Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.782
Filtrar
1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10823-10831, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487159

RESUMO

The development of technology to improve the mineralization of organic fertilizer and to enhance crop production is essential to achieve the transition from traditional farming to eco-friendly organic farming. Nanobubble oxygation (NB) was employed for comparison with traditional pump-aerated oxygation (AW) and a control group through both soil incubation and soil column experiments. Plant-available N and P contents in the NB treatment group were higher than those in the AW and control groups. Enzymatic activities including ß-1,4-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phosphatase, α-1,4-glucosidase, ß-1,4-xylosidase, peroxidase, and phenol oxidase were significantly higher in both oxygation groups compared with the control. The soil microbial biomass, activity, and diversity were also significantly improved due to the oxygation treatment. Additionally, the microbial metabolic functions were shifted in both oxygation treatments compared with the control group. The final tomato yield increase from the NB treatment group was 23%, and that from the AW treatment was 17%, compared with the control.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Oxigênio/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
2.
Microbiol Res ; 229: 126331, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521945

RESUMO

The uses of halotolerant bacteria isolated from naturally saline habitats have the potential to be useful crop protection agents for plants in stressful conditions. These beneficial microbes generate several plant growth regulators and bioactive molecules, which enhance plant protection from adversities, such as plant pathogens, salts and metals stresses. In this study, 15 halotolerant bacterial strains endowed with important antimicrobial activities were isolated from Sfax solar saltern (Tunisia). All of these strains were characterized by biochemical and molecular tools aiming to investigate their in-vitro and in-vivo antifungal potentialities, plant growth promotion capabilities and metal tolerance abilities under saline stress condition. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the isolated strains were affiliated to different phylum and three species were described for the first time as plant growth promoting strains (Idiomarina zobelli FMH6v, Nesterenkonia halotolerans FMH10 and Halomonas janggokensis FMH54). The tested strains exhibited several potentialities: to tolerate high salt and heavy metal concentrations, to produce biosurfactants, exopolysaccharides and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, to form biofilms and to liberate plant promoting substances. Eight strains were able to protect tomatoes fruits from the proliferation of the fungal disease caused by Botrytis cinerea and six strains improved plant vigor indexes. Principal component analysis showed an important correlation between in-vitro and in-vivo potentialities and two strains Bacillus velezensis FMH2 and Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii FMH45 were statistically considered as the most effective strains in protecting plants from fungal pathogens attack and promoting the growth of tomatoes seedlings under saline and multi heavy-metals stress conditions.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Botrytis/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Salinidade , Água do Mar/química , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Tunísia
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10563-10576, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487171

RESUMO

Sulfur (S) metabolism plays a vital role in Cd detoxification, but the collaboration between melatonin biosynthesis and S metabolism under Cd stress remains unaddressed. Using exogenous melatonin, melatonin-deficient tomato plants with a silenced caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, and COMT-overexpressing plants with cosuppression of sulfate transporter (SUT)1 and SUT2 genes, we found that melatonin deficiency decreased S accumulation and aggravated Cd phytotoxicity, whereas exogenous melatonin or overexpression of COMT increased S uptake and assimilation, resulting in an improved plant growth and Cd tolerance. Melatonin deficiency promoted Cd translocation from root to shoot, but COMT overexpression caused the opposite effect. COMT overexpression failed to compensate the functional hierarchy of S when its uptake was inhibited by cosilencing of transporter SUT1 and SUT2. Our study provides genetic evidence that melatonin-mediated tolerance to Cd is closely associated with the efficient regulation of S metabolism, redox homeostasis, and Cd translocation in tomato plants.


Assuntos
Cádmio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Enxofre/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/genética , Proteína O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo
4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3126-3136, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529888

