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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200593

RESUMO

The next generation wireless technology networks and beyond (i [...].


Assuntos
Comunicação , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Luz
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199235

RESUMO

One third of fatal car accidents and so many tragedies are due to alcohol abuse. These sad numbers could be mitigated if everyone had access to a breathalyzer anytime and anywhere. Having a breathalyzer built into a phone or wearable technology could be the way to get around reluctance to carry a separate device. With this goal, we propose an inexpensive breathalyzer that could be integrated in the screens of mobile devices. Our technology is based on the evaporation rate of the fog produced by the breath on the phone screen, which increases with increasing breath alcohol content. The device simply uses a photodiode placed on the side of the screen to measure the signature of the scattered light intensity from the phone display that is guided through the stress layer of the Gorilla glass screen. A part of the display light is coupled to the stress layer via the evanescent field induced at the edge of the breath microdroplets. We demonstrate that the intensity signature measured at the detector can be linked to blood alcohol content. We fabricated a prototype in a smartphone case powered by the phone's battery, controlled by an application installed on the smartphone, and tested it in real-world environments. Limitations and future work toward a fully operational device are discussed.


Assuntos
Smartphone , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Testes Respiratórios , Luz
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 313, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Harnessing heterosis is one of the major approaches to increase rice yield and has made a great contribution to food security. The identification and selection of outstanding parental genotypes especially among male sterile lines is a key step for exploiting heterosis. Two-line hybrid system is based on the discovery and application of photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive genic sensitive male sterile (PTGMS) materials. The development of wide-range of male sterile lines from a common gene pool leads to a narrower genetic diversity, which is vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stress. Hence, it is valuable to ascertain the genetic background of PTGMS lines and to understand their relationships in order to select and design a future breeding strategy. RESULTS: A collection of 118 male sterile rice lines and 13 conventional breeding lines from the major rice growing regions of China was evaluated and screened against the photosensitive (pms3) and temperature sensitive male sterility (tms5) genes. The total gene pool was divided into four major populations as P1 possessing the pms3, P2 possessing tms5, P3 possessing both pms3 and tms5 genes, and P4 containing conventional breeding lines without any male sterility allele. The high genetic purity was revealed by homozygous alleles in all populations. The population admixture, principle components and the phylogenetic analysis revealed the close relations of P2 and P3 with P4. The population differentiation analysis showed that P1 has the highest differentiation coefficient. The lines from P1 were observed as the ancestors of other three populations in a phylogenetic tree, while the lines in P2 and P3 showed a close genetic relation with conventional lines. A core collection of top 10% lines with maximum within and among populations genetic diversity was constructed for future research and breeding efforts. CONCLUSION: The low genetic diversity and close genetic relationship among PTGMS lines in P2, P3 and P4 populations suggest a selection sweep and they might result from a backcrossing with common ancestors including the pure lines of P1. The core collection from PTGMS panel updated with new diverse germplasm will serve best for further two-line hybrid breeding.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Fotoperíodo , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Temperatura , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Análise por Conglomerados , Ontologia Genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Luz , Nucleotídeos/genética , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Filogenia , Infertilidade das Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Análise de Componente Principal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sementes/efeitos da radiação
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 324, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing large crop monocultures and heavily using pesticides enhances the evolution of pesticide-insensitive pests and pathogens. To reduce pesticide use in crop cultivation, the application of priming-active compounds (PrimACs) is a welcome alternative. PrimACs strengthen the plant immune system and could thus help to protect plants with lower amounts of pesticides. PrimACs can be identified, for example, by their capacity to enhance the respiratory activity of parsley cells in culture as determined by the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) using the respiration activity monitoring system (RAMOS) or its miniaturized version, µRAMOS. The latter was designed for with suspensions of bacteria and yeast cells in microtiter plates (MTPs). So far, RAMOS or µRAMOS have not been applied to adult plants or seedlings, which would overcome the limitation of (µ)RAMOS to plant suspension cell cultures. RESULTS: In this work, we introduce a modified µRAMOS for analysis of plant seedlings. The novel device allows illuminating the seedlings and records the respiratory activity in each well of a 48-well MTP. To validate the suitability of the setup for identifying novel PrimAC in Arabidopsis thaliana, seedlings were grown in MTP for seven days and treated with the known PrimAC salicylic acid (SA; positive control) and the PrimAC candidate methyl 1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-oxocyclopentane-1-carboxylate (Tyr020). Twenty-eight h after treatment, the seedlings were elicited with flg22, a 22-amino acid peptide of bacterial flagellin. Upon elicitation, the respiratory activity was monitored. The evaluation of the OTR course reveals Tyr020 as a likely PrimAC. The priming-inducing activity of Tyr020 was confirmed using molecular biological analyses in A. thaliana seedlings. CONCLUSION: We disclose the suitability of µRAMOS for identifying PrimACs in plant seedlings. The difference in OTR during a night period between primed and unprimed plants was distinguishable after elicitation with flg22. Thus, it has been shown that the µRAMOS device can be used for a reliable screening for PrimACs in plant seedlings.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Plântula/fisiologia , Plântula/efeitos da radiação , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Respiração Celular/efeitos da radiação
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206372

