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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(37): 20678-20692, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508628

RESUMO

In this work we present a high-throughput approach to the computation of absorption UV-Vis spectra tailored to mutagenesis studies. The scheme makes use of a single molecular dynamics trajectory of a reference (non-mutated) species. The shifts in absorption energy caused by a residue mutation are evaluated by building an effective potential of the environment and computing a correction term based on perturbation theory. The sampling is only performed in the phase space of the initial protein. We analyze the robustness of the method by comparing different approximations for the effective potential, the sampling of mutant residue geometries and observing the impact in the prediction of both bathocromic and hypsochromic shifts. As a test subject, we consider a red fluorescent protein variant with potential biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Luz , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/genética , Análise Espectral , Raios Ultravioleta , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Mutação
2.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e0088, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531566

RESUMO

The main of the study was quantify the effect of two ceramics with two underlying resin cements on apparent fluorescence levels. Buccal surfaces of two bovine incisors were ground flat producing one enamel and one dentin substrate. The veneers were fabricated (0.5 and 1.0 mm thickness) using two ceramics (IPSe.max Press and IPSe.max Zirpress, Ivoclar Vivadent). Veneers were cemented using either light-cured (Variolink II, Ivoclar Vivadent) or self-adhesive dual (Rely X U200, 3M ESPE) cement. The layered Control group materials had no cement application. Semi-quantitative fluorescence image analysis (Matlabs software, Matworks) involved processing the images as captured under each daylight (DL, Gretagmacbeth) and ultraviolet illuminants (UVA, Sylvania) within a neutral-gray lightbox (Macbeth Spectral Light). Statistical analysis of the quantitative fluorescence values was performed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The e.max Zirpress on the dentin substrate produced greater fluorescence (p < 0.05) when subjected to UV illumination and more fluorescence (p < 0.05) than e.max Press in both cement groups. Light-cured cement produced higher (p < 0.05) fluorescence than the dual-cement with e.max Press on enamel under UV illumination. The fluorescence for e.max Press on the dentin substrate was greater (p < 0.05) than for e.max Zirpress using dual self-adhesive cement subjected to daylight illumination. Thus, it is possible to conclude that the combination of ceramic and cement produce definite, significant effects on the apparent fluorescence, vital quality for restorative dentistry.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/química , Facetas Dentárias , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Cimentos de Resina/química , Animais , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário/química , Esmalte Dentário/efeitos dos fármacos , Dentina/química , Dentina/efeitos dos fármacos , Luz , Teste de Materiais , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Propriedades de Superfície
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3175-3182, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529893

RESUMO

The effects of red/blue=3/1 [R/B=3/1(9/3), as control, CK1], white light (W, as control, CK2), and combined light of red, blue and white [R/B/W=3/1/1 (9/3/3), T1; R/B/W=9/3/8, T2; R/B/W=3/1/6 (9/3/18), T3; R/B/W=3/1/16 (9/3/48), T4] on the growth, root development, quality and yield of eggplants were examined to provide theoretical and technical support for intensive and high-efficient light supplement and eggplant seedlings cultivation, using LED to accurately regulate light environment and 'Gailiangdalong' eggplant, based on the previous findings of the benefits of R/B=3/1 to the cultivation of eggplant seedlings. The results showed that R/B/W=9/3/8 treatment significantly increased plant height, stem diameter, seedling index, shoot dry weight, root dry weight, root development, anthocyanins and flavonoids content in eggplant peels and early yield. Root/shoot, total phenolic content in eggplant peels and soluble sugar content in pulps under R/B/W=3/1/1 treatment were significantly higher than those of other treatments. Total leaf area and free amino acid content in pulps were higher under R/B/W=3/1/6 treatment. The soluble protein content in pulps was higher under R/B/W=3/1/16 treatment. In summary, combined LED light of red, blue and white could improve the quality of eggplant seedlings and the yield and quality of eggplant fruits, with R/B/W=9/3/8 treatment being the best one in our study.


