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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3066-3075, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467697

RESUMO

Lycii Cortex, the dry root bark of Lycium barbarum(Solanaceae), is rich in chemical compositions with unique structures, such as organic acids, lipids, alkaloids, cyclopeptides and other components, and plays an important role in traditional Chinese medicine. It has the effect of cooling blood and removing steam, clearing lung and reducing fire. It is mainly used in the treatment of hot flashes due to Yin deficiency, hectic fever with night sweat, cough, hemoptysis and internal heat and diabetes. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that the crude extract or monomer of Lycii Cortex has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as hypoglycemic, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, antibacterial, and antiviral effects. In this paper, the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Cortex Lycii were reviewed in order to further clarify its effective substances, promote the development of medical undertakings, and ensure the "Healthy China" plan.


Assuntos
Lycium , China , Hipoglicemiantes , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Casca de Planta
2.
Talanta ; 234: 122687, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364486

RESUMO

Wolfberry fruit has been attracting attention for centuries in Asian countries as a traditional herbal medicine and valuable nourishing tonic. Revealing the spatial distribution changes of important endogenous molecules during plant development is of great significance for investigating the physiological roles, nutritional and potential functional values of phytochemicals in wolfberry fruit. However, their spatial distribution information during fruit development has not been extensively explored due to the lack of efficient analytical techniques. In this work, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) was performed to visualize the spatial distribution of the endogenous molecules during fruit development. From the mass spectrum imaging, the choline, betaine and citric acid were distributed evenly throughout the entire fruit at all development stages. The hexose was distributed in the endocarp and flesh tissue, while sucrose was located in the seeds. Additionally, several phenolic acids and flavonoids were accumulated in the exocarp during fruit development, which indicated that they seemingly played protective roles in wolfberry fruit growth progress against abiotic and biotic stress. From the collected data, we found that the signal intensities of citric acid were decreased, while choline, betaine, hexose and sucrose were increased with fruit development. These results indicate that MALDI-MSI may become a favorable tool for studying of the spatial distribution and effective use of endogenous molecules, which provide a simple and intuitive way for authenticity identification, classification of drug food homologous foods and further understanding the physiological roles of endogenous molecules.


Assuntos
Frutas , Lycium , Flavonoides , Lasers , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 350, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lycium Linn. (Solanaceae) is a genus of economically important plants producing fruits and leaves with high nutritional value and medicinal benefits. However, genetic analysis of this plant and molecular breeding for quality improvement are limited by the lack of sufficient molecular markers. RESULTS: In this study, two parental strains, 'Ningqi No. 1' (Lycium barbarum L.) and 'Yunnan Gouqi' (Lycium yunnanense Kuang et A.M. Lu), and 200 F1 hybrid individuals were resequenced for genetic analysis. In total, 8,507 well-selected SNPs were developed, and a high-density genetic map (NY map) was constructed with a total genetic distance of 2,122.24 cM. A consensus genetic map was established by integrating the NY map and a previously published genetic map (NC map) containing 15,240 SNPs, with a total genetic distance of 3,058.19 cM and an average map distance of 0.21 cM. The 12 pseudochromosomes of the Lycium reference genome were anchored using this consensus genetic map, with an anchoring rate of 64.3%. Moreover, weak collinearities between the consensus map and the pepper, potato, and tomato genomes were observed. Twenty-five stable QTLs were identified for leaf- and fruit-related phenotypes, including fruit weight, fruit longitude, leaf length, the fruit index, and the leaf index; these stable QTLs were mapped to four different linkage groups, with LOD scores ranging from 2.51 to 19.37 and amounts of phenotypic variance explained from 6.2% to 51.9%. Finally, 82 out of 188 predicted genes underlying stable QTLs for fruit-related traits were differentially expressed according to RNA-seq analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A chromosome-level assembly can provide a foundation for further functional genomics research for wolfberry. The genomic regions of these stably expressed QTLs could be used as targets for further fine mapping and development of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS). The present study provided valuable information on saturated SNP markers and reliable QTLs for map-based cloning of functional genes related to yield and morphological traits in Lycium spp.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Frutas/genética , Ligação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Lycium/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Sintenia/genética
4.
Se Pu ; 39(6): 659-669, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227327