RESUMO

A choline-binding module from pneumococcal LytA autolysin, LytA239-252, was reported to have a highly stable nativelike ß-hairpin in aqueous solution, which turns into a stable amphipathic α-helix in the presence of micelles. Here, we aim to obtain insights into this DPC-micelle triggered ß-hairpin-to-α-helix conformational transition using photo-CIDNP NMR experiments. Our results illustrate the dependency between photo-CIDNP phenomena and the light intensity in the sample volume, showing that the use of smaller-diameter (2.5 mm) NMR tubes instead of the conventional 5 mm ones enables more efficient illumination for our laser-diode light setup. Photo-CIDNP experiments reveal different solvent accessibility for the two tyrosine residues, Y249 and Y250, the latter being less accessible to the solvent. The cross-polarization effects of these two tyrosine residues of LytA239-252 allow for deeper insights and evidence their different behavior, showing that the Y250 aromatic side chain is involved in a stronger interaction with DPC micelles than Y249 is. These results can be interpreted in terms of the DPC micelle disrupting the aromatic stacking between W241 and Y250 present in the nativelike ß-hairpin, hence initiating conversion towards the α-helix structure. Our photo-CIDNP methodology represents a powerful tool for observing residue-level information in switch peptides that is difficult to obtain by other spectroscopic techniques.


Assuntos
Micelas , Peptídeos/química , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Tirosina/química , Luz , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Processos Fotoquímicos , Análise Espectral
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4199, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234114

RESUMO

Speckle is maybe the most fundamental interference effect of light in disordered media, giving rise to fascinating physical phenomena and cutting edge applications. While speckle formed outside a sample is easily measured and analysed, true bulk speckle, as formed inside random media, is difficult to investigate directly due to the obvious issue of physical access. Furthermore, its proper theoretical description poses enormous challenges. Here we report on the first direct measurements of spatially resolved intensity correlations of light inside a disordered medium, using embedded DNA strings decorated with emitters separated by a controlled nanometric distance. Our method provides in situ access to fundamental properties of bulk speckles as their size and polarization degrees of freedom, both of which are found to deviate significantly from theoretical predictions. The deviations are explained, by comparison with rigorous numerical calculations, in terms of correlations among polarization components and non-universal near-field contributions at the nanoscale.


Assuntos
Luz , Espalhamento de Radiação , Análise Espacial , Algoritmos
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4194, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234144

RESUMO

Photomorphogenesis, light-mediated development, is an essential feature of all terrestrial plants. While chloroplast development and brassinosteroid (BR) signaling are known players in photomorphogenesis, proteins that regulate both pathways have yet to be identified. Here we report that DE-ETIOLATION IN THE DARK AND YELLOWING IN THE LIGHT (DAY), a membrane protein containing DnaJ-like domain, plays a dual-role in photomorphogenesis by stabilizing the BR receptor, BRI1, as well as a key enzyme in chlorophyll biosynthesis, POR. DAY localizes to both the endomembrane and chloroplasts via its first transmembrane domain and chloroplast transit peptide, respectively, and interacts with BRI1 and POR in their respective subcellular compartments. Using genetic analysis, we show that DAY acts independently on BR signaling and chlorophyll biogenesis. Collectively, this work uncovers DAY as a factor that simultaneously regulates BR signaling and chloroplast development, revealing a key regulator of photomorphogenesis that acts across cell compartments.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Clorofila/biossíntese , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Estiolamento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/isolamento & purificação , Luz , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Morfogênese/efeitos da radiação , Mutação , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Quinases/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4224, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244502

