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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013700

RESUMO

The origin of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is zoonotic. The circadian day-night is the rhythmic clue to organisms for their synchronized body functions. The "development for mankind" escalated the use of artificial light at night (ALAN). In this article, we tried to focus on the possible influence of this anthropogenic factor in human coronavirus (HCoV) outbreak. The relationship between the occurrences of coronavirus and the ascending curve of the night-light has also been delivered. The ALAN influences the physiology and behavior of bat, a known nocturnal natural reservoir of many Coronaviridae. The "threatened" and "endangered" status of the majority of bat species is mainly because of the destruction of their proper habit and habitat predominantly through artificial illumination. The stress exerted by ALAN leads to the impaired body functions, especially endocrine, immune, genomic integration, and overall rhythm features of different physiological variables and behaviors in nocturnal animals. Night-light disturbs "virus-host" synchronization and may lead to mutation in the genomic part of the virus and excessive virus shedding. We also proposed some future strategies to mitigate the repercussions of ALAN and for the protection of the living system in the earth as well.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Iluminação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Luz , Melatonina/fisiologia , Pandemias
2.
Plant Physiol ; 184(2): 570-571, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020326

Assuntos
Estiolamento , Luz
3.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(6): 42-49, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To perform a comparative assessment of the bactericidal and fungicidal effects of various parts of the radiation spectrum (Ultraviolet A, red, green and blue). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included strains of the most clinically significant microorganisms, which are the most common causes of purulent keratitis - S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and fungi C. albicans. After populating the surface of Petri dishes uniformly with microorganisms of each culture, on four out of the five specimens the central zone of the surface with a diameter of 1 cm was irradiated with light of different spectrum - from ultraviolet to red, with a total radiation energy density of 5.4 J/cm2. One specimen remained as the control subject. After irradiation, scanning electron microscopy with lanthanides contrasting (SEMLC) was used to evaluate the total metabolic activity, the activity of the efflux systems and the morphological characteristics of the microorganisms. RESULTS: The damaging effect of visible spectrum light and UVA radiation on S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans cultures was proved by SEMLC. Green spectrum emission with a wavelength of 500 nm had the highest antimicrobial activity. It was manifested by a decrease in the overall level of metabolic activity (from 40-63 c.u. to 26-37 c.u. (S. aureus (p<0.01), P. aeruginosa (p<0.01) and C. albicans (p<0.05)), as well as a 2-fold increase in the proportion of S. aureus cells with active efflux systems. CONCLUSION: SEMLC allows evaluation of parameters of the microorganisms` state: morphological (form and size) and functional (general metabolic activity, activation of efflux systems). Investigation of S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans cultures using SEMLC demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of green spectrum radiation of 500 nm wavelength. This will serve as a basis for further research and development of a method of treating infectious keratitis using green light.


Assuntos
Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos , Luz , Raios Ultravioleta
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5074, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033265

RESUMO

Touch and itch sensations are crucial for evoking defensive and emotional responses, and light tactile touch may induce unpleasant itch sensations (mechanical itch or alloknesis). The neural substrate for touch-to-itch conversion in the spinal cord remains elusive. We report that spinal interneurons expressing Tachykinin 2-Cre (Tac2Cre) receive direct Aß low threshold mechanoreceptor (LTMR) input and form monosynaptic connections with GRPR neurons. Ablation or inhibition markedly reduces mechanical but not acute chemical itch nor noxious touch information. Chemogenetic inhibition of Tac2Cre neurons also displays pronounced deficit in chronic dry skin itch, a type of chemical itch in mice. Consistently, ablation of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) neurons, which are essential for transmitting chemical itch, also abolishes mechanical itch. Together, these results suggest that innocuous touch and chemical itch information converge on GRPR neurons and thus map an exquisite spinal circuitry hard-wired for converting innocuous touch to irritating itch.


