regression analysis indicate that residents with more concern and knowledge about environmental hazards, along with confidence in their ability to implement risk-reduction measures - such as checking air-quality forecasts and then limiting outside activities - were much more likely to adopt the exposure-reducing behaviors, even when controlling for socioeconomic and demographic differences among respondents. These findings shed light on the conditions under which residents of these types of communities may be more likely to take action to reduce potential environmental exposure risks, and may help in the design of public education efforts. These "lessons learned" from Louisiana communities facing cumulative environmental exposure risks suggest that application of resilience theory to the design and implementation of community engagement programs may support the longer-term effectiveness of the efforts and enhance overall environmental health resilience. In addition, they provide practical insights about how to operationalize and apply these theoretical concepts to real-world environmental health challenges faced by residents of industrialized communities throughout the world.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Resiliência Psicológica , Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Locais de Resíduos Perigosos , Humanos , Louisiana
11.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 35(1): 32-39, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442187

RESUMO

A series of field experiments was conducted in Florida, California, and Louisiana in order to investigate whether adding the Biogents® (BG)-Sweetscent lure to several commercially available mosquito traps increases their Aedes albopictus catch rates and to evaluate the BG-Mosquitaire trap with and without CO2. Adding the BG-Sweetscent to the SkeeterVac Bite-Guard SVE6211, MosClean UV LED (ultraviolet light-emitting diode), Flowtron® Galaxie PV 75, Dynatrap® DT2000XL, Bite Shield Protector, and Black Flag® BZ-40 increased their Ae. albopictus catch rates up to 4.2-fold. The catch rates of the BG-Mosquitaire and the BG-Sentinel did not differ significantly for Ae. aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The BG-Mosquitaire without CO2 and only with BG-Sweetscent caught 1.2 times more Ae. albopictus than the CO2- and Lurex3-baited Mosquito Magnet® Patriot and 2.6 times more than the CO2- and Sweetscent-baited SkeeterVac, respectively. The BG-Mosquitaire baited with Sweetscent and CO2 collected 6.8 times more Ae. albopictus than the Mosquito Magnet Patriot and 11.9 times more than the SkeeterVac. We conclude that BG-Sweetscent increases the tiger mosquito catch rates of many commercially available mosquito traps. We proved that the BG-Mosquitaire is as efficient as the well-known BG-Sentinel and that it can outperform mosquito traps that are baited with propane-generated CO2.


Assuntos
Aedes , Dióxido de Carbono , Culex , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Animais , California , Feminino , Florida , Louisiana , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466276

RESUMO

African Americans (AAs) have a higher obesity risk than Whites; however, it is unclear if appetite-related hormones and food intake are implicated. We examined differences in appetite-related hormones, appetite, and food intake between AAs (n = 53) and Whites (n = 111) with overweight or obesity. Participants were randomized into a control group or into supervised, controlled exercise groups at 8 kcal/kg of body weight/week (KKW) or 20 KKW. Participants consumed lunch and dinner at baseline and follow-up, with appetite and hormones measured before and after meals (except leptin). At baseline, AAs had lower peptide YY (PYY; p < 0.01) and a blunted elevation in PYY after lunch (p = 0.01), as well as lower ghrelin (p = 0.02) and higher leptin (p < 0.01) compared to Whites. Despite desire to eat being lower and satisfaction being higher in AAs relative to Whites (p ≤ 0.03), no racial differences in food intake were observed. Compared to Whites, leptin increased in the 8 KKW group in AAs (p = 0.01), yet no other race-by-group interactions were evident. Differences in appetite-related hormones between AAs and Whites exist; however, their influence on racial disparities in appetite, food intake, and obesity within this trial was limited.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Regulação do Apetite/etnologia , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Obesidade/etnologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Tempo
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 471, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The State of Louisiana spends the most on Medicare beneficiaries per capita, but reports greater disparities in health status and death rates than other states. This project sought to investigate the associations between healthcare intensity, healthcare spending, and mortality in Louisiana. METHODS: We used a 100% sample of 2014 Medicare claims data with beneficiaries assigned to hospital referral regions in Louisiana using small area analysis. We used simple and multivariable linear regression modelling to evaluate associations between healthcare intensity, healthcare spending rates, and mortality rates. We adjusted for age, sex, race, and population health risk factors. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant associations between our measured variables when adjusted for age, sex, and race. These results were consistent after further adjusting mortality for population health risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, no prior studies have investigated the associations between healthcare intensity, healthcare spending, and mortality in Louisiana. Our findings suggest that increased healthcare spending in Louisiana may not improve survival. Identifying more granular aspects of healthcare contributing to spending patterns in Louisiana may provide targets for future quality improvement work.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/economia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Louisiana , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218397, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269040

