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1.
Environ Manage ; 64(6): 772-782, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748948

RESUMO

During the last decade, China's agro-food production has increased rapidly and been accompanied by the challenge of increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other environmental pollutants from fertilizers, pesticides, and intensive energy use. Understanding the energy use and environmental impacts of crop production will help identify environmentally damaging hotspots of agro-production, allowing environmental impacts to be assessed and crop management strategies optimized. Conventional farming has been widely employed in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) cultivation in China, which is an important cash tree crop not only for the rural economy but also from an ecological standpoint. Energy use and global warming potential (GWP) were investigated in a wolfberry production system in the Yellow River irrigated Jingtai region of Gansu. In total, 52 household farms were randomly selected to conduct the investigation using questionnaires. Total energy input and output were 321,800.73 and 166,888.80 MJ ha-1, respectively, in the production system. The highest share of energy inputs was found to be electricity consumption for lifting irrigation water, accounting for 68.52%, followed by chemical fertilizer application (11.37%). Energy use efficiency was 0.52 when considering both fruit and pruned wood. Nonrenewable energy use (88.52%) was far larger than the renewable energy input. The share of GWP of different inputs were 64.52% electricity, 27.72% nitrogen (N) fertilizer, 5.07% phosphate, 2.32% diesel, and 0.37% potassium, respectively. The highest share was related to electricity consumption for irrigation, followed by N fertilizer use. Total GWP in the wolfberry planting system was 26,018.64 kg CO2 eq ha-1 and the share of CO2, N2O, and CH4 were 99.47%, 0.48%, and negligible respectively with CO2 being dominant. Pathways for reducing energy use and GHG emission mitigation include: conversion to low carbon farming to establish a sustainable and cleaner production system with options of raising water use efficiency by adopting a seasonal gradient water pricing system and advanced irrigation techniques; reducing synthetic fertilizer use; and policy support: smallholder farmland transfer (concentration) for scale production, credit (small- and low-interest credit) and tax breaks.


Assuntos
Aquecimento Global , Lycium , Agricultura , Carbono , China , Fertilizantes , Efeito Estufa , Metano , Óxido Nitroso
2.
Se Pu ; 37(11): 1162-1172, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642268

RESUMO

A method for the separation, identification, and determination of fructose and various aldehyde monosaccharides was established by precolumn labeling with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The separation was performed on a Kromasil-C18 column (100 mm×4.6 mm, 3.5 µm) with gradient elution. The detection was performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. In this study, the derivatization mechanism of PMP-labeled fructose was proposed under mild NH3·H2O conditions. The suggested method showed good linearity in the corresponding mass concentration ranges, with the correlation coefficients (r2) > 0.9947. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the ranges 0.003 to 0.05 mg/L and 0.01 to 0.15 mg/L, respectively. The recoveries in spiked Lycium barbarum L. samples were 65.1% to 116.2%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 10.2%. By virtue of its simplicity, high sensitivity, and good repeatability, the method could be successfully applied to the analysis of the monosaccharide composition in polysaccharides of Lycium barbarum L. from four planting areas. Results showed that the isolated polysaccharides comprise mannose, fructose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, and ribose. The concentration distribution of various monosaccharides differed notably depending on the planted environmention. The proposed method is expected to be of great significance in standardizing the quality control of polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Lycium/química , Monossacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
3.
Se Pu ; 37(10): 1042-1047, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642281

RESUMO

A method based on QuEChERS-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was established for the determination of 20 pesticide residues in wolfberry. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile. The extract was purified with PSA (primary secondary amine), GCB (graphite carbon black) and C18 to suppress the matrix in wolfberry. The analytical results showed that the calibration curves for the 20 pesticides obtained by GC-MS/MS were linear in the range of 5-500 µg/L, with the correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. The recoveries ranged from 70.02% to 110.78% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 2.05% to 9.53%. This method has the advantages of being time-saving, convenient and sensitive. The proposed method can simultaneously detect organic phosphorus and organic chlorine pesticides residues with a good performance in terms of qualitative and quantitative detection.