RESUMO

Wolfberry fruit is very popular among consumers because it is rich in nutrients. However, it is vulnerable to diseases caused by insect pest feeding and microbial pathogen infection. Pesticide application is the main approach for controlling wolfberry disease; however, various concerns have been raised regarding chemical residues in foodstuffs and consequent environmental contamination. Matrix interference is a significant challenge in trace analysis. Chromatography, coupled with MS techniques with high sensitivity and selectivity, proved to be a powerful tool for the detection of multi-pesticide residues in complex matrices. The traditional MRM mode has been gradually replaced by the dynamic MRM (dMRM) mode, which could dynamically allocate the retention time window of each target pesticide, significantly adjust the loading cycle time of multiple compounds, and improve the analysis efficiency. The QuEChERS pretreatment method, based on dispersive solid-phase extraction, has been widely used in the detection of pesticide residues in food because it is simple and rapid. In this study, a robust and high-throughput method was established for the simultaneous determination of 118 pesticide residues in wolfberry using the modified QuEChERS method, combined with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in dMRM mode. The optimal pretreatment method was determined by comparing the recovery rates obtained with different volumes of added water (5, 10, 15, and 20 mL), different extraction solvents (acetone, n-hexane, acetonitrile, and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid), different extraction temperatures (normal temperature, -18 ℃ for 10 min and 20 min), water absorbent (anhydrous magnesium sulfate), and purification with primary secondary amine (PSA) and octadecylsilane (C18). The results showed that 5 g samples were rehydrated with 10 mL ultrapure water, extracted with 10 mL acetonitrile, frozen at -18 ℃ for 10 min, partitioned with buffer system salt package containing 4.0 g anhydrous magnesium sulfate, 1.0 g sodium chloride, 1.0 g sodium citrate, and 0.5 g disodium citrate, purified up with 800 mg MgSO4, 150 mg PSA, and 150 mg C18. Pesticides were separated on a capillary column HP-5MS UI (30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 µm), and quantified by a matrix-matched external standard method. The results showed that the 118 pesticides exhibited good linearity in the range from 20 to 640 µg/L, with correlation coefficients R2≥0.9923. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.006-28.344 µg/kg and 0.021-94.480 µg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries at four spiked levels of 0.01, 0.04, 0.10, and 0.20 mg/kg were in the range of 64.97%-126.21%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.69%-18.86% (n=6). The results of the matrix effect showed that 82% of the pesticides exhibited matrix enhancement effects, while others showed matrix inhibition effects. In addition, 9% of the pesticides showed a strong matrix effect, while others showed moderate or weak matrix effects. The matrix effects could be reduced by the matrix-matched standard curve method. The proposed method was employed for the analysis of 10 real samples purchased from local markets. The results demonstrated that pesticides were detected in all the samples, 22 pesticides were detected in total, and 3-12 pesticides were found in a single sample. Chlorpyrifos, fipronil, cypermethrin, pyridaben, and difenoconazole were detected at high detection rates. The captan content in a batch of samples was 1.4066 mg/kg. Thus, the optimized method is simple, fast, accurate, and reliable, and it is suitable for the routine detection and rapid screening of the multi-pesticide residues in wolfberry.


Assuntos
Lycium , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Lycium/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(28): 7874-7883, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251203

RESUMO

The cuticular wax of fruit is closely related to quality, storability, and pathogen susceptibility after harvest. However, little is known about the cuticular wax of goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) cultivars. In the present study, the chemical composition, crystal structures, and expression levels of associated genes of the cuticular wax of six goji cultivars were investigated. We detected 70 epicuticular wax compounds in six goji cultivars. Among them, fatty acids, alkanes, and primary alcohols were the major components of the cuticular wax of goji berries, which were related to the formation of irregular lamellar crystal structures. The terpenoid compounds in the cuticular wax of goji berries were highly resistant to Alternaria rot. Moreover, the CER1, CER6, LACS1, MAH1, LTP4, ABC11, MYB96, and WIN1 genes in goji berries might be closely related to wax synthesis. These results provide valuable information for breeding and screening goji cultivars suitable for postharvest storage.