RESUMO

Nucleic acid-based constitutional dynamic networks (CDNs) have recently emerged as versatile tools to control a variety of catalytic processes. A key challenge in the application of these systems is achieving intercommunication between different CDNs to mimic the complex interlinked networks found in cellular biology. In particular, the possibility to interface photochemical 'energy-harvesting' processes with dark-operating 'metabolic' processes, in a similar way to plants, represents an up to now unexplored yet enticing research direction. The present study introduces two CDNs that allow the intercommunication of photocatalytic and dark-operating catalytic functions mediated by environmental components that facilitate the dynamic coupling of the networks. The dynamic feedback-driven intercommunication of the networks is accomplished via information transfer between the two CDNs effected by hairpin fuel strands in the environment of the system, leading to the coupling of the photochemical and dark-operating modules.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , DNA Catalítico/química , Técnicas Genéticas , Processos Fotoquímicos , DNA Catalítico/genética , Luz , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201576

RESUMO

The detection of peaks shifts in Raman spectroscopy enables a fingerprint reconstruction to discriminate among molecules with neither labelling nor sample preparation. Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy is an effective technique to reject the strong fluorescence background that profits from the time scale difference in the two responses: Raman photons are scattered almost instantaneously while fluorescence shows a nanoseconds time constant decay. The combination of short laser pulses with time-gated detectors enables the collection of only those photons synchronous with the pulse, thus rejecting fluorescent ones. This review addresses time-gating issues from the sensor standpoint and identifies single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) arrays as the most suitable single-photon detectors to be rapidly and precisely time-gated without bulky, complex, or expensive setups. At first, we discuss the requirements for ideal Raman SPAD arrays, particularly focusing on the design guidelines for optimized on-chip processing electronics. Then we present some existing SPAD-based architectures, featuring specific operation modes which can be usefully exploited for Raman spectroscopy. Finally, we highlight key aspects for future ultrafast Raman platforms and highly integrated sensors capable of undistorted identification of Raman peaks across many pixels.


Assuntos
Avalanches , Fótons , Eletrônica , Luz , Análise Espectral Raman
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209114

RESUMO

Time-of-Flight (TOF) based Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a widespread technique for distance measurements in both single-spot depth ranging and 3D mapping. Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) detectors provide single-photon sensitivity and allow in-pixel integration of a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) to measure the TOF of single-photons. From the repetitive acquisition of photons returning from multiple laser shots, it is possible to accumulate a TOF histogram, so as to identify the laser pulse return from unwelcome ambient light and compute the desired distance information. In order to properly predict the TOF histogram distribution and design each component of the LiDAR system, from SPAD to TDC and histogram processing, we present a detailed statistical modelling of the acquisition chain and we show the perfect matching with Monte Carlo simulations in very different operating conditions and very high background levels. We take into consideration SPAD non-idealities such as hold-off time, afterpulsing, and crosstalk, and we show the heavy pile-up distortion in case of high background. Moreover, we also model non-idealities of timing electronics chain, namely, TDC dead-time, limited number of storage cells for TOF data, and TDC sharing. Eventually, we show how the exploit the modelling to reversely extract the original LiDAR return signal from the distorted measured TOF data in different operating conditions.


Assuntos
Modelos Estatísticos , Fótons , Eletrônica , Luz , Método de Monte Carlo
11.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200763