Assuntos
Luz , Solanum melongena/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas , Fotossíntese , Plântula
4.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121891, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387049

RESUMO

This work studies a series of strategies in the production of lutein by Scenedesmus obliquus CWL-1 under mixotrophic cultivation. Our experimental results revealed that the optimal conditions associated with light-related strategies were 12 h light period followed by a 12 h dark period and blue to red light under mixotrophic cultivation. Under such conditions, the biomass, lutein content and lutein productivity were maximized to 9.88 (g/L), 1.78 (mg/g) and 1.43 (mg/L/day), respectively. Moreover, the assimilation of 4.5 g/L of calcium nitrate into S. obliquus CWL-1 increased the maximal biomass (12.73 g/L) and the highest maximal lutein productivity (3.06 mg/L/day), while the assimilation of 1.5 g/L of calcium nitrate yielded the highest maximal lutein content of 2.45 mg/g. The highest maximal lutein productivity of 4.96 (mg/L/day) was obtained when fed-batch fermentation was conducted, and this value was approximately 11-folds that obtained using the batch system.


Assuntos
Luteína/biossíntese , Microalgas/metabolismo , Scenedesmus/metabolismo , Biomassa , Fermentação , Luz
5.
Top Curr Chem (Cham) ; 377(5): 22, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444578

RESUMO

A methodology for photocatalytic reactor modeling applied to advanced oxidation processes for chemical pollution abatement is presented herein. Three distinct reactor configurations typically employed in the field of air and water purification-wall reactors, slurry reactors, and fixed-bed reactors-are considered to illustrate the suggested approach. Initially, different mechanistically derived kinetic expressions to represent the photocatalytic rate of pollutant degradation are reviewed, indicating the main assumptions made by the authors in the published contributions. These kinetic expressions are needed to solve the mass balances of the reactant species in the photocatalytic reactors. As is well known, at least one of the steps of the reaction mechanism requires evaluation of the rate of electron-hole generation, which depends on the photon absorption rate: a volumetric property for reactions with the catalyst particles in aqueous suspension or a surface property for systems with a fixed catalyst deposited on an inert support. Subsequently, the different techniques for evaluating the optical properties of slurry and immobilized systems, and the numerical methods applied to calculate the photon absorption rate, are described. The experimental and theoretical results of pollutant degradation in each reactor type are then presented and analyzed. Finally, the definition, calculation, and relevance of different efficiency parameters are briefly reviewed. Using these illustrative examples, we emphasize the need for a systematic and rigorous approach for photocatalytic reactor modeling in order to overcome the inherent drawbacks of photocatalysis and to improve the overall efficiency of the process.


Assuntos
Luz , Modelos Teóricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Catálise , Ácido Clofíbrico/química , Cinética , Oxirredução , Fótons , Titânio/química
6.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 486(1): 184-186, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367817

RESUMO

To perform optogenetic prosthetics of the retinal ganglion cell receptive field, a bicistronic genetic construct carrying the genes encoding the excitatory (channelrhodopsin-2) and inhibitory (Guillardia theta anion channelrhodopsin GtACR2) rhodopsins was created. A characteristic feature of this construct was the combination of these two genes with a mutant IRES insertion between them, which ensures the exact ratio of expression levels of the first and second genes in each transfected cell. Illumination of the central part of the neuron with light with a wavelength of 470 nm induced the action potential generation in the cell. Stimulation of the peripheral neuronal region with light induced the inhibition of action potential generation. Thus, using optogenetics methods, we simulated the ON-OFF interaction in the retinal ganglion cell receptive field. Theoretically, this construct can be used for optogenetic prosthetics of degenerative retina in the case of its delivery to the ganglion cells with lentiviral vectors.