Assuntos
Lycium , Frutas/genética , Expressão Gênica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Ceras
6.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(2): 291-299, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184513

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Due to the fact that lymphocytes NK (natural killer cells) are the first line of defence of the body against cancer, one of the goals of modern immunotherapy is the enhancement of their natural activities for the effective recognition, detection, and elimination of cancer cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of selected phytochemicals (curcumin and resveratrol) and plant extracts (chlorella and goji berries) on NK cells viability and proliferation, as well as cytotoxic activity against colon cancer - one of the most common cancer worldwide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The impact of phytochemicals, viability and proliferation of plant extracts on NK cells was examined in NK-92 cells using both LDH and MTT assays. The immunomodulatory properties of selected compounds were tested against human colon cancer cell line LS180 using the MTT test. RESULTS: Extracts of chlorella and goji berries significantly increased NK cell proliferation, while curcumin and resveratrol did not affect this process. Curcumin, as well as extracts of chlorella and goji berries, did not impact NK viability, while resveratrol significantly increased it. LDH test revealed the cytotoxic effect of chlorella extract and curcumin in NK-92 cell cultures. On the contrary, goji berries extract significantly decreased LDH level, while resveratrol did not affect the integrity of NK cell membranes. Studies conducted in co-cultures NK cells, also directly eliminated colon cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Performed studies revealed immunomodulatory properties of goji berries extract, which improved viability and proliferation of NK cells, and above all, significantly increased their ability to recognize and eliminate colon cancer cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/fisiopatologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycium/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorella/química , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia
7.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2684-2699, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096062

RESUMO

Nowadays, consumers have an increasing demand for health products. In this study, an oral liquid was developed using a compound extract consisting of three herbal extracts (Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Lycium barbarum, and Puerariae lobatae Radix) because the compound extract (a combination of all three extracts) was superior to every single extract in promoting the phagocytic capacity of RAW264.7 macrophages and the proliferation ability of GES-1 cells. In this oral liquid, the dosage of the stabilizer and the sweetener was selected using a stability test and sensory quality evaluation. When 0.30% (m/v) xanthan gum and 0.20% (m/v) mogroside were added, the oral liquid had not only a good stability but also the highest sensory score for overall acceptability. The chemical composition analysis showed that the oral liquid had various functional ingredients including polysaccharides, phenols, alkaloids, and so forth. The immune-enhancing efficacy of the oral liquid was evaluated in BALB/c mice by measuring the levels of different immune indicators. The results indicated that the oral liquid obviously enhanced nonspecific and specific immunity. A rat model with ethanol-induced gastric ulcer was used to examine the protective effect of the oral liquid on the gastric mucosa and to explore the related mechanisms. The oral administration of the oral liquid for days significantly prevented the formation of gastric ulcer. This study provided an effective oral liquid that could enhance immunity and protect gastric mucosa.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/toxicidade , Etanol/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente
8.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 671, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083720

RESUMO

Wolfberry Lycium, an economically important genus of the Solanaceae family, contains approximately 80 species and shows a fragmented distribution pattern among the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Although several herbaceous species of Solanaceae have been subjected to genome sequencing, thus far, no genome sequences of woody representatives have been available. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 13 perennial woody species of Lycium, with a focus on Lycium barbarum. Integration with other genomes provides clear evidence supporting a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event shared by all hitherto sequenced solanaceous plants, which occurred shortly after the divergence of Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae. We identified new gene families and gene family expansions and contractions that first appeared in Solanaceae. Based on the identification of self-incompatibility related-gene families, we inferred that hybridization hotspots are enriched for genes that might be functioning in gametophytic self-incompatibility pathways in wolfberry. Extremely low expression of LOCULE NUBER (LC) and COLORLESS NON-RIPENING (CNR) orthologous genes during Lycium fruit development and ripening processes suggests functional diversification of these two genes between Lycium and tomato. The existence of additional flowering locus C-like MADS-box genes might correlate with the perennial flowering cycle of Lycium. Differential gene expression involved in the lignin biosynthetic pathway between Lycium and tomato likely illustrates woody and herbaceous differentiation. We also provide evidence that Lycium migrated from Africa into Asia, and subsequently from Asia into North America. Our results provide functional insights into Solanaceae origins, evolution and diversification.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Lycium/genética , Solanaceae/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , África , Ásia , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Geografia , Lycium/classificação , Lycium/metabolismo , América do Norte , Filogenia , Poliploidia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Solanaceae/classificação , Solanaceae/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Food Funct ; 12(14): 6513-6525, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086026