RESUMO

The development of new antimicrobial strategies that act more efficiently than traditional antibiotics is becoming a necessity to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens. Here we report the efficacy of laser-light-irradiated 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(m-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (mTHPP) loaded onto an ethylcellulose (EC)/chitosan (Chs) nanocomposite in eradicating multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Surface loading of the ethylcelllose/chitosan composite with mTHPP was carried out and the resulting nanocomposite was fully characterized. The results indicate that the prepared nanocomposite incorporates mTHPP inside, and that the composite acquired an overall positive charge. The incorporation of mTHPP into the nanocomposite enhanced the photo- and thermal stability. Different laser wavelengths (458; 476; 488; 515; 635 nm), powers (5-70 mW), and exposure times (15-45 min) were investigated in the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) experiments, with the best inhibition observed using 635 nm with the mTHPP EC/Chs nanocomposite for C. albicans (59 ± 0.21%), P. aeruginosa (71.7 ± 1.72%), and S. aureus (74.2 ± 1.26%) with illumination of only 15 min. Utilization of higher doses (70 mW) for longer periods achieved more eradication of microbial growth.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/química , Nanocompostos/química , Porfirinas/química , Piridonas/química , Pirróis/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Celulose/química , Chlorocebus aethiops , Lasers , Luz , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 326, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycolate oxidase (GLO) is not only a key enzyme in photorespiration but also a major engine for H2O2 production in plants. Catalase (CAT)-dependent H2O2 decomposition has been previously reported to be involved in the regulation of IAA biosynthesis. However, it is still not known which mechanism contributed to the H2O2 production in IAA regulation. RESULTS: In this study, we found that in glo mutants of rice, as H2O2 levels decreased IAA contents significantly increased, whereas high CO2 abolished the difference in H2O2 and IAA contents between glo mutants and WT. Further analyses showed that tryptophan (Trp, the precursor for IAA biosynthesis in the Trp-dependent biosynthetic pathway) also accumulated due to increased tryptophan synthetase ß (TSB) activity. Moreover, expression of the genes involved in Trp-dependent IAA biosynthesis and IBA to IAA conversion were correspondingly up-regulated, further implicating that both pathways contribute to IAA biosynthesis as mediated by the GLO-dependent production of H2O2. CONCLUSION: We investigated the function of GLO in IAA signaling in different levels from transcription, enzyme activities to metabolic levels. The results suggest that GLO-dependent H2O2 signaling, essentially via photorespiration, confers regulation over IAA biosynthesis in rice plants.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos da radiação , Respiração Celular/efeitos da radiação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/efeitos da radiação , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Peroxissomos/efeitos da radiação , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo
13.
Chemosphere ; 281: 130984, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289628

RESUMO

To attain elevated class MXene (Ti3C2Tx) through a homemade kitchen blender method, high shear mechanical exfoliation is highly required for the efficient delimitations of MXene nanosheets from bulk MAX (Ti3AlC2). We examine large-scale industrial productions of the MXene nanosheets, where combing the predicted 2D materials using a blender is a first-time novel approach with the delaminating solvent as a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). And also manually created layered MXene systems (handmade) delaminating MXene sheets (MX-H) was furthermore employed for environmental dye-degradations applications. The materials characterizations was done for both the bulk MAX, MX-H and the MX-B. Additionally, the surface morphological studies like scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated for both MX-H and MX-B as-prepared samples. SEM images indicated the high shear blander technique formations highly expanded/delaminated MXene (Ti3C2Tx) nanosheets compared to MX-H samples. FTIR technique is employed to identify -OH, C-H, C-O stretching vibrations for both materials. Raman spectroscopy analysis of MX-H and MX-B revealed 484.80 cm-1 Raman shift assigned to E1g phonon mode of (Ti, C, O). The ultraviolet UV visible absorption spectra explored pure and catalyst added Methylene Blue (MB) dye stock solution using annular type photoreactor with visible light source of 300 W. The comparatives of MAX, MX-H and MX-B samples was investigated as photocatalytic activity, The blender made (MX-B) sample revealed 98% of efficiency.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Catálise , Luz , Azul de Metileno , Titânio
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4394, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285211

RESUMO

Bacterial phytochrome photoreceptors usually belong to two-component signaling systems which transmit environmental stimuli to a response regulator through a histidine kinase domain. Phytochromes switch between red light-absorbing and far-red light-absorbing states. Despite exhibiting extensive structural responses during this transition, the model bacteriophytochrome from Deinococcus radiodurans (DrBphP) lacks detectable kinase activity. Here, we resolve this long-standing conundrum by comparatively analyzing the interactions and output activities of DrBphP and a bacteriophytochrome from Agrobacterium fabrum (Agp1). Whereas Agp1 acts as a conventional histidine kinase, we identify DrBphP as a light-sensitive phosphatase. While Agp1 binds its cognate response regulator only transiently, DrBphP does so strongly, which is rationalized at the structural level. Our data pinpoint two key residues affecting the balance between kinase and phosphatase activities, which immediately bears on photoreception and two-component signaling. The opposing output activities in two highly similar bacteriophytochromes suggest the use of light-controllable histidine kinases and phosphatases for optogenetics.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Histidina Quinase/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Agrobacterium/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Deinococcus/enzimologia , Histidina Quinase/ultraestrutura , Luz , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/ultraestrutura , Fotorreceptores Microbianos/ultraestrutura , Domínios Proteicos
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202773