RESUMO

To understand the effects of different irrigation amounts on soil CO2, N2O, and CH4 emission characteristics and tomato yield, and further put forward effective reduction measures, we carried out an experiment with three irrigation levels: full irrigation (1.0W, W1.0; W meant irrigation amount needed to provide the adequate water), 20% deficit irrigation (0.8W, W0.8) and 40% deficit irrigation (0.6W, W0.6). We used static closed chamber and gas chromatography method to measure greenhouse gas emission in two consecutive greenhouse tomato rotation cycles from April to December, 2017. The results showed that cumulative soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions increased with increasing irrigation amounts in the two growing seasons (W1.0>W0.8>W0.6), and significant difference of N2O between W0.6 and W1.0 was observed, while other treatment effects on soil gas emissions were not obvious. Compared to W1.0, cumulative soil CO2 emissions were decreased by 12.2% and 8.3%, cumulative soil N2O emissions were decreased by 19.1% and 8.0%, and cumulative soil CH4 emissions were reduced by 11.0% and 6.2% for W0.6 and W0.8, respectively. Tomato yield and global warming potential of soil N2O and CH4 emissions (GWP) increased as irrigation amount increasing. Compared with W1.0, W0.6 significantly decreased tomato yield by 17.0% and GWP by 22.9%, while the difference between the effects of W0.8 and W1.0 on these two parameters was not significant. Global warming potential per tomato yield presented an increase then a decrease as irrigation amount increasing (W0.8>W1.0>W0.6), but without stanificance. Irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) showed a decrease with increasing irrigation amount. Compared with W1.0, IWUE under W0.6 and W0.8 was increased by 38.3% and 9.4%, respectively. Soil CO2 flux was nega-tively and exponentially correlated with soil moisture. The dependence of soil CH4 flux on soil moisture showed a significantly positive correlation. An exponential negative correlation was observed between the soil N2O ux and soil temperature when soil temperature was below or above 18 ℃. Irrigation increased tomato yield and soil greenhouse gas emissions, but decreased IWUE. Therefore, W0.8 was the best mode of irrigation management when synthetically considering tomato yield, IWUE, and greenhouse effect.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Solo , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise
5.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126302, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442862

RESUMO

Endophytic bacteria isolated from cactus were characterized and assessed for their capability to induce drought tolerance and growth promotion in tomato. A total of 191-bacteria representing 13-genera and 18-species were isolated from wild cactus, Euphorbia trigonas. Bacillus (58), Lysinibacillus (36), Enterobacter (29), Stenotrophomonas (18), Lelliottia (12) and Pseudomonas (12) were the most represented genera. 16S rDNA sequence (>1400-bp) comparison placed the bacterial isolates with Bacillus xiamenensis; Bacillus megaterium; Bacillus cereus; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus velezensis; Brevibacillus brevis; Lysinibacillus fusiformis; Enterobacter cloacae; Lelliottia nimipressuralis; Proteus penneri; Sphingobacterium multivorum; Klebsiella pneumoniae; Pseudomonas putida; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; Citrobacter freundii; Chryseobacterium indologenes and Paracoccus sp. Bacillus xiamenensis was identified for the first time as plant endophyte. Upon bacterization, the endophytes triggered germination and growth promotion in tomato as indicated by 118 % and 52 % more root-biomass under drought-free and drought-induced conditions, respectively. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CBa_RA37 and B. megaterium RR10 displayed broad spectrum endophytism in tomato. Bacterization of tomato with cactus endophyte showed altered oxidative status, stomatal and photosystem II functioning, internal leaf temperature and relative water content suggestive of physiological de-stressing from moisture stress. Activity of oxidative stress enzymes such as guaiacol peroxidase and catalase was also indicative of endophyte assisted de-stressing of tomato. Re-irrigation on 20-days of drought infliction showed 86.9% recovery of B. amyloliquefaciens CBa_RA37 primed tomato when non-primed plantlets succumbed. The cactus endophytic bacterial strain B. amyloliquefaciens CBa_RA37 showed promise for low-cost, efficient and environmentally friendly bio-inoculant technology to mitigate drought in arid zones of Asian and African continents.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/microbiologia , Secas , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Aclimatação , Bacillus/classificação , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Bacillus/fisiologia , Biomassa , Camarões , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Clima Desértico , Endófitos/genética , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , Raízes de Plantas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rifamicinas/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência , Microbiologia do Solo , Estresse Fisiológico
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 331, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salt stress is one of the environmental factors that greatly limits crop production worldwide because high salt concentrations in the soil affect morphological responses and physiological and metabolic processes, including root morphology and photosynthetic characteristics. Soil aeration has been reported to accelerate the growth of plants and increase crop yield. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 3 NaCl salinity levels (28, 74 and 120 mM) and 3 aeration volume levels (2.3, 4.6 and 7.0 L/pot) versus non-aeration and salinity treatments on the root morphology, photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content of potted tomato plants. RESULTS: The results showed that both aeration volume and salinity level affected the root parameters, photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content of potted tomato plants. The total length, surface area and volume of roots increased with the increase in aeration volume under each NaCl stress level. The effect was more marked in the fine roots (especially in ≤1 mm diameter roots). Under each NaCl stress level, the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content of tomato significantly increased in response to the aeration treatments. The net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll a and t content increased by 39.6, 26.9, and 17.9%, respectively, at 7.0 L/pot aeration volume compared with no aeration in the 28 mM NaCl treatment. We also found that aeration could reduce the death rate of potted tomato plants under high salinity stress conditions (120 mM NaCl). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the negative effect of NaCl stress can be offset by soil aeration. Soil aeration can promote root growth and increase the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content, thus promoting plant growth and reducing the plant death rate under NaCl stress conditions.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Clorofila/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/anatomia & histologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Salinidade , Estresse Salino , Solo
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226007