Assuntos
Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Prurido/fisiopatologia , Tato/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Injeções Espinhais , Luz , Potenciais da Membrana , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Receptores da Bombesina/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia , Sinapses/metabolismo , Taquicininas/metabolismo
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1911-1914, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018375

RESUMO

Photoacoustic imaging has shown its great potential in biomedical imaging. A variety of imaging applications, like blood oxygenation for functional imaging, have been widely studied during the past few decades. Most of the previous works are based on the tissue's endogenous or nanoprobe's extraneous optical absorbance. In this paper, we proposed frequency-domain dual-contrast photoacoustic imaging aiming at exploring both optical absorption and mechanical property (e.g., viscoelasticity) of tissue. Instead of conventionally used pulsed excitation, a chirp-modulated laser signal is used to excite the sample to induce photoacoustic signals. On one hand, the optical absorption contrast is obtained by cross-correlating the PA signals with the chirp pattern. On the other hand, mechanical property is obtained by performing the Fourier transform to analyze the frequency spectrum. Experimental results revealed that samples with higher density-to-viscoelasticity ratio show larger quality factor in the received PA signals' spectrum. Both theoretical analysis and experimental demonstrations are performed to prove the feasibility of the proposed method.


Assuntos
Técnicas Fotoacústicas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Lasers , Luz , Análise Espectral
6.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127384, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947660

RESUMO

As a two-dimensional nanomaterial, bismuth oxybromide (BiOBr) have attracted tremendous interest in the area of visible-light photocatalysis since it can provide the internal electric field (IEF) through z-axis through its unique electronic band structure. However, the insufficient active sites and rapid recombination rate of charged carriers hamper the efficiency of the photocatalysis. To address these two major obstacles, an enticing strategy of constructing heterojunction was established by introducing Bi2O2(OH)(NO3) (BiON) in BiOBr with the same precursor. Through a facile one-pot hydrothermal synthesis, two Sillén-type layered photocatalysts, with intimately constructed ultrathin heterostructure, was synthesized by the co-precipitation method. In this work, the formation of Bismuth-based heterojunction for charge separation is established by the excessive bismuth nitrate, which subsequently participates with the in situ growth of ultrathin hierarchical microspheres. By attenuating the thickness of BiOBr from 20 nm to 8 nm with the aid of BiON, the photogenerated charges could migrate to the active sites through shorter charge diffusion pathway. Also, the BiOBr and BiON act as an active bridge to promote the separation of electron-hole pairs, which also brings out more active sites due to its increased specific surface area. BiON/BiOBr ultrathin hierarchical microspheres exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity for decontaminating several types of pollutants. Besides, the activity of as-prepared BiON/BiOBr was further evaluated by inhibiting the growth of kanamycin-resistant bacteria strains. This study presents a novel strategy to incorporate the crystalline bismuth hydrate nitrate into BiOBr to form ultrathin hierarchical microspheres with high surface area for environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Microesferas , Bismuto/química , Catálise , Luz , Nitratos/química
7.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127343, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947672

RESUMO

Hydroxyl radicals (OH) have robust non-selective oxidizing properties to effectively degrade organic pollutants. However, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is restricted to directly generate OH due to its intrinsic valence band. In this study, we report a facile environmental-friendly self-modification strategy to synthesize reduced graphitic carbon nitride (RCN), with nitrogen vacancies and CN functional groups. The incorporation of CN enabled to downshift the valence band level, which endowed RCN with the capacity to directly generate OH via h+. Experimental and instrumental analyses revealed the critical roles of nitrogen vacancies and CN groups in the modification of the RCN band structure to improve its visible light absorption and oxidizing capacity. With these superior properties, the RCN was significantly enhanced for the photocatalytic degradation of DCF under visible light irradiation. The self-modification strategy articulated in this study has strong potential for the creation of customized g-C3N4 band structures with enhanced oxidation performance.