RESUMO

In recent years, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has received increasing attention as a promising tool aimed at both treating microbial infections and sanitizing environments. Since biofilm formation on biological and inert surfaces makes difficult the eradication of bacterial communities, further studies are needed to investigate such tricky issue. In this work, a panel of 13 diaryl-porphyrins (neutral, mono- and di-cationic) was taken in consideration to photoinactivate Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among cationic photosensitizers (PSs) able to efficiently bind cells, in this study two dicationic showed to be intrinsically toxic and were ruled out by further investigations. In particular, the dicationic porphyrin (P11) that was not toxic, showed a better photoinactivation rate than monocationic in suspended cells. Furthermore, it was very efficient in inhibiting the biofilms produced by the model microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and by clinical strains derived from urinary tract infection and cystic fibrosis patients. Since P. aeruginosa represents a target very difficult to inactivate, this study confirms the potential of dicationic diaryl-porphyrins as photo-activated antimicrobials in different applicative fields, from clinical to environmental ones.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Porfirinas/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos da radiação , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cátions , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fotoquimioterapia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Porfirinas/química
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4107, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226545

RESUMO

The green-light absorbing proteorhodopsin (GPR) is the archetype of bacterial light-driven proton pumps. Here, we present the 2.9 Å cryo-EM structure of pentameric GPR, resolving important residues of the proton translocation pathway and the oligomerization interface. Superposition with the structure of a close GPR homolog and molecular dynamics simulations reveal conformational variations, which regulate the solvent access to the intra- and extracellular half channels harbouring the primary proton donor E109 and the proposed proton release group E143. We provide a mechanism for the structural rearrangements allowing hydration of the intracellular half channel, which are triggered by changing the protonation state of E109. Functional characterization of selected mutants demonstrates the importance of the molecular organization around E109 and E143 for GPR activity. Furthermore, we present evidence that helices involved in the stabilization of the protomer interfaces serve as scaffolds for facilitating the motion of the other helices. Combined with the more constrained dynamics of the pentamer compared to the monomer, these observations illustrate the previously demonstrated functional significance of GPR oligomerization. Overall, this work provides molecular insights into the structure, dynamics and function of the proteorhodopsin family that will benefit the large scientific community employing GPR as a model protein.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Luz , Rodopsina/química , Rodopsinas Microbianas/química , Expressão Gênica , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fenômenos Físicos , Conformação Proteica , Prótons
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4163, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230463

RESUMO

The nighttime environment is being altered rapidly over large areas worldwide through introduction of artificial lighting, from streetlights and other sources. This is predicted to impact the visual ecology of many organisms, affecting both their intra- and interspecific interactions. Here, we show the effects of different artificial light sources on multiple aspects of hawkmoth visual ecology, including their perception of floral signals for pollination, the potential for intraspecific sexual signalling, and the effectiveness of their visual defences against avian predators. Light sources fall into three broad categories: some that prevent use of chromatic signals for these behaviours, others that more closely mimic natural lighting conditions, and, finally, types whose effects vary with light intensity and signal colour. We find that Phosphor Converted (PC) amber LED lighting - often suggested to be less harmful to nocturnal insects - falls into this third disruptive group, with unpredictable consequences for insect visual ecology depending on distance from the light source and the colour of the objects viewed. The diversity of impacts of artificial lighting on hawkmoth visual ecology alone argues for a nuanced approach to outdoor lighting in environmentally sensitive areas, employing intensities and spectra designed to limit those effects of most significant concern.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Flores , Iluminação , Polinização , Animais , Aves , Comportamento Alimentar , Insetos , Luz , Manduca
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281244