RESUMO

The phytochemical profiles, antioxidant activity and antiproliferative mechanism of two goji berry varieties were investigated in the present study. In contrast to Lycium barbarum L. (LB), Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LRM) showed stronger antioxidant activity evaluated by ORAC, PSC and CAA assays, which might be attributed to its higher total phenolics and total flavonoids. However, LB contains greater contents of VE and carotenoids compared to LRM, which may endow LB with other unique functions instead of antioxidant activity. Additionally, high dose LRM showed a stronger capability in terms of cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis induction of MDA cells with increments of 17.85% cells blocked at the G1 phase and 50.49% cells achieving early apoptosis compared with the control group. Although supplementation with LB increased the number of cells in the G1 phase by 10%, its effect on inducing cell apoptosis was not ideal. Furthermore, both LRM and LB activated the proliferation-related p53 signaling pathway including p53, p21, CDK4, Cyclin E, Bax and Caspase3, but LB failed to downregulate bcl-2 and CDK2 levels, indicating the weaker antiproliferative effect of LB. The present findings indicated LRM and LB as potential candidates for managing the proliferation of cancer cells and improving human health.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(1): 80-89, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum), a rich source of carotenoids and bioactive polysaccharides, may serve as a potential dietary strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management although limited studies examined its effects as whole fruits. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of wolfberry consumption as part of a healthy dietary pattern on vascular health-related outcomes and classical CVD risk factors in middle-aged and older adults in Singapore. METHODS: This is a 16-week, parallel design, randomized controlled trial. All participants (n = 40) received dietary counselling to follow healthy dietary pattern recommendations with the wolfberry group given additional instructions to cook and consume 15 g/d whole, dried wolfberry with their main meals. Biomarkers of vascular function (flow-mediated dilation, plasma total nitrate/nitrite, endothelin-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1), vascular structure (carotid intima-media thickness) and vascular regeneration (endothelial progenitor cell count, plasma angiopoietin 1 and angiopoietin 2), were assessed at baseline and postintervention. Serum lipid-lipoproteins and blood pressure were evaluated every 4 weeks. RESULTS: All participants showed an improved compliance toward the healthy dietary pattern. This was coupled with marked rises in total nitrate/nitrite concentrations (mean change wolfberry: 3.92 ± 1.73 nmol/mL; control: 5.01 ± 2.55 nmol/L) and reductions in endothelin-1 concentrations (wolfberry: -0.19 ± 0.06 pg/mL; control: -0.15 ± 0.08 pg/mL). Compared with the control which depicted no changes from baseline, the wolfberry group had a significantly higher HDL cholesterol (0.08 ± 0.04 mmol/L), as well as lower Framingham predicted long-term CVD risk (-0.8 ± 0.5%) and vascular age (-1.9 ± 1.0 y) postintervention. No differences were observed in the other vascular health-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged and older adults, adherence to a healthy dietary pattern improves vascular tone. Incorporating wolfberry to the diet further improves blood lipid-lipoprotein profile and may lower long-term CVD risk. This study was registered at clinicatrials.gov as NCT03535844.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Saudável , Lycium , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 139: 111654, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957563

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that Lycium barbarum (L. barbarum) has a radioprotective function, although more in-depth investigation is still required. We investigated the radioprotective efficacy of extract of the fruits of L. barbarum (LBE) and its radioprotective mechanisms. Mice were exposed to 8.5 Gy, 5.5 Gy, or 6.0 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and the survival rate, lymphocyte percentage, amount of cytokines, and viability of the irradiated cells, as well as the gut microbiome and fecal metabolomics were studied. LBE enhanced the survival of the mice exposed to 8.5 Gy γ-ray TBI or 5.5 Gy X-ray TBI. After 6.0 Gy γ-ray TBI, LBE exhibited good immunomodulatory properties, mainly characterized by the accelerated recovery of lymphocyte percentages, and the enhanced expression of immune-related cytokines. LBE reconstituted the gut microbiota of irradiated mice, increased the relative abundance of potentially beneficial genera (e.g., Turicibacter, Akkermansia), and decreased the relative abundance of potentially harmful bacterial genera (e.g., Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group). Beneficial regulatory effects of LBE on the host metabolites were also noted, and the major upregulated metabolites induced by LBE, such as Tetrahydrofolic acid and N-ornithyl-L-taurine, were positively correlated with the immune factor interleukin (IL)-6. In vitro, LBE also increased the vitality of rat small intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) after 4.0 Gy γ-ray irradiation and promoted the growth of Akkermansia muciniphila. These results confirmed a radioprotective function of LBE and indicated that the radioprotective mechanism may be due to immunomodulation and the synergistically modulating effect on the gut microbiota and related metabolites.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycium/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/imunologia , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Protetores contra Radiação/uso terapêutico , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/metabolismo , Ratos , Análise de Sobrevida , Irradiação Corporal Total
12.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110297, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053563