Assuntos
Channelrhodopsins/genética , Optogenética/métodos , Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Animais , Luz , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos da radiação , Ratos , Retina/efeitos da radiação , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos da radiação , Transfecção
7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(70): 10428-10431, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408061

RESUMO

Two new Rh2(ii,ii) dyes were synthesized and anchored to TiO2 for charge injection upon irradiation. The 1ML-LCT (metal/ligand-to-ligand charge transfer) excited state is populated upon excitation, which decays to the corresponding 3ML-LCT state. Ultrafast electron injection into TiO2 from the Rh2(ii,ii) dyes was achieved with low energy, red light excitation.


Assuntos
Luz , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/administração & dosagem , Ródio/administração & dosagem , Titânio/administração & dosagem , Elétrons
8.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2707-2716, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418196

RESUMO

To improve light environment, photosynthetic capacity, and thus the yield of maize, the effects of directional planting on light distribution in canopy and photosynthetic characteristics of ear leaves, as well as the performance of PSII that closely related with photosynthetic characteristics and reflected by the rapid chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic curves were examined in Zhengdan 958 maize variety. The results showed that the orientation of leaves remarkably affected photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception of ear leaves, with PAR interception of ear leaves in southward treatment being 271.8% higher than that under northward treatment. The orientation of leaves affec-ted photosynthetic light use efficiency of ear leaves under high and low light conditions. The southward treatment increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under saturated light in ear leaves, indicating that the use efficiency to high light was enhanced in leaves of southward treatment. In contrast, the northward treatment increased the apparent quantum yield (α) of ear leaves, indicating leaves in southward treatment adapted the light-limited environment. During the early stage after anthesis, the performance of PSII electron donor side and electron acceptor side was significantly improved, and thus enhanced the performance of PSII reaction center (PIABS) and fluorescence photochemical quenching coefficient (Ψo) in ear leaves of southward treatment. The increase of quantum yield of electron transfer (φEo) indicated the enhancement of transfer performance of electrons from photosystem 2 (PSII) to photosystem 1 (PSI) in leaves of southward treatment. The photosynthetic performance of ear leaves showed a trend of southward > eastward > westward > northward during the early stage after anthesis. Forty days after anthesis, the use efficiency to high light decreased in ear leaves of southward treatment, but the ear leaves of southward treatment showed high use efficiency to low light, which changed the trend of photosynthetic performance of ear leaves to northward > westward > eastward > southward. In summary, northward and eastward treatments improved the light distribution in canopy, the PAR interception of ear leaves, the capacity of photosynthesis and dry matter production, and consequently increased the yield of summer maize.


Assuntos
Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Zea mays/fisiologia , Clorofila , Luz , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II
9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(32): 17971-17977, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384846

RESUMO

The electron-hole injection from a family of spiropyran photoswitches into A/T-duplex DNA has been investigated at the molecular level for the first time. Multiscale computations coupled with automatized quantitative wavefunction analysis reveal a pronounced directionality and regioselectivity towards the template strand of the duplex DNA. Our findings suggest that this directional and regioselective photoinduced electron-hole transfer could thus be exploited to tailor the charge transport processes in DNA in specific applications.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/química , DNA/química , Indóis/química , Substâncias Intercalantes/química , Nitrocompostos/química , Transporte de Elétrons , Luz , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos , Prótons , Termodinâmica
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(69): 10192-10213, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411602

RESUMO

Light is unsurpassed in its ability to modulate biological interactions. Since their discovery, chemists have been fascinated by photosensitive molecules capable of switching between isomeric forms, known as photoswitches. Photoswitchable peptides have been recognized for many years; however, their functional implementation in biological systems has only recently been achieved. Peptides are now acknowledged as excellent protein-protein interaction modulators and have been important in the emergence of photopharmacology. In this review, we briefly explain the different classes of photoswitches and summarize structural studies when they are incorporated into peptides. Importantly, we provide a detailed overview of the rapidly increasing number of examples, where biological modulation is driven by the structural changes. Furthermore, we discuss some of the remaining challenges faced in this field. These exciting proof-of-principle studies highlight the tremendous potential of photocontrollable peptides as optochemical tools for chemical biology and biomedicine.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Humanos , Isomerismo , Luz , Modelos Moleculares , Ácidos Nucleicos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Processos Fotoquímicos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Science ; 365(6452): 447-448, 2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371601
12.
Inorg Chem ; 58(16): 10778-10790, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386351