Assuntos
Diclofenaco/química , Grafite/química , Compostos de Nitrogênio/química , Catálise , Luz , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos
8.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(6): 843-849, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a fast, sensitive and cost-effective method based on resonance light scattering (RLS) for characterization of protein solubility to facilitate detection of changes in solubility of mutant proteins. METHODS: We examined the response curve of RLS intensities to the protein concentrations in synchronous scanning mode. The curve intersection points were searched to predict the maximal concentrations of the protein in dispersion state, which defined the solubility of the protein in this given state. Bovine serum albumin (BSA, 0-50 g/L) was used as the model to investigate the influences of pH values (6.5, 7.0, and 7.4) and salt concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 mol/L) on the determined solubility. The solubility of glutathione S-transferase isoenzymes alpha (GSTA, 0-27.0 g/L) and Mµ (GSTM, 0-20.0 g/L) were estimated for comparison. The RLS-based method was used to determine the solubility of uricase (MGU, 0-0.4 g/L) to provide assistance in improving the solubility of its mutants. RESULTS: We identified two intersection points in the RLS response curves of the tested proteins, among which the lower one represented an approximation of the maximal concentration (or the solubility of the protein) in single molecular dispersion, and the higher one the saturated concentration of the protein in multiple molecular aggregation. In HEPES buffer, the two intersection points of BSA (isoelectric point 4.6) both increased with the increase of pH (6.5-7.4), and their values were ~1.2 g/L and ~33 g/L at pH 7.4, respectively; the latter concentration approached the solubility of commercial BSA in the same buffer at the same pH. The addition of NaCl reduced the values of the two intersection points, and increasing salt ion concentration decreased the values of the lower intersection points. Further characterizations of GSTA and GSTM showed that the low concentration intersection points of the two proteins were ~0.7 g/L and ~0.8 g/L, and their high concentration intersection points were ~10 g/L and ~11 g/L, respectively, both lower than those of BSA, indicating the feasibility of the direct characterization of protein solubility by RLS. The two concentration intersection points of MGU were 0.24 g/L and 0.30 g/L, respectively, and the low concentration intersection point of its selected mutant was increased by 2 times. CONCLUSIONS: RLS allows direct characterization of the solubility of macromolecular proteins. This method, which is simple and sensitive and needs only a small amount of proteins, has a unique advantage for rapid comparison of solubility of low-abundance protein mutants.


Assuntos
Luz , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espalhamento de Radiação , Solubilidade , Análise Espectral
9.
Plant Physiol ; 184(1): 4-5, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900970
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4605, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929073

RESUMO

From starlight to sunlight, adaptation alters retinal output, changing both the signal and noise among populations of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Here we determine how these light level-dependent changes impact decoding of retinal output, testing the importance of accounting for RGC noise correlations to optimally read out retinal activity. We find that at moonlight conditions, correlated noise is greater and assuming independent noise severely diminishes decoding performance. In fact, assuming independence among a local population of RGCs produces worse decoding than using a single RGC, demonstrating a failure of population codes when correlated noise is substantial and ignored. We generalize these results with a simple model to determine what conditions dictate this failure of population processing. This work elucidates the circumstances in which accounting for noise correlations is necessary to take advantage of population-level codes and shows that sensory adaptation can strongly impact decoding requirements on downstream brain areas.


Assuntos
Retina/fisiologia , Adaptação Ocular/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Luz , Modelos Lineares , Visão Noturna/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Ratos Long-Evans , Retina/efeitos da radiação , Células Ganglionares da Retina/fisiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos da radiação
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4614, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929069

RESUMO

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a complex structure dependent upon multiple mechanisms to ensure rhythmic electrical activity that varies between day and night, to determine circadian adaptation and behaviours. SCN neurons are exposed to glutamate from multiple sources including from the retino-hypothalamic tract and from astrocytes. However, the mechanism preventing inappropriate post-synaptic glutamatergic effects is unexplored and unknown. Unexpectedly we discovered that TRESK, a calcium regulated two-pore potassium channel, plays a crucial role in this system. We propose that glutamate activates TRESK through NMDA and AMPA mediated calcium influx and calcineurin activation to then oppose further membrane depolarisation and rising intracellular calcium. Hence, in the absence of TRESK, glutamatergic activity is unregulated leading to membrane depolarisation, increased nocturnal SCN firing, inverted basal calcium levels and impaired sensitivity in light induced phase delays. Our data reveals TRESK plays an essential part in SCN regulatory mechanisms and light induced adaptive behaviours.


Assuntos
Adaptação Ocular , Escuridão , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cálcio/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Luz , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Canais de Potássio/deficiência , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Núcleo Supraquiasmático/efeitos da radiação
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237883, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866169