Assuntos
Lycium/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(41): 11408-11419, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556290

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of 2-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2ßG), a natural ascorbic acid derivative from the fruits of Lycium barbarum, on treating the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice were investigated. The results revealed that AA-2ßG had palliating effects on DSS-induced inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in terms of slowing down the trends of body weight and solid fecal mass loss, reducing colitis disease activity index, improving serum physiological and biochemical indicators, increasing colon length, blocking proinflammatory cytokines, and increasing tight junction proteins. Additionally, AA-2ßG treatment could promote the production of short-chain fatty acids and modulate the composition of the gut microbiota. The key bacteria related to IBD were found to be Porphyromonadaceae, Prevotellaceae, Rikenellaceae, Parasutterella, Parabacteroides, and Clostridium. The results indicated that AA-2ßG might treat IBD through the regulation of gut microbiota, suggesting that AA-2ßG has the potential to be used as a dietary supplement in the treatment of IBD.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Colite/genética , Colite/imunologia , Colite/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
5.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110798, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473340

RESUMO

In this work, the cytotoxicity of Beauvericin (BEA), lutein (LUT), zeaxanthin (ZEAX) and goji berries extract (GBE) rich in carotenoids, was investigated, as well as cytoprotective effects of these carotenoids against BEA induced-cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells. Cytotoxicity was carried out using MTT and protein content (PC) assays during 24 and 48 h of exposure. Only BEA showed cytotoxic effect obtaining a reduction in cell proliferation range from 6.5 to 92.8%. Simultaneous combination of LUT and ZEAX with BEA slightly increased cell proliferation compared to BEA tested alone. LUT, ZEAX and GBE showed cytoprotective effects against cytotoxicity induced by BEA on Caco-2 cells. Pre-treatment assays showed the highest cytoprotection effect at the highest dose of BEA assayed (2.5 µM) in 29%, 31% and 35% for LUT, ZEAX and LUT + ZEAX, respectively; GBE showed a cytoprotection of 20%, for the same dose of BEA. The interaction between LUT, ZEAX and BEA studied by means of CI-isobologram method showed a synergism and antagaonism effect for all the combinations tested. These findings highlight that food containing high level of carotenoids, as goji berries, could contribute to reduce the toxicological risk that natural contaminant as BEA mycotoxin in diet can produce to the humans.


Assuntos
Depsipeptídeos/toxicidade , Luteína/farmacologia , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Zeaxantinas/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Frutas/química , Humanos , Luteína/toxicidade , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/toxicidade , Zeaxantinas/toxicidade
6.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408943

RESUMO

A multi-residue method for the determination of 107 pesticide residues in wolfberry has been developed and validated. Similar pretreatment approaches were compared, and the linearity, matrix effect, analysis limits, precision, stability and accuracy were validated, which verifies the satisfactory performance of this new method. The LODs and LOQs were in the range of 0.14-1.91 µg/kg and 0.46-6.37 µg/kg, respectively. The recovery of analytes at three fortification levels (10 µg/kg, 50 µg/kg, 100 µg/kg) ranged from 63.3-123.0%, 72.0-118.6% and 67.0-118.3%, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 15.0%. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of fifty wolfberry samples collected from supermarkets, pharmacies and farmers' markets in different cities of Shandong Province. One hundred percent of the samples analyzed included at least one pesticide, and a total of 26 pesticide residues was detected in fifty samples, which mainly were insecticides and bactericide. Several pesticides with higher detection rates were 96% for acetamiprid, 82% for imidacloprid, 54% for thiophanate-methyl, 50% for blasticidin-S, 42% for carbendazim, 42% for tebuconazole and 36% for difenoconazole in wolfberry samples. This study proved the adaptability of the developed method to the detection of multiple pesticide residues in wolfberry and provided basis for the research on the risks to wolfberry health.