RESUMO

A new family of cyclometalated ruthenium(II) complexes [Ru(N^N)2(C^N)]+ derived from the π-extended benzo[h]imidazo[4,5-f]quinolone ligand appended with thienyl groups (n = 1-4, compounds 1-4) was prepared and its members were characterized for their chemical, photophysical, and photobiological properties. The lipophilicities of 1-4, determined as octanol-water partition coefficients (log Po/w), were positive and increased with the number of thienyl units. The absorption and emission bands of the C^N compounds were red-shifted by up to 200 nm relative to the analogous Ru(II) diimine systems. All of the complexes exhibited dual emission with the intraligand fluorescence (1IL, C^N-based) shifting to lower energies with increasing n and the metal-to-ligand charge transfer phosphorescence (3MLCT, N^N-based) remaining unchanged. Compounds 1-3 exhibited excited state absorption (ESA) profiles consistent with lowest-lying 3MLCT states when probed by nanosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy with 532 nm excitation and had contributions from 1IL(C^N) states with 355 nm excitation. These assignments were supported by the lifetimes observed (<10 ns for the 1IL states and around 20 ns for the 3MLCT states) as well as a noticeable ESA for 3 with 355 nm excitation that did not occur with 532 nm excitation. Compound 4 was the only member of the family with two 3MLCT emissive lifetimes (15, 110 ns), and the TA spectra collected with both 355 and 532 nm excitation was assigned to the 3IL state, which was corroborated by its 4-6 µs lifetime. The ESA for 4 had a rise time of approximately 10 ns and an initial decay of 110 ns, which suggests a possible 3MLCT-3IL excited state equilibrium that results in delayed emission from the 3MLCT state. Compound 4 was nontoxic toward human skin melanoma cells (SKMEL28) in the dark (EC50 = >300 µM); 1-3 were cytotoxic and yielded EC50 values between 1 and 20 µM. The photocytotoxicites with visible light ranged from 87 nM with a phototherapeutic index (PI) of 13 for 1 to approximately 1 µM (PI = >267) for 4. With red light, EC50 values varied from 270 nM (PI = 21) for 3 to 12 µM for 4 (PI = >25). The larger PIs for 4, especially with visible light, were attributed to the much lower dark cytotoxicity for this compound. Because the dark cytotoxicity contributes substantially to the observed photocytotoxicity for 1-3, it was not possible to assess whether the 3IL state of 4 led to a much more potent phototoxic mechanism in the absence of dark toxicity. There was no stark contrast in cellular uptake and accumulation by laser scanning confocal and differential interference contrast microscopy to explain the large differences in dark toxicities between 1-3 and 4. Nevertheless, the study highlights a new family of Ru(II) C^N complexes where π-conjugation beyond a certain point results in low dark cytotoxicity with high photocytotoxicity, opposing the notion that cyclometalated Ru(II) systems are too toxic to be phototherapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Rutênio/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexos de Coordenação/síntese química , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Ligantes , Luz , Estrutura Molecular , Processos Fotoquímicos , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Quinolonas/química , Rutênio/química
14.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 48, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Light exposure is a common stress factor in in vitro manipulation of embryos in the reproductive center. Many studies have shown the deleterious effects of high-intensity light exposure in different animal embryos. However, no transcriptomic studies have explored the light-induced injury and response in preimplantation embryos. RESULTS: Here, we adopt different time-courses and illumination intensities to treat mouse embryos at the 2-cell stage and evaluate their effects on blastulation. Meanwhile, single-cell transcriptomes from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage were analyzed after high-intensity light exposure. These data show that cells at each embryonic stage can be categorized into different light conditions. Further analyses of differentially expressed genes and GO terms revealed the light-induced injury as well as the potential repair response after high-intensity lighting. Maternal-to-zygote transition is also affected by the failure to remove maternal RNAs and deactivate zygotic genome expression. CONCLUSION: Our work revealed an integrated response to high-intensity lighting, involving morphological changes, long-lasting injury effects, and intracellular damage repair mechanisms.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Luz/efeitos adversos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Animais , Blastocisto , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
15.
Pharm Res ; 36(10): 150, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428879