RESUMO

Although whole-genome sequencing has provided novel insights into Neisseria meningitidis, many open reading frames have only been annotated as hypothetical proteins with unknown biological functions. Our previous genetic analyses revealed that the hypothetical protein, NMB1345, plays a crucial role in meningococcal infection in human brain microvascular endothelial cells; however, NMB1345 has no homology to any identified protein in databases and its physiological function could not be elucidated using pre-existing methods. Among the many biological technologies to examine transient protein-protein interaction in vivo, one of the developed methods is genetic code expansion with non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) utilizing a pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNAPyl pair from Methanosarcina species: However, this method has never been applied to assign function-unknown proteins in pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we developed a new method to genetically incorporate ncAAs-encoded photocrosslinking probes into N. meningitidis by utilizing a pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNAPyl pair and elucidated the biological function(s) of the NMB1345 protein. The results revealed that the NMB1345 protein directly interacts with PilE, a major component of meningococcal pili, and further physicochemical and genetic analyses showed that the interaction between the NMB1345 protein and PilE was important for both functional pilus formation and meningococcal infectious ability in N. meningitidis. The present study using this new methodology for N. meningitidis provides novel insights into meningococcal pathogenesis by assigning the function of a hypothetical protein.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/genética , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/metabolismo , Luz , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Endocitose , Células Endoteliais/microbiologia , Fímbrias Bacterianas/metabolismo , Humanos , Microvasos/patologia , Mutação/genética , Plasmídeos/genética
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4899, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994420

RESUMO

Chemical synthesis of amino acids from renewable sources is an alternative route to the current processes based on fermentation. Here, we report visible-light-driven amination of biomass-derived α-hydroxyl acids and glucose into amino acids using NH3 at 50 °C. Ultrathin CdS nanosheets are identified as an efficient and stable catalyst, exhibiting an order of magnitude higher activity towards alanine production from lactic acid compared to commercial CdS as well as CdS nanoobjects bearing other morphologies. Its unique catalytic property is attributed mainly to the preferential formation of oxygen-centered radicals to promote α-hydroxyl acids conversion to α-keto acids, and partially to the poor H2 evolution which is an undesired side reaction. Encouragingly, a number of amino acids are prepared using the current protocol, and one-pot photocatalytic conversion of glucose to alanine is also achieved. This work offers an effective catalytic system for amino acid synthesis from biomass feedstocks under mild conditions.


Assuntos
Alanina/síntese química , Compostos de Cádmio/química , Sulfetos/química , Alanina/química , Biomassa , Catálise/efeitos da radiação , Hidrogênio/química , Ácido Láctico/química , Luz , Modelos Químicos , Oxigênio/química
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(37): 23158-23164, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868421

RESUMO

The recently discovered, chlorophyll-f-containing, far-red photosystem II (FR-PSII) supports far-red light photosynthesis. Participation and kinetics of spectrally shifted far-red pigments are directly observable and separated from that of bulk chlorophyll-a We present an ultrafast transient absorption study of FR-PSII, investigating energy transfer and charge separation processes. Results show a rapid subpicosecond energy transfer from chlorophyll-a to the long-wavelength chlorophylls-f/d The data demonstrate the decay of an ∼720-nm negative feature on the picosecond-to-nanosecond timescales, coinciding with charge separation, secondary electron transfer, and stimulated emission decay. An ∼675-nm bleach attributed to the loss of chl-a absorption due to the formation of a cation radical, PD1 +•, is only fully developed in the nanosecond spectra, indicating an unusually delayed formation. A major spectral feature on the nanosecond timescale at 725 nm is attributed to an electrochromic blue shift of a FR-chlorophyll among the reaction center pigments. These time-resolved observations provide direct experimental support for the model of Nürnberg et al. [D. J. Nürnberg et al., Science 360, 1210-1213 (2018)], in which the primary electron donor is a FR-chlorophyll and the secondary donor is chlorophyll-a (PD1 of the central chlorophyll pair). Efficient charge separation also occurs using selective excitation of long-wavelength chlorophylls-f/d, and the localization of the excited state on P720* points to a smaller (entropic) energy loss compared to conventional PSII, where the excited state is shared over all of the chlorin pigments. This has important repercussions on understanding the overall energetics of excitation energy transfer and charge separation reactions in FR-PSII.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Transferência de Energia/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Cinética , Luz , Análise Espectral/métodos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235522, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946481

RESUMO

Light conditions in retail stores may contribute to potato greening. In this study, we aimed to develop a potato tuber greening risk rating model for retail stores based on light quality and intensity parameters. This was achieved by firstly exposing three potato varieties (Nicola, Maranca and Kennebec) to seven specific light wavelengths (370, 420, 450, 530, 630, 660 and 735 nm) to determine the tuber greening propensity. Detailed light quality and intensity measurements from 25 retail stores were then combined with the greening propensity data to develop a tuber greening risk rating model. Our study showed that maximum greening occurred under blue light (450 nm), while 53%, 65% and 75% less occurred under green (530 nm), red (660 nm) and orange (630 nm) light, respectively. Greening risk, which varied between stores, was found to be related to light intensity level, and partially explained potato stock loss in stores. Our results from this study suggested that other in-store management practices, including lighting duration, average potato turnover, and light protection during non-retail periods, likely influence tuber greening risk.