RESUMO

In several studies focused on the residues of cyazofamid and its main metabolite 4-chloro-5-p-tolylimidazole-2-carbonitrile (CCIM) on tomato where it is widely used, CCIM has been shown to have higher acute toxicity than cyazofamid, and this is crucial to evaluate the potential food risk of cyazofamid and CCIM. In this study, the dissipation of cyazofamid and CCIM during tomato growth and tomato paste making process were assessed. The targeted compounds cyazofamid and CCIM were determined by LC-MS/MS. The results indicated that the half-life of cyazofamid was 4.6 days after applying in the field, and the maximum value of CCIM was 0.08 mg/kg at 3 days after the last application of cyazofamid, then gradually decreased. In addition, the concentrations of cyazofamid and CCIM were affected by different processing steps including washing, peeling, homogenisation, simmering, and sterilisation. Results showed that the mean losses of cyazofamid and CCIM were 92.3% and 75.2% after washing and peeling. The Processing Factor (PF) values were all less than 1. Especially for peeling, the PFs of cyazofamid and CCIM were 0.12 and 0.04, respectively.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Imidazóis/análise , Imidazóis/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrilos/análise , Sulfonamidas/análise , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Nitrilos/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 248-254, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200197

RESUMO

Although the North Delta region in Egypt is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, it suffers from a severe shortage of fresh water needed to irrigate crops. So usually farmers resort to the use of low-quality water, such as agricultural drainage water, which could pose a threat to the quality of crops and then human health. Two field experiments were carried out during two consecutive summer seasons of 2014 and 2015 aimed at delivering more information about the pros and cons of alternative irrigation for tomato using fresh and agricultural drainage water with or without applying of magnetic field. The twelve surface irrigations, which tomato needs during its whole growing season, were applied alternatively between fresh and agricultural drainage water, respectively, at the following percentages (100 + 0), (75 + 25), (50 + 50), (25 + 75) and (0 + 100). Magnetic field was applied using iron fillings at a rate of 150 kg ha-1. The results revealed that growth parameters, early, total and relative yield, marketable yield and total chlorophyll and NPK content of leaves were gradually decreased with increasing the irrigation using agricultural drainage water. However, irrigating tomato by 100% fresh water had the highest values, while using of 100% agricultural drainage water displayed the lowest values. Contrarily, vitamin C, total soluble solids (TSS) and fruit firmness where at their highest values when tomato irrigated by 100% of agricultural drainage water. Applying of magnetic field not only enhances the growth, yield and quality of tomato under irrigation using agricultural water but also under fresh water. These results are of importance in areas where the use of agricultural drainage water irrigating crops is inevitable for enhancing yield and its quality and consequently ensuring food safety.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Campos Magnéticos , Agricultura , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Egito , Água Doce , Frutas , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Água
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 265, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chloroplast biogenesis, a complex process in higher plants, is the key to photoautotrophic growth in plants. White virescent (wv) mutants have been used to unfold the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of chloroplast development and chloroplast gene expression in plants. However, most of genes controlling white virescent phenotype still remain unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we identified a temperature- and light intensity-sensitive mutant, named as wv. The content of chlorophyll was dramatically decreased in the immature leaves of wv mutant under the conditions of low temperature and high-light intensity. TEM observation showed that the chloroplasts in the young leaves of wv mutant lacked an organized thylakoid membrane, whereas crescent-shaped chloroplasts with well-developed stromal and stacked grana thylakoids in the mature leaves were developed. Immunoblot analyses suggested that proteins of photosynthetic complexes were decreased substantially in wv mutants. Based on map-based cloning and transgenic analysis, we determined that the wv phenotype was caused by single base mutation in the first intron of WV gene, which encoded a thioredoxin protein with 365 amino acids. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of WV gene was significantly down-regulated in wv mutant. In addition, knockdown of WV gene through RNAi also resulted in white virescent young leaves, suggesting that the mutation possibly blocks the differentiation of chloroplasts through inhibiting the expression of WV gene. Furthermore, the expression of WV peaked in apical buds and gradually decreased along with the developmental stage, which was consistent with the wv mutant phenotype. Expression analysis of chloroplast-encoded genes by qRT-PCR showed that the wv mutation affected the expression pattern of chloroplast-encoded PEP dependent genes. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that wv mutant was sensitive to low temperature and light intensity. WV gene was essential for chloroplast differentiation. A single base mutation in the first intron resulted in down-regulation of WV gene expression, which inhibited the expression of chloroplast-encoded genes, thereby blocking chloroplast formation and chlorophyll synthesis.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Temperatura Baixa , Genes de Plantas , Luz , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos da radiação , Mutação , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Tiorredoxinas/fisiologia
10.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(7): 1124-1136, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216607