RESUMO

Resistance to insecticides can hamper the control of mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus, known to vector arboviruses such as West Nile virus and others. The strong selective pressure exerted on a mosquito population by the use of insecticides can result in heritable genetic changes associated with resistance. We sought to characterize genetic differences between insecticide resistant and susceptible Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes using targeted DNA sequencing. To that end, we developed a panel of 122 genes known or hypothesized to be involved in insecticide resistance, and used an Ion Torrent PGM sequencer to sequence 125 unrelated individuals from seven populations in the southern U.S. whose resistance phenotypes to permethrin and malathion were known from previous CDC bottle bioassay testing. Data analysis consisted of discovering SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and genes with evidence of copy number variants (CNVs) statistically associated with resistance. Ten of the seventeen genes found to be present in higher copy numbers were experimentally validated with real-time PCR. Of those, six, including the gene with the knock-down resistance (kdr) mutation, showed evidence of a ≥ 1.5 fold increase compared to control DNA. The SNP analysis revealed 228 unique SNPs that had significant p-values for both a Fisher's Exact Test and the Cochran-Armitage Test for Trend. We calculated the population frequency for each of the 64 nonsynonymous SNPs in this group. Several genes not previously well characterized represent potential candidates for diagnostic assays when further validation is conducted.


Assuntos
Culex/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malation/farmacologia , Mutação , Permetrina/farmacologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Arizona , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Louisiana , Texas
15.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217041, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220094

RESUMO

Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Although predominately asymptomatic, the disease spectrum of trichomoniasis in women is characterized primarily by signs and symptoms of vaginitis, including purulent discharge and localized vulvar pruritus and erythema. Several FDA-cleared nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are available for the diagnosis of T. vaginalis infections, but laboratory developed tests (LDTs) are widely utilized and cost-effective solutions in both the research and clinical diagnostic settings. LDT diagnosis of T. vaginalis is particularly appealing since it can be performed using remnant specimens collected for other STI testing. Using a LDT implemented as part of this study, T. vaginalis was detected in 7% of participating Louisiana women (14/199). The mean T. vaginalis organism burden was 1.0x106 ± 4.5x105 organisms per mL of ThinPrep PreservCyt. Using DNA eluates obtained after HPV testing on the cobas 4800 system, the T. vaginalis LDT was characterized by excellent intra- and interassay reproducibility (coefficient of variation values all <3.5%). Compared with two commercially available NAATs from TIB MOLBIOL, the sensitivity and specificity of the LDT was 92.9 and 99.5%, respectively. Collectively, this study details the diagnostic and quantitative utility of a LDT for T. vaginalis. When applied in the clinical research setting, we confirmed the high prevalence of T. vaginalis, but also observed extraordinarily high organism burdens in the cervix. These findings highlight the unique host-pathogen relationship of T. vaginalis with lower reproductive tract tissues, and substantiate the need for continued investigation of this highly prevalent STI.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/epidemiologia , Trichomonas vaginalis/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Vaginite por Trichomonas/diagnóstico , Fluxo de Trabalho
16.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218656, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220169

RESUMO

Sugarcane ripening in Louisiana is necessary to ensure adequate sucrose levels in early-season harvested sugarcane. The response of nine sugarcane cultivar's yield components to glyphosate and trinexapac-ethyl ripeners was determined in field trials. Glyphosate (210 g ae ha-1) and trinexapac-ethyl (200 g ai ha-1) treatments failed to increase sucrose yields more than non-ripened sugarcane. Sugarcane ripened with glyphosate or trinexapac-ethyl increased theoretical recoverable sucrose (TRS) 4 to 12% more than non-ripened sugarcane in seven out of nine cultivars, but greater TRS values were counterpoised by lower sugarcane stalk weight. An unintentional consequence of reduced late-season vegetative growth may benefit growers by allowing them to harvest more sugarcane hectares to meet their daily load quota and exposes fewer hectares to a freeze event. The cultivars HoCP 00-950, Ho 09-804, and HoCP 09-840 were not responsive to glyphosate or trinexapac-ethyl ripeners and should not be treated. A delayed harvest from 28 to 49 days after treatment (DAT) coincided with greater TRS values and 17% more sucrose yield.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Quinonas/farmacologia , Saccharum/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharum/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Agricultura , Produção Agrícola , Glicina/farmacologia , Louisiana , Estações do Ano , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 322, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The role of dogs as sentinels has been proposed in multiple regions, as they are a domestic reservoir for T. cruzi. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in shelter dogs from southern Louisiana, and assess its magnitude and distribution. RESULTS: A total of 540 dogs were enrolled, from 20 animal shelters, and tested for T. cruzi infection by serological tests (rapid test, ELISA and western blot) and PCR. We documented a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection with at least 6.9% (95% CI: 5.0-9.3%) seropositive and 15.7% (95% CI: 12.9-19.1%) PCR-positive dogs. Serological tests showed limited agreement, and concordance between serology and PCR was higher when considering reactivity to single serological tests. Trypanosoma cruzi infection was distributed evenly among shelters. Infection was significantly correlated with age (R2 = 0.99), indicating an incidence of new cases of 2.27 ± 0.25% per year. CONCLUSION: Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a significant and widespread veterinary problem in shelter dogs in the region, although it is mostly unnoticed by health professionals. This highlights the need for greater awareness of T. cruzi infection among the veterinary community and dog owners.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães/parasitologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Testes Sorológicos , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
18.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 78, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To estimate the proportion of pregnant women in Louisiana who do not obtain abortions because Medicaid does not cover abortion. METHODS: Two hundred sixty nine women presenting at first prenatal visits in Southern Louisiana, 2015-2017, completed self-administered iPad surveys and structured interviews. Women reporting having considered abortion were asked whether Medicaid not paying for abortion was a reason they had not had an abortion. Using study data and published estimates of births, abortions, and Medicaid-covered births in Louisiana, we projected the proportion of Medicaid births that would instead be abortions if Medicaid covered abortion in Louisiana. RESULTS: 28% considered abortion. Among women with Medicaid, 7.2% [95% CI 4.1-12.3] reported Medicaid not paying as a reason they did not have an abortion. Existing estimates suggest 10% of Louisiana pregnancies end in abortion. If Medicaid covered abortion, this would increase to 14% [95% CI 12, 16]. 29% [95% CI 19, 41] of Medicaid eligible pregnant women who would have an abortion with Medicaid coverage, instead give birth. CONCLUSIONS: For a substantial proportion of pregnant women in Louisiana, the lack of Medicaid funding remains an insurmountable barrier to obtaining an abortion. Forty years after the Hyde Amendment was passed, lack of Medicaid funding for abortion continues to have substantial impacts on women's ability to obtain abortions.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/economia , Aborto Legal/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Medicaid/economia , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Louisiana , Medicaid/legislação & jurisprudência , Gravidez , Gestantes , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Plant Dis ; 103(8): 2051-2056, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232654