RESUMO

Goji berry fruit is considered a healthy food. However, studies on its effects on aging and safety are rare. This study is the first to evaluate the effects of goji berry juice (GBJ) on oxidative stress, metabolic markers, and lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. GBJ caused toxicity, reduced the lifespan of C. elegans by 50%, and increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by 45-50% at all tested concentrations (1-20 mg/µL) of GBJ. Moreover, the highest concentration of GBJ increased lipid peroxidation by 80% and altered the antioxidant enzymes. These effects could be attributed to a pro-oxidant effect induced by GBJ polyphenols and carotenoids. Moreover, GBJ increased lipofuscin, glucose levels, number of apoptotic bodies, and lipase activity. The use of mutant strains demonstrated that these effects observed in the worms treated with GBJ were not associated with the Daf-16/FOXO or SKN-1 pathways. Our findings revealed that GBJ (mainly the highest concentration) exerted toxic effects and promoted premature aging in C. elegans. Therefore, its consumption should be carefully considered until further studies in mammals are conducted.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans , Lycium , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans , Longevidade
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(8): 2084-2093, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982524

RESUMO

This study is to clarify the composition and content differences of water-soluble nutrients in Lycium barbarum leaves(LBLs) from different areas. The total polysaccharides, free monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, nucleosides and amino acids in 35 batches of LBLs were analyzed with use of spectrophotometry, HPLC-ELSD and UPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that LBLs contained abundant polysaccharides, fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose, with an average contents of 39.07, 12.69, 8.99, 17.44, 8.32 mg·g~(-1), respectively. Besides, eight nucleosides and twelve amino acids were detected in LBLs, and their average total contents were 54.95, 336.9 µg·g~(-1). Principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discrimination analysis(PLS-DA) of carbohydrate, nucleoside and amino acid showed that the water-soluble nutrients of the samples from Qinghai Province were significantly different from those from other areas mainly in asparagine, proline, glutamine, sucrose, adenine and guanosine. In this study, the compositions and contents of water-soluble nutrients in LBLs were preliminarily clarified, which provided basis for further development and utilization of LBLs resoures.


Assuntos
Lycium , Cromatografia Líquida , Nutrientes , Folhas de Planta , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Água
14.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 201: 114119, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989994

RESUMO

Lycium fruits have a high content of phenolics as bioactive constituents with various pharmacological effects, but there is a lack of comparative analysis and chemical profiling of phenolics in Lycium fruit varieties. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE) combined with chemometrics was developed to characterize the phenolics in fruits from four Lycium species, including Lycium barbarum L. (LBL), L. chinense Mill. (LCM), L. barbarum var. auranticarpum (LBA) and L. ruthenicun Murr. (LRM). 63 phenolics were identified according to reported tandem mass fragmentation patterns and the UNIFI scientific informatics platform. Nine phenolics (5, 18, 20, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 60) were common and predominant components among four types of Lycium fruit. The partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were analyzed on the basis of a matrix created from 653 sets of data, and 20 Lycium fruits were classified into four groups. Further analysis identified that phenolics profiles were characteristic for each Lycium species, and five markers (13, 29, 31, 35, 99) could be utilized for fruit identification. Subsequently, inhibitory activity against 5α-reductase of phenolic extracts of Lycium fruits showed that LBL extract was the relative better effective, followed by LCM, whereas LBA and LRM showed no activity, which might be associated with the high contents of marker compounds (29, 31, 35, 43, 71, 99) in LBL. These findings will provide guidance for the development of Lycium phenolics with beneficial properties for the prevention and treatment of Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).