Assuntos
Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Lycium/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/isolamento & purificação , Benzimidazóis/isolamento & purificação , Carbamatos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Humanos , Neonicotinoides/isolamento & purificação , Nitrocompostos/isolamento & purificação , Nucleosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos de Praguicidas/classificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Tiofanato/isolamento & purificação , Triazóis/isolamento & purificação
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109516, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394375

RESUMO

The triclosan (TCS) is one of the most commonly detected organic pollutants in the sewage sludge. TCS could induce phytotoxicity in plants. Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic compound capable of enhancing plant growth and development. It is well documented that abiotic stress tolerance could be enhanced by exogenous application of SA. However, the regulatory mechanisms for functions of endogenous SA in plants' responses to xenobiotics stress remains unclear. Our results indicated that TCS suppressed plant growth by restricting photosynthesis, decreasing chlorophyll contents and inducing over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, SA or glutathione (GSH) application could significantly improve plant tolerance to TCS. Moreover, endogenous SA and the expression of a SA binding protein 2 (SABP2) gene were found to be elevated in tobacco under TCS treatment. The overexpression of LcSABP, a SABP2-like gene cloned from the leaves of Lycium chinense, markedly enhanced the SA content in the transgenic plants under TCS stress. The LcSABP-overexpressing plants presented higher photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content, glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) enzymes activities, GSH content and lower O2-•, H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in comparison with WT tobacco with TCS treatment. One of the GSH synthesis-related gene, NtGSHS, also showed higher expression level in the transgenic tobacco in comparison with control plants with TCS stress treatment. These results indicated that SABP2 played a positive regulatory role in plant response to TCS stress via increasing the endogenous SA levels. The increased SA content might then increase the GSH content, probably through an increase in GR activity and GSHS gene expression, thus inducing the antioxidant and xenobiotics detoxification systems, which promoted TCS stress tolerance in tobacco plants.


Assuntos
Esterases/genética , Lycium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Triclosan/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tabaco/genética
8.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(8)2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405002

RESUMO

Salt stress is a major constraint for many crops and trees. A wild species of Goji named Lycium ruthenicum is an important economic halophyte in China and has an extremely high tolerance to salinity. L. ruthenicum grows in saline soil and is known as a potash-rich species. However, its salt adaptation strategies and ion balance mechanism remains poorly understood. Potassium (K+) is one of the essential macronutrients for plant growth and development. In this study, a putative salt stress-responsive gene encoding a HAK (high-affinity K+)/KUP (K+ uptake)/KT (K+ transporter) transporter was cloned and designated as LrKUP8. This gene belongs to the cluster II group of the KT/HAK/KUP family. The expression of LrKUP8 was strongly induced under high NaCl concentrations. The OE-LrKUP8 calli grew significantly better than the vector control calli under salt stress conditions. Further estimation by ion content and micro-electrode ion flux indicated a relative weaker K+ efflux in the OE-LrKUP8 calli than in the control. Thus, a key gene involved in K+ uptake under salt condition was functionally characterized using a newly established L. ruthenicum callus transformation system. The importance of K+ regulation in L. ruthenicum under salt tolerance was highlighted.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Lycium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Potássio/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Lycium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 517, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352622