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The unconventional tabletability of the indomethacin polymorphs - α and γ - are investigated from a topological and mechanical perspective using powder Brillouin light scattering (p-BLS) to identify the specific structure-performance relationship in these materials. METHOD: Indomethacin (γ-form) was purchased and used to prepare the α polymorph. Powder X-ray diffraction was used to confirm phase identity, while p-BLS was used to obtain the mechanical properties. Energy frameworks were determined with Crystal Explorer to visualize the interaction topologies. Using a Carver press and a stress-strain analyzer, the tableting performance of each polymorph was determined. RESULTS: Polymorph-specific acoustic frequency distributions were observed with distinct, zero-porosity, aggregate elastic moduli determined. The p-BLS spectra for α-indomethacin display a population of low-velocity shear modes, indicating a direction of facilitated shear. This improves slip-mediated plasticity and tabletability. Our p-BLS spectra experimentally indicates that a low-energy slip system is available to α-indomethacin which supports ours and previous energy framework calculations. Despite a 2d-layered crystal motif favorable for shear deformation, the γ-form displays a higher shear modulus that is supported by our hydrogen-bonding analysis of γ-indomethacin. CONCLUSION: Our experimental, mechanical data is consistent with the predicted interaction topologies and these two inputs combined permit a comprehensive, molecular understanding of polymorph-specific tabletability.


Assuntos
Indometacina/química , Cristalização , Dimerização , Composição de Medicamentos , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Luz , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Porosidade , Pós , Espalhamento de Radiação , Comprimidos , Termodinâmica
16.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(72): 10713-10716, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429427

RESUMO

A red light-triggered reaction based on cyclic oligonucleotide substrates that is accelerated over 30-fold by specific nucleic acid templates and generates a bright fluorescent probe was developed. We confirmed that this reaction is compatible with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) thereby allowing detection of nucleic acids down to 1 nM.


Assuntos
Luz , Ácidos Nucleicos/análise , Oligonucleotídeos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Estrutura Molecular , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(72): 10784-10787, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432802

RESUMO

Medical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) produces high-resolution anatomical images of the human body, but has limited capacity to provide useful molecular information. The light-responsive, liposomal MRI contrast agent described herein could be used to provide an intrinsic theranostic aspect to MRI and enable tracking the distribution and cargo release of drug delivery systems upon light-triggered activation.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Gadolínio/química , Luz , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Humanos , Lipossomos/química , Estrutura Molecular
18.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109341, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382192

RESUMO

In this work, we have assembled Bi2WO6 nanoparticles on the surface of honeycomb-like porous carbon skeleton (PCS) via a hydrothermal route to achieve a new type of PCS@Bi2WO6 hybrid composite photocatalysts. The PCS@Bi2WO6 hybrid structures are determined by SEM, TEM and XPS characterizations. UV-vis DRS investigation suggests an enhanced visible-light absorption of the PCS@Bi2WO6 composites. Transient photocurrent response, EIS and PL spectroscopy characterizations demonstrate that the composites exhibit an efficient separation of photoproduced electron/hole pairs. The photocatalytic performance of the composites were evaluated by using RhB as the model pollutant and simulated sunlight as the light source. It is revealed that the PCS@Bi2WO6 hybrid composites manifest much enhanced photocatalytic performance. The 5 wt%PCS@Bi2WO6 composite manifests the highest photocatalytic activity, which is ca. 2.1 times as large as that of bare Bi2WO6 nanoparticles. This can be mainly ascribed to two factors: (1) The photogenerated electron/hole pairs in Bi2WO6 are efficiently separated due to the electron transfer between Bi2WO6 and PCS; and (2) PCS induces enhanced visible-light absorption and the visible-light-excited electrons in PCS could also take part in the photocatalytic reactions.