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that cause reduction of plant growth and crop productivity. It has been reported that plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) could confer abiotic stress tolerance to plants. In a previous study, we screened bacterial strains capable of enhancing plant health under abiotic stresses and identified these strains based on 16s rRNA sequencing analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of two selected strains, Bacillus aryabhattai H19-1 and B. mesonae H20-5, on responses of tomato plants against salinity stress. As a result, they alleviated decrease in plant growth and chlorophyll content; only strain H19-1 increased carotenoid content compared to that in untreated plants under salinity stress. Strains H19-1 and H20-5 significantly decreased electrolyte leakage, whereas they increased Ca2+ content compared to that in the untreated control. Our results also indicated that H20-5-treated plants accumulated significantly higher levels of proline, abscisic acid (ABA), and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to untreated and H19-1-treated plants during salinity stress. Moreover, strain H20-5 upregulated 9-cisepoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and abscisic acid-response element-binding proteins 1 (AREB1) genes, otherwise strain H19-1 downregulated AREB1 in tomato plants after the salinity challenge. These findings demonstrated that strains H19-1 and H20-5 induced ABA-independent and -dependent salinity tolerance, respectively, in tomato plants, therefore these strains can be used as effective bio-fertilizers for sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Bacillus/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Fertilizantes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prolina/metabolismo , Estresse Salino
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 256, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate brassinosteroid (BR) signal strength caused by exogenous application or endogenous regulation of BR-related genes can increase crop yield. However, precise control of BR signals is difficult and can cause unstable effects and failure to reach full potential. Phosphorylated BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1), the rate-limiting receptor in BR signalling, transduces BR signals, and we recently demonstrated that modifying BRI1 phosphorylation sites alters BR signal strength and botanical characteristics in Arabidopsis. However, the functions of such phosphorylation sites in agronomic characteristics of crops remain unclear. RESULTS: In this work, we investigated the roles of tomato SlBRI1 threonine-1050 (Thr-1050). SlBRI1 mutant cu3-abs1 plants expressing SlBRI1 with a non-phosphorylatable Thr-1050 (T1050A), with a wild-type SlBRI1 transformant used as a control, were examined. The results showed enhanced autophosphorylation of SlBRI1 and BR signal strength for cu3-abs1 harbouring T1050A, which promoted yield through increased plant expansion, leaf area, fruit weight and fruit number per cluster but reduced nutrient contents, including ascorbic acid and soluble sugar levels. Moreover, plant height, stem diameter, and internodal distance were similar between the transgenic plants. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal the biological role of Thr-1050 in tomato and provide a molecular basis for establishing high-yield crops by precisely controlling BR signal strength via phosphorylation site modification.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Mutação , Fosforilação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 236, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development and ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit are important processes for the study of crop biology related to industrial horticulture. Versatile uses of tomato fruit lead to its harvest at various points of development from early maturity through to red ripe, traditionally indicated by parameters such as size, weight, colour, and internal composition, according to defined visual 'grading' schemes. Visual grading schemes however are subjective and thus objective classification of tomato fruit development and ripening are needed for 'high-tech' horticulture. To characterize the development and ripening processes in whole tomato fruit (cv. Moneymaker), a biospectroscopy approach is employed using compact portable ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics. RESULTS: The developmental and ripening processes showed unique spectral profiles, which were acquired from the cuticle-cell wall complex of tomato fruit epidermis in vivo. Various components of the cuticle including Cutin, waxes, and phenolic compounds, among others, as well as from the underlying cell wall such as celluloses, pectin and lignin like compounds among others. Epidermal surface structures including cuticle and cell wall were significantly altered during the developmental process from immature green to mature green, as well as during the ripening process. Changes in the spectral fingerprint region (1800-900 cm- 1) were sufficient to identify nine developmental and six ripening stages with high accuracy using support vector machine (SVM) chemometrics. CONCLUSIONS: The non-destructive spectroscopic approach may therefore be especially useful for investigating in vivo biochemical changes occurring in fruit epidermis related to grades of tomato during development and ripening, for autonomous food production/supply chain applications.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 477-486, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252253