RESUMO

The dissipation and residual levels of etoxazole and pyridaben in Goji berry under open field conditions were determined by using GC-NPD (gas chromatography with nitrogen and phosphorus detector) with modified QuEChERS method. At fortification levels of 0.01, 1, and 5 mg/kg in Goji berry, it was shown that recoveries were ranged from 80.40 to 100.9% with relative standard deviation of the method (RSD) for repeatability ranged from 2.20 to 4.25%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 mg/kg. The dissipation rates of etoxazole and pyridaben were described by using first-order kinetics and its half-life, as they are 7.13 days, 5.77 days, and 5.99 days (etoxazole) and 1.02 day, 0.67 day, 1.02 day (pyridaben). The terminal residues of etoxazole and pyridaben were below the European maximum residue limit (MRL, 0.1 mg/kg) in Goji berry when measured 7 days after the final application, which suggested that the use of these insecticides was safe for humans. This study would help in providing the basic information for developing regulation to guard a safe use of etoxazole and pyridaben in Goji berry and prevent health problem from consumers.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lycium/metabolismo , Oxazóis/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Piridazinas/análise , China , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Cinética , Lycium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxazóis/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Piridazinas/metabolismo , Tibet
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1774-1780, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342701

RESUMO

To compare the polysaccharides( LBLP),total flavonoids( LBLTF) and total phenols( LBLTP) of Lycium barbarum leaves from 14 production areas from Ningxia,Qinghai and Gansu at different harvesting time. Our results showed that there were significant difference of LBLP,LBLTF and LBLTP among different production areas. The LBLP collected from Xiangride township production area,Dulan,Qinghai was as high as 15. 02%. The LBLTF collected from Dagele township production area,Geermu,Qinghai was as high as28. 63%. The LBLTP collected from Keluke township production area,Delingha,Qinghai was as high as 16. 7%. There were also significant difference of these 3 components between different harvest periods. The average LBLP in May( 10. 20%) was significantly higher than that in June( 8. 49%). However,the average LBLTF( 17. 71%) and LBLTP( 12. 77%) in June was significantly higher than that in May( 14. 15%,11. 19%). The LBLTF and LBLTP have a positive correlation with the altitude of production areas,but there was no significant association between LBLP and altitude. The LBLP,LBLTF and LBLTP in different production areas and harvesting time was significant difference,the results provide some references for furthermore development and utilization of L. barbarum leaves.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Lycium/química , Fenóis/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Análise de Variância , China , Geografia , Folhas de Planta/química , Estações do Ano
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 317, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anthocyanins, which are colored pigments, have long been used as food and pharmaceutical ingredients due to their potential health benefits, but the intermediate signals through which environmental or developmental cues regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis remains poorly understood. Fleshy fruits have become a good system for studying the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and exploring the mechanism underlying pigment metabolism is valuable for controlling fruit ripening. RESULTS: The present study revealed that ABA accumulated during Lycium fruit ripening, and this accumulation was positively correlated with the anthocyanin contents and the LbNCED1 transcript levels. The application of exogenous ABA and of the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor fluridon increased and decreased the content of anthocyanins in Lycium fruit, respectively. This is the first report to show that ABA promotes the accumulation of anthocyanins in Lycium fruits. The variations in the anthocyanin content were consistent with the variations in the expression of the genes encoding the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription factor complex or anthocyanin biosynthesis-related enzymes. Virus-induced LbNCED1 gene silencing significantly slowed fruit coloration and decreased both anthocyanin and ABA accumulation during Lycium fruit ripening. An qRT-PCR analysis showed that LbNCED1 gene silencing clearly reduced the transcript levels of both structural and regulatory genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, a model of ABA-mediated development-dependent anthocyanin biosynthesis and fruit coloration during Lycium fruit maturation was proposed. In this model, the developmental cues transcriptionally activates LbNCED1 and thus enhances accumulation of the phytohormone ABA, and the accumulated ABA stimulates transcription of the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription factor complex to upregulate the expression of structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway and thereby promoting anthocyanin production and fruit coloration. Our results provide a valuable strategy that could be used in practice to regulate the ripening and quality of fresh fruit in medicinal and edible plants by modifying the phytohormone ABA.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antocianinas/biossíntese , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycium/metabolismo , Pigmentação , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Dioxigenases/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inativação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Lycium/genética , Lycium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Food Chem ; 299: 125131, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288159

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to research the effect of yeast fermentation on the polyphenol content of Lycium ruthenicum (LR) to guide the production of bread with a lower digestibility. Liquid fermentation from 0 to 2 h significantly increased the phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin content of LR, while further liquid fermentation from 2 to 16 h had little additional effect. The addition of LR without prior liquid fermentation impaired the bread quality, while a prior liquid fermentation for at least 2 h improved the bread quality. The bread digestibility was decreased after adding LR, and it was further reduced with the extended liquid fermentation time. The results of this study indicate that adding LR with prior liquid fermentation to the dough during bread making could result in a higher quality and a lower digestibility.