RESUMO

Sugarcane mosaic is a historically important disease in Louisiana currently caused by sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV). Successful breeding for resistance reduced the disease to low incidence in commercial cultivars. However, mosaic was detected in experimental clone evaluations at multiple locations, leading to uncertainty concerning the current distribution and incidence in the state. Field surveys were conducted from 2016 to 2018 in breeding program yield trials and experimental clone seed cane increase fields. Mosaic symptomatic plants were observed in a newly released cultivar, HoCP 09-804, in three of five production areas, with incidences ranging from 0 to 10%. Mosaic also was observed in nine additional experimental clones. Single leaf samples were tested for SrMV using reverse transcription PCR. All symptomatic samples and a low percentage (0.3%) of asymptomatic samples tested positive for SrMV, confirming that it continues to be the causal species. Runs analysis detected aggregation of infected plants within at least 70% of rows in 94% of surveyed fields. The spatial pattern and geographical distribution of disease incidence suggested that infected seed cane was the source of the disease. Surveys conducted in the same fields of HoCP 09-804 through two subsequent crops detected disease incidence increases in some fields and decreases in the others in first ratoon, but observed incidence was lower compared with plant cane in all fields in second ratoon. The results indicated that disease increase owing to aphid transmission did not occur under the prevailing conditions.


Assuntos
Potyvirus , Saccharum , Animais , Incidência , Louisiana , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Potyvirus/fisiologia , Saccharum/virologia
20.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1367-1376, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254894

RESUMO

We measured the temporal and spatial trajectory of oiling from the April, 2010, Deepwater Horizon oil spill in water from Louisiana's continental shelf, the estuarine waters of Barataria Bay, and in coastal marsh sediments. The concentrations of 28 target alkanes and 43 target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in water samples collected on 10 offshore cruises, in 19 water samples collected monthly one km offshore at 13 inshore stations in 2010 and 2013, and in 16-60 surficial marsh sediment samples collected on each of 26 trips. The concentration of total aromatics in offshore waters peaked in late summer, 2010, at 100 times above the May, 2010 values, which were already slightly contaminated. There were no differences in surface or bottom water samples. The concentration of total aromatics declined at a rate of 73% y-1 to 1/1000th of the May 2010 values by summer 2016. The concentrations inside the estuary were proportional to those one km offshore, but were 10-30% lower. The oil concentrations in sediments were initially different at 1 and 10 m distance into the marsh, but became equal after 2 years. Thus, the distinction between oiled and unoiled sites became blurred, if not non-existent then, and oiling had spread over an area wider than was visible initially. The concentrations of oil in sediments were 100-1000 times above the May 2010 values, and dropped to 10 times higher after 8 years, thereafter, demonstrating a long-term contamination by oil or oil residues that will remain for decades. The chemical signature of the oil residues offshore compared to in the marsh reflects the more aerobic offshore conditions and water-soluble tendencies of the dissolved components, whereas the anaerobic marsh sediments will retain the heavier molecular components for a long time, and have a consequential effect on the ecosystems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Petróleo/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Baías/química , Estuários , Golfo do México , Louisiana , Áreas Alagadas
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