Assuntos
Lycium , Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais
15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 163: 166-177, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848929

RESUMO

Knowledge about Solanaceae species naturally adapted to salinity is scarce, despite the fact that a considerable number of Solanaceae has been reported growing in saline environments. Lycium humile Phil. inhabits extreme saline soils in the Altiplano-Puna region (Central Andes, South America) and represents a promising experimental model to study salt tolerance in Solanaceae plants. Seeds, leaves and roots were collected from a saline environment (Salar del Diablo, Argentina). Seeds were scarified and 30 days after germination salt treatments were applied by adding NaCl salt pulses (up to 750 or 1000 mM). Different growth parameters were evaluated, and leaf spectral reflectance, endogenous phytohormone levels, antioxidant capacity, proline and elemental content, and morpho-anatomical characteristics in L. humile under salinity were analyzed both in controlled and natural conditions. The multiple salt tolerance mechanisms found in this species are mainly the accumulation of the phytohormone abscisic acid, the increase of the antioxidant capacity and proline content, together with the development of a large leaf water-storage parenchyma that allows Na+ accumulation and an efficient osmotic adjustment. Lycium humile is probably one of the most salt-tolerant Solanaceae species in the world, and, in controlled conditions, can effectively grow at high NaCl concentrations (at least, up to 750 mM NaCl) but also, in the absence of salts in the medium. Therefore, we propose that natural distribution of L. humile is more related to water availability, as a limiting factor of growth in Altiplano-Puna saline habitats, than to high salt concentrations in the soils.


Assuntos
Lycium , Solanaceae , Argentina , Salinidade , Tolerância ao Sal , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922536

RESUMO

Salt stress seriously affects yield and quality of crops. The fruit of Lycium barbarum (LBF) is extensively used as functional food due to its rich nutrient components. It remains unclear how salt stress influences the quality of LBF. In this study, we identified 71 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) and 1396 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among ripe LBF with and without 300 mM of NaCl treatment. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that the metabolomic changes caused by salt stress were strongly related to oxidoreductases; hydrolases; and modifying enzymes, in particular, acyltransferases, methyltransferases and glycosyltransferases. Further analysis revealed that salt stress facilitated flavonoid glycosylation and carotenoid esterification by boosting the expression of structural genes in the biosynthetic pathways. These results suggested that salt stress prompts the modification of flavonoids and carotenoids to alleviate ROS damage, which in turn improves the quality of LBF. Our results lay a solid foundation for uncovering the underlying molecular mechanism of salt stress orchestrating LBF quality, and the candidate genes identified will be a valuable gene resource for genetic improvement of L. barbarum.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycium/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Salino , Transcriptoma , Vias Biossintéticas , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Lycium/genética , Lycium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
17.
J Food Sci ; 86(5): 1766-1777, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884641

RESUMO

Herein, we report the effect of flavonoids from Lycium barbarum leaves (LBLF) on myofibrillar proteins (MP) in minced mutton during chilled storage (4 ± 1 ℃). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the total flavonoid content in LBLF was 322.0 mg/g, of which the rutin content was 297.6 mg/g. The effect of 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% LBLF on the structure and thermodynamic properties of MP in minced mutton was studied systematically. Tyrosine and tryptophan of MP samples treated with LBLF were converted from an exposed state to an embedded state. The interaction between LBLF and MP quenched the internal fluorescence, and improved the thermal stability of MP. The addition of LBLF significantly reduced the carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents of MP (p < 0.05), and decreased the surface hydrophobicity of MP in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that LBLF can combine with free radicals produced by protein oxidation, block the free radical oxidation chain reaction, and inhibit the oxidation of MP. Therefore, LBLF may have great potential as a natural antioxidant in meats and meat products during chilled storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Lycium barbarum is widely distributed in China, especially in Qinghai and Ningxia. The results of this study suggest that flavonoids extracted from L. barbarum leaves may be an effective natural antioxidant for the preservation of meats and meat products.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Lycium/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Proteínas Musculares/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ovinos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , China , Temperatura Baixa , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Proteínas Musculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Miofibrilas/química , Oxirredução , Carne Vermelha/análise , Rutina/análise
18.
Am J Bot ; 108(4): 694-710, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811320