Assuntos
Luz/efeitos adversos , Iluminação/efeitos adversos , Tubérculos/efeitos da radiação , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos da radiação , Verduras/efeitos da radiação , Comércio , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Iluminação/instrumentação , Iluminação/métodos , Tubérculos/metabolismo , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Solanum tuberosum/economia , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Verduras/economia , Verduras/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237851, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877414

RESUMO

This study examined the antibacterial effect of protoporphyrin IX-ethylenediamine derivative (PPIX-ED)-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PPIX-ED-PACT) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo. PPIX-ED potently inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by inducing reactive oxygen species production via photoactivation. Atomic force microscopy revealed that PPIX-ED-PACT induced the leakage of bacterial content by degrading the bacterial membrane and wall. As revealed using acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, PPIX-ED-PACT altered the permeability of the bacterial membrane. In addition, the antibacterial effect of PPIX-ED-PACT was demonstrated in an in vivo model of P. aeruginosa-infected wounds. PPIX-ED (100 µM) decreased the number of P. aeruginosa colony-forming units by 4.2 log10. Moreover, histological analysis illustrated that the wound healing rate was 98% on day 14 after treatment, which was 10% higher than that in the control group. According to the present findings, PPIX-ED-PACT can effectively inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Fotoquimioterapia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/efeitos da radiação , Etilenodiaminas/química , Etilenodiaminas/farmacologia , Etilenodiaminas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Luz , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Células NIH 3T3 , Fotodegradação , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Protoporfirinas/química , Protoporfirinas/farmacologia , Protoporfirinas/uso terapêutico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos da radiação , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886669

RESUMO

The Dicke model is a fundamental model of quantum optics, which describes the interaction between light and matter. In the Dicke model, the light component is described as a single quantum mode, while the matter is described as a set of two-level systems. When the coupling between the light and matter crosses a critical value, the Dicke model shows a mean-field phase transition to a superradiant phase. This transition belongs to the Ising universality class and was realized experimentally in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Although the superradiant transition bears some analogy with the lasing instability, these two transitions belong to different universality classes.


Assuntos
Luz , Teoria Quântica , Algoritmos , Modelos Químicos , Transição de Fase
19.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(707): 1745-1747, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969610

RESUMO

Circadian rhythmicity generated by the biological clock structures the functioning of human beings over a period of almost 24 hours. This clock is entrained daily by internal and external cues among which light is the most powerful. Several disturbances, whether clinical or biological, observed in bipolar disorders are suggestive of a disruption of the circadian rhythm. Thus, treatments that modulate the biological clock have been developed. So far, the results of light therapy are not unanimous and invite us to better specify the treatment modalities. Dark therapy is a promising intervention that is still not much studied nowadays and therefore opens up great prospects for research in the future.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Escuridão , Luz , Fotoperíodo , Relógios Biológicos/efeitos da radiação , Ritmo Circadiano/efeitos da radiação , Humanos
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4722, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948764

RESUMO

Precisely controlled deuterium labeling at specific sites of N-alkyl drugs is crucial in drug-development as over 50% of the top-selling drugs contain N-alkyl groups, in which it is very challenging to selectively replace protons with deuterium atoms. With the goal of achieving controllable isotope-labeling in N-alkylated amines, we herein rationally design photocatalytic water-splitting to furnish [H] or [D] and isotope alkanol-oxidation by photoexcited electron-hole pairs on a polymeric semiconductor. The controlled installation of N-CH3, -CDH2, -CD2H, -CD3, and -13CH3 groups into pharmaceutical amines thus has been demonstrated by tuning isotopic water and methanol. More than 50 examples with a wide range of functionalities are presented, demonstrating the universal applicability and mildness of this strategy. Gram-scale production has been realized, paving the way for the practical photosynthesis of pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Aminas/metabolismo , Luz , Semicondutores , Alquilação , Aminas/farmacologia , Catálise , Deutério , Oxirredução , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Prótons , Água , Difração de Raios X
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