Assuntos
Pão , Alimentos Fortificados , Lycium/química , Antocianinas/análise , Pão/análise , Pão/microbiologia , Digestão , Fermentação , Flavonoides/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Polifenóis/análise , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2208-2212, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359643

RESUMO

To identify the wolfberry gall mite species and their overwintering situation in different wolfberry production areas and to provide a scientific basis for their prevention and control. We investigate the phoresy overwintering situation of gall mite, and identify the species of gall mite. Our results showed that the phoretic gall mite was Aceria pallida in all the production areas. The phoresy of gall mite was a common occurrence in different production areas, and the phoresy probability was above 75%. The phoretic behavior of wolfberry gall mite occurred commonly in the other production areas. The control of this mite in different production areas should pay attention to their phoretic behavior.


Assuntos
Lycium/parasitologia , Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Animais , Ácaros/classificação
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(13): 2880-2885, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359705

RESUMO

Wolfberry has important unique medical values as well as edible and commerce values. In this paper,we analyze the characteristics and problems of international trade of wolfberry based on the customs data between 2008 and 2017. During periods of these ten years,the wolfberry was mainly exported with a small proportions of imports. The total export volume increased steadily,reached 82 182. 08 tons and 696. 622 million dollars respectively. Wolfberry came from 31 provinces/autonomous regions and exported to 105 countries and regions through 21 ports. Most of the total exports of wolfberry flew to markets of Asia and Europe,the Ningxia autonomous region was the major export province. Large amount of wolfberry exported through Tianjin port. Compared with the export volume,the import is almost negligible,mainly coming from North Korea,almost all through Changchun port,Jilin province to enter the domestic market. There is a situation of"import of domestic goods". To enhance the international competitiveness of wolf berry industry,we must rely on the fundamental research of wolfberry,speed up the standardization process,strengthen the scientific and technological innovation in wolfberry products,improve the added value and profit of wolfberry.


Assuntos
Comércio , Lycium , Ásia , China , Europa (Continente)
15.
Food Funct ; 10(6): 3671-3683, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168539

RESUMO

In the present study, the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPS) on immunoregulation and gut microbiota dysbiosis in cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced mice were investigated to elucidate whether the attenuation of immunosuppression is related to the modulation of the gut microbiota. The results showed that administration of LBPS could protect immune organs (enhancing immune organ indexes and alleviating immune organ damage), enhance the production of immune-related cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α and IFN-γ) and prevent the hepatotoxicity in CTX-induced mice. Additionally, LBPS treatment could promote the production of short-chain fatty acids and modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, increasing the relative abundances of Bacteroidaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Prevotellaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae, which were positively associated with immune traits. The present results indicated that LBPS might regulate the immune response depending on the modulation of the gut microbiota, suggesting that LBPS could be developed as special ingredients for immunoregulation in association with the modulation of the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lycium/química , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/imunologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Imunidade , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
16.
Folia Med (Plovdiv) ; 61(1): 104-112, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lycium barbarum has gained immense popularity over the past decade because of its antioxidant properties. There are many reports of observed health benefits of juice consumption, including prophylaxis in neoplastic disease and treatment of tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we isolated three fractions of Lycium barbarum fruits - total water, pectin-free and polysaccharide, and determined their antioxidant activity by ORAC and HORAC assays. We investigated the antiproliferative effects of Lycium barbarum's pectin-free and polysaccharide fraction on three different breast cell lines - MCF-10A (non-tumorigenic epithelial breast cell line), MCF-7 (breast cancer cell line, estrogen, progesterone receptors +, HER2-), and MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer cell line, triple negative), by the MTT dye reduction assay. RESULTS: The Lycium barbarum's pectin-free fraction showed concentration-dependent growth inhibition on the three cell lines, moreover, on cancer cells (MCF- 7 and MDA-MB-231) it was significantly more pronounced. The polysaccharide fraction showed negligible activity on the three cell lines, only the highest concentration (1000 µg/mL), suppressed the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. The combination of pectin-free and polysaccharide fraction on MCF-7 did not show the expected synergistic effect. CONCLUSION: We found a relative correlation between the polyphenolic content of the extracts and the observed effects. The pectin-free extract had the highest content of polyphenols with the best antioxidant and antineoplastic activity against breast cancer cells. Addition of polysaccharide to the pectin-free fraction contributes to its pharmacological activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lycium , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Lycium/química , Células MCF-7 , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
17.
Talanta ; 203: 16-22, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202321