Assuntos
Carbono , Nanopartículas , Catálise , Luz , Porosidade
19.
Biol Bull ; 237(1): 63-72, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441699

RESUMO

Metabolic activation can have a profound impact, for instance, by more than compensating for the lower resting metabolic rates of large organisms compared to smaller ones. In some animals, activity can easily be judged by the rate of muscle-driven movement. In sessile organisms, however, judging activity is less straightforward, although feeding often results in metabolic activation. Two colonial cnidarians were examined in this context, using entirely lab-grown material to remove any artifactual effects of experimental manipulations. Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus is a carnivorous hydroid that uses active muscular contractions to drive its gastrovascular fluid. Sympodium sp., on the other hand, is an octocoral that hosts photosynthetic Symbiodinium and uses cilia to propel its gastrovascular fluid. Measures of oxygen uptake indicated that feeding activated metabolism in H. symbiolongicarpus. While light treatment had no effect on subsequent dark metabolism in Sympodium sp., stress activated metabolism to an extent comparable to H. symbiolongicarpus. In both taxa, different individual size measures or synthetic size measures derived from principal component analysis produced different scaling relationships between metabolism and size. On balance, the data suggest that scaling was negatively allometric in Sympodium sp. and nearly isometric in H. symbiolongicarpus; yet metabolic activation was comparable in the two species. Regardless of the size measure used, active and resting colonies of H. symbiolongicarpus exhibited similar scaling relationships. Colonial animals may lack the large difference between resting and active metabolic rates found in highly active animals, and this may be related to how their metabolism scales with size.


Assuntos
Ativação Metabólica/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal , Hidrozoários/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Hidrozoários/anatomia & histologia , Luz , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 5125-5133, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371951

RESUMO

Purpose: The frequent usage of various lighting screens has made dry eye syndrome an increasingly serious phenomenon. To relieve this global problem, we have developed a photothermal conversion hydrogel based mini-eye patch. Methods: Gold nanoparticles (GNRs) were synthesized by a seed-mediated method, and then used as the inner cores to grow palladium (Pd) shell by PdCl42-reduction. Then, gelatin was added to prepare GNRs @ Pd hydrogel eye patch by genipin cross-linking. We implanted temperature sensitive ink (complex composed of amino resin and styrene maleic anhydride copolymer) in the eye patch, which could change color at different temperatures. Heating performance of the eye patch was accessed with an infrared temperature profile and the circulating temperature experiment. The safety assessment of the eye patch was conducted by H&E staining of the mouse's eyelid skin and CCK-8 assay. A Keratograph 5M noninvasive ocular surface analyzer was used to assess the impact of eye patches on dry eyes. Results: It was found that GNRs @ Pd hydrogel eye patches could sense various visible light and responded by heating up spontaneously. Results from the CCK-8 assay and H&E staining showed that the eye patch has good safety performance. Measurements of the first noninvasive tear break-up time (NITBUT), the average NITBUT, the tear meniscus height (TMH), combined with red eye analysis, further demonstrated the patch's eye-protective properties. Conclusion: After being pasted to the lacrimal gland, the hydrogel patch converted various light irradiations into heat and stimulated the lacrimal gland to produce more tears to relieve dry eye. The built-in temperature-sensitive ink can play an important role in warning people of their excessive eye usage. Because this recyclable strategy does not interfere with normal eye use, it is thus more environmentally friendly and convenient than ordinary infrared eyewear.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco/terapia , Olho/patologia , Hidrogéis/química , Luz , Temperatura Ambiente , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Ouro/química , Humanos , Masculino , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Adulto Jovem
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