RESUMO

PREMISE: Long-distance dispersal has been important in explaining the present distributions of many plant species. Despite being infrequent, such dispersal events have considerable evolutionary consequences, because bottlenecks during colonization can result in reduced genetic diversity. We examined the phylogeographic history of Lycium carolinianum, a widespread taxon that ranges from southeastern North America to several Pacific islands, with intraspecific diversity in sexual and mating systems. METHODS: We used Bayesian, likelihood, and coalescent approaches with nuclear and plastid sequence data and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms to reconstruct the dispersal history of this species. We also compared patterns of genetic variation in mainland and island populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms and allelic diversity at the S-RNase mating system gene. RESULTS: Lycium carolinianum is monophyletic and dispersed once from the North American mainland, colonizing the Pacific islands ca. 40,100 years ago. This dispersal was accompanied by a loss of genetic diversity in SNPs and the S-RNase locus due to a colonization bottleneck and the loss of self-incompatibility. Additionally, we documented at least two independent transitions to gynodioecy: once following the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands and loss of self-incompatibility, and a second time associated with polyploidy in the Yucatán region of Mexico. CONCLUSIONS: Long-distance dispersal via fleshy, bird dispersed fruits best explains the unusually widespread distribution of L. carolinianum. The collapse of diversity at the S-RNase locus in island populations suggests that self-fertilization may have facilitated the subsequent colonization of Pacific islands following a single dispersal from mainland North America.


Assuntos
Lycium , Teorema de Bayes , Hawaii , Ilhas , Lycium/genética , México , América do Norte , Ilhas do Pacífico , Filogenia
19.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804230

RESUMO

The fruit of Lycium barbarum L. (goji berry) is used as traditional Chinese medicine, and has the functions of immune regulation, anti-tumor, neuroprotection, anti-diabetes, and anti-fatigue. One of the main bioactive components is L. barbarum polysaccharide (LBP). Nowadays, LBP is widely used in the health market, and it is extracted from the fruit of L. barbarum. The planting of L. barbarum needs large amounts of fields, and it takes one year to harvest the goji berry. The efficiency of natural LBP production is low, and the LBP quality is not the same at different places. Goji berry-derived LBP cannot satisfy the growing market demands. Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used for the biosynthesis of some plant natural products. Recovery of LBP biosynthetic pathway in L. barbarum and expression of them in engineered S. cerevisiae might lead to the yeast LBP production. However, information on LBP biosynthetic pathways and the related key enzymes of L. barbarum is still limited. In this review, we summarized current studies about LBP biosynthetic pathway and proposed the strategies to recover key enzymes for LBP biosynthesis. Moreover, the potential application of synthetic biology strategies to produce LBP using engineered S. cerevisiae was discussed.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Lycium/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas/fisiologia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Biologia Sintética/métodos
20.
J Chromatogr A ; 1645: 462026, 2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839576

RESUMO

Carotenoids are one of the main active components in Lycium barbarum L. fruit, which has a wide range of excellent biological activities. In this study, a novel second-order overlapping repeated injection method with elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography was developed for isolation and preparation of carotenoids from L. barbarum fruits. And three carotenoids were successfully separated using the solvent system composed of n-hexane/dichloromethane/acetonitrile (10:3.5:6.5, v/v) with the injection before equilibrium method. The entire separation process consisted of three complete elution-extrusion cycles with a total of 9 injections (80 mg crude extract per injection). Finally, three target compounds including zeaxanthin (28.5 mg), zeaxanthin monopalmitate (45.8 mg), and zeaxanthin dipalmitate (161.5 mg) with average purities of 87.9%, 88.9%, and 91.2% were successfully obtained in one complete second-order overlapping repeated elution-extrusion CCC process within 651 min. The result indicated that this second-order overlapping repeated method is efficient for large-scale preparation of carotenoids based on its advantages of large amount of sample injection and low solvent consumption. So this novel second-order overlapping repeated elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography separation method has enormous potential for largely preparative separation of natural bioactive compounds, such as carotenoids, which have good biological activity but possess unstable or other special chemical structure. It is worth noting that this overlapping repeated injections method requires target compounds to meet the requirements of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography, and the normal implementation of this method is closely related to the sufficient interval of elution time between the target compounds.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Frutas/química , Lycium/química
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