RESUMO

Olfaction is an important neural system for survival and fundamental behaviors such as predator avoidance, food finding, memory formation, reproduction, and social communication. However, the neural circuits and pathways associated with the olfactory system in various behaviors are not fully understood. Recent advances in optogenetics, high-resolution in vivo imaging, and reconstructions of neuronal circuits have created new opportunities to understand such neural circuits. Here, we generated a transgenic zebrafish to manipulate olfactory signal optically, expressing the Channelrhodopsin (ChR2) under the control of the olfactory specific promoter, omp. We observed light-induced neuronal activity of olfactory system in the transgenic fish by examining c-fos expression, and a calcium indicator suggesting that blue light stimulation caused activation of olfactory neurons in a non-invasive manner. To examine whether the photo-activation of olfactory sensory neurons affect behavior of zebrafish larvae, we devised a behavioral choice paradigm and tested how zebrafish larvae choose between two conflicting sensory cues, an aversive odor or the naturally preferred phototaxis. We found that when the conflicting cues (the preferred light and aversive odor) were presented together simultaneously, zebrafish larvae swam away from the aversive odor. However, the transgenic fish with photo-activation were insensitive to the aversive odor and exhibited olfactory desensitization upon optical stimulation of ChR2. These results show that an aversive olfactory stimulus can override phototaxis, and that olfaction is important in decision making in zebrafish. This new transgenic model will be useful for the analysis of olfaction related behaviors and for the dissection of underlying neural circuits.


Assuntos
Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Percepção Olfatória/genética , Olfato/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Channelrhodopsins/genética , Sinais (Psicologia) , Larva/fisiologia , Luz , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Odorantes , Optogenética/métodos , Estimulação Luminosa , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Natação , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
19.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198940

RESUMO

The method of realizing nanostructures using porous alumina templates has attracted interest due to the precise geometry and cheap cost of nanofabrication. In this work, nanoporous alumina membranes were utilized to realize a forest of nanowires, providing a bottom-up nanofabrication method suitable for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Gold and iron were electroplated through the straight channels of the membrane. The resulting nanowires are, indeed, made of an active element for plasmonic resonance and SERS as the hexagonal distribution of the nanowires and the extreme high density of the nanowires allows to excite the plasmon and detect the Raman signal. The method to reduce the distance between pores and, consequently, the distance of the nanowires after electrodeposition is optimized here. Indeed, it has been predicted that the light intensity enhancement factor is up to 1012 when the gap is small than 10 nm. Measurements of Raman signal of thiol groups drying on the gold nanowires show that the performance of the device is improved. As the thiol group can be linked to proteins, the device has the potential of a biosensor for the detection of a few biomolecules. To assess the performance of the device and demonstrate its ability to analyze biological solutions, we used it as SERS substrates to examine solutions of IgG in low abundance ranges. The results of the test indicate that the sensor can convincingly detect biomolecules in physiologically relevant ranges.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Óxido de Alumínio , Ouro/química , Luz , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanofios/química , Porosidade , Compostos de Sulfidrila
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208594

RESUMO

This article describes the synthesis and characterization of ß-cyclodextrin-based nano-sponges (NS) inclusion compounds (IC) with the anti-tumor drugs melphalan (MPH) and cytoxan (CYT), and the addition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto both systems, for the potential release of the drugs by means of laser irradiation. The NS-MPH and NS-CYT inclusion compounds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), UV-Vis, and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Thus, the inclusion of MPH and CYT inside the cavities of NSs was confirmed. The association of AuNPs with the ICs was confirmed by SEM, EDS, TEM, and UV-Vis. Drug release studies using NSs synthesized with different molar ratios of ß-cyclodextrin and diphenylcarbonate (1:4 and 1:8) demonstrated that the ability of NSs to entrap and release the drug molecules depends on the crosslinking between the cyclodextrin monomers. Finally, irradiation assays using a continuous laser of 532 nm showed that photothermal drug release of both MPH and CYT from the cavities of NSs via plasmonic heating of AuNPs is possible.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos , Ouro , Melfalan/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Ciclodextrinas/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/efeitos da radiação , Ouro/química , Luz , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Temperatura , Termogravimetria , Tocoferóis , Difração de Raios X
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