RESUMO

The efficient extraction of natural products from biomass is deemed an essential area of interest using green technology in the pharmaceutical and biochemical industries. In recent years, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been paying broad interest as compatible, safe, and inexpensive solvents. In this study, we addressed, for the first time, to give a fruitful illustration to extract bioactive compounds from favourite Lycium barbarum L. fruits using DESs as green designer solvents, and displaying the tuneability of DESs to extract bioactive compounds from biomass efficiently. Among the studied DESs, the 1 : 2 M mixture of choline chloride and p-toluene sulfonic acid (DESs-6) with an ultra-sound assisted extraction (UAE) method was more efficient to get high extraction yields of flavonoids including myricetin (57.2 mg/g), morin (12.7 mg/g), and rutin (9.1 mg/g) in net DESs. The resulting extraction method in which 50 mg of sample powder was extracted by UAE for 1.5 h using DESs-6 was found to be a more efficient process than conventional extraction methods such as heating plus stirring. Operational conditions including the extractant to sample solid ratio, the effect of water content, the effect of temperature, recycling of DESs, and the effect of ultra-sound irradiation time were investigated. The proposed DESs based extraction procedure attained recovery for flavonoids were in the range 75.6%-96.9%. Therefore, p-toluenesulfonic acid-based DESs may have strong potential as promising materials for the green and efficient extraction of pharmaceutical compounds from other plants or fruits.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/química , Lycium/química , Benzenossulfonatos/química , Colina/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Química Verde/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solventes/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas
18.
Molecules ; 24(12)2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207958

RESUMO

The fruit of Lycium barbarum L. (FLB) has been used as medicines and functional foods for more than 2000 years in East Asia. In this study, carotenoid, phenolic, flavonoid, and polysaccharide contents as well as the antioxidant activities of FLB from 13 different regions in China from a total of 78 samples were analyzed. The results showed that total carotenoid contents ranged from 12.93 to 25.35 mg ß-carotene equivalents/g DW. Zeaxanthin dipalmitate was the predominant carotenoid (4.260-10.07 mg/g DW) in FLB. The total phenolic, total flavonoid, and total polysaccharide contents ranged from 6.899 to 8.253 mg gallic acid equivalents/g DW, 3.177 to 6.144 mg rutin equivalents/g DW, and 23.62 to 42.45 mg/g DW, respectively. Rutin content ranged from 0.1812 to 0.4391 mg/g DW, and ferulic acid content ranged from 0.0994 to 0.1726 mg/g DW. All of these FLB could be divided into two clusters with PCA analysis, and both individual carotenoids and total carotenoid contents could be used as markers for regional characterization. The phenolic components were the main substance for the antioxidant activity of FLB. Considering the functional component and antioxidant activities, FLB produced in Guyuan of Ningxia was the closest to Daodi herbs (Zhongwei of Ningxia), which is commercially available high quality FLB. The results of this study could provide guidance for comprehensive applications of FLB production in different regions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 169, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lycium ruthenicum Murray is an important economic plant in China and contains higher levels of anthocyanins in its fruits than other Lyciums. However, the genetic mechanism of anthocyanin production in this plant is unknown. RESULTS: Based on previous transcriptome analysis, LrAN2 and LbAN2, encoding MYB transcription factors, were isolated from L. ruthenicum and L. barbarum, respectively. Both genes contained two introns, encoded 257 amino acids with two-Aa difference, and carried the unabridged HTH-MYB, MYB-like DNA-binding, and SANT domains. In the phylogenetic trees, LrAN2 and LbAN2 were found to be closely related to NtAN2, which regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in tobacco. Overexpression of LrAN2 and LbAN2 induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in all tissues of tobacco. The anthocyanin content in the leaves of transgenic lines with LbAN2 was lower than LrAN2. It indicated that the function of LbAN2 was weaker than LrAN2. The AN2 transcript could be detected only in the fruits of L. ruthenicum and increased during fruit development, accompanied by anthocyanin accumulation. In natural population, the alleles LrAN2 and LrAN2 were associated strictly with L. ruthenicum and L. barbarum, respectively. Moreover, an AN2 genetic diversity study suggested that Lyciums with yellow, white, purple, and jujube red fruits were derived from L. ruthenicum. CONCLUSIONS: Two AN2 alleles, from L. ruthenicum and L. barbarum, were functional MYB transcriptor regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. The functional diversity and high expression level of LrAN2 could be the reason for high anthocyanin content in the fruit of L. ruthenicum. Lyciums with yellow, white, purple, and jujube red fruits were derived from L. ruthenicum based on AN2 sequence diversity. The results may be advantageous in identifying new varieties and breeding new cultivars.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Genes de Plantas , Lycium/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Alelos , China , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes myb , Variação Genética , Lycium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycium/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
20.
Am J Bot ; 106(5): 733-743, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042317

RESUMO

PREMISE: As Baker's law suggests, the successful colonization of oceanic islands is often associated with uniparental reproduction (self-fertility), but the high incidence of dimorphism (dioecy, gynodioecy) on islands complicates this idea. Lycium carolinianum is widespread, occurring on the North American mainland and the Hawaiian Islands. We examined Baker's ideas for mainland and island populations of L. carolinianum and examined inbreeding depression as a possible contributor to the evolution of gynodioecy on Maui. METHODS: Controlled crosses were conducted in two mainland populations and two populations in Hawaii. Treatments included self and cross pollination, unmanipulated controls, and autogamy/agamospermy. Alleles from the self-incompatibility S-RNase gene were isolated and compared between mainland and island populations. Given self-compatibility in Hawaii, we germinated seeds from self- and cross- treatments and estimated inbreeding depression using seven traits and a measure of cumulative fitness. RESULTS: Mainland populations of Lycium carolinianum are predominately self-incompatible with some polymorphism for self-fertility, whereas Hawaiian populations are self-compatible. Concordantly, S-RNase allelic diversity is reduced in Hawaii compared to the mainland. Hawaiian populations also exhibit significant inbreeding depression. CONCLUSIONS: Self-compatibility in Hawaii and individual variation in self-fertility in mainland populations suggests that a colonization filter promoting uniparental reproduction may be acting in this system. Comparison of S-RNase variation suggests a collapse of allelic diversity and heterozygosity at the S-RNase locus in Hawaii, which likely contributed to mate limitation upon arrival to the Pacific. Inbreeding depression coupled with autonomous self-fertilization may have led to the evolution of gynodioecy on Maui.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Lycium/fisiologia , Dispersão Vegetal , Hawaii , Espécies Introduzidas , Ilhas , Reprodução
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