RESUMO

The induction of leaf injuries, including leaf chlorosis and epinasty, by continuous light in tomato plants is one of the most interesting and mysterious phenomena regarding plant interactions with light, the mechanism of which has not yet been revealed. To gain further insights into this particular response of tomato plants, we cultivated tomato seedlings (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Momotaro) for 14 days under continuous light with different ratios of red and blue light and compared their performance to those grown under continuous or 14/10-h photoperiodic white light using novel methods to quantitatively evaluate the level of leaf chlorosis and epinasty. Continuous monochromatic blue light induced severe chlorosis but almost completely alleviated epinasty in tomato leaf. In contrast, continuous monochromatic red light caused a lower level of leaf chlorosis but very severe epinasty. The combination of red and blue light at different ratios significantly reduced both leaf chlorosis and epinasty under continuous light condition. Carbohydrate contents showed no correlation with leaf chlorosis, while glucose and fructose contents showed correlations with the petiole and leaflet curvatures. Histochemical staining with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and nitro blue tetrazodium chloride also did not reveal any significant buildup of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion in monochromatic blue light treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that chlorosis and epinasty are two distinctive leaf injuries caused by continuous light that may follow very different mechanisms, and an overaccumulation of carbohydrates in the leaf may not be the main cause of continuous light-induced leaf chlorosis in tomato.


Assuntos
Luz , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , 3,3'-Diaminobenzidina/química , Anemia Hipocrômica/metabolismo , Carboidratos/química , Cor , Frutose/química , Glucose/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxigênio/química , Fotoquímica , Fotoperíodo , Fotossíntese , Doenças das Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Sais de Tetrazólio/química
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(27): 7598-7608, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199637

RESUMO

So far, the effects of the semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) composites with functions of both nutrient slow-release and water retention on soil physicochemical properties, yield, and quality of crops have not been studied. In Part 1 of this paper ( Song, J.; Zhao, H.; Zhao, G.; Xiang, Y.; Liu, Y. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2019 , DOI: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b00888 ), superabsorbent polymers SAPWS (grafting wheat straw (WS) to poly(acrylic-co-acrylamide), which is WS-g-P(AA-co-AM)) and SAPHEC (HEC (hydroxyethyl cellulose)-g-P(AA-co-AM)), and their semi-IPN nanocomposites SI-PSRF/SAPWS and SI-PSRF/SAPHEC (formed by chemical bonding of SAPWS or SAPHEC with PSRF (NPK-containing polymeric slow-release fertilizer)) were prepared, and their microstructures and degradation performances were systematically studied. In this study, effects of these two nanocomposites on soil physicochemical properties, crop yield, and quality as well as soil fertility, especially the relationships between these effects and the degradation performances of the materials themselves, were investigated by a pot experiment of the tomato. Results show that SI-PSRF/SAP nanocomposites can regulate the pH values of weak alkaline soils close to 7.0. The changes of soil pH values, in our study, are basically synchronized with the degradation rates of SI-PSRF/SAP, the higher the degradation rate of SI-PSRF/SAP, the lower the pH value of the alkaline soil treated. Compared with PSRF+SAP (the simple physically mixed system of PSRF and SAP) and PSRF, during the whole growth period of the tomato, SI-PSRF/SAP treatments have the lowest nitrogen release amounts, 4.74 g for SI-PSRF/SAPWS and 4.88 g for SI-PSRF/SAPHEC, the highest nitrogen contents of soils after day 40, and the highest nitrogen contents of plants on day 100, 1.16 and 1.68 g for SI-PSRF/SAPWS and 1.26 and 1.86 g for SI-PSRF/SAPHEC. While for PSRF+SAPWS, PSRF+SAPHEC, and PSRF, they are 5.16 g, 0.81 g, 0.63 g and 5.26 g, 0.87 g, 0.66 g and 5.17 g, 0.63 g, 0.52 g, respectively. There is a significant positive correlation between the material degradation rates and their nitrogen release amounts in this study, while SI-PSRF/SAP systems have the highest correlation coefficient, 0.950. In addition, compared to the control blank, the SI-PSRF/SAP system significantly increases tomato yield, 270.1% for SI-PSRF/SAPWS and 301.7% for SI-PSRF/SAPHEC. Compared with PSRF+SAP, the SI-PSRF/SAP system can make the soil treated become a high-quality soil by influencing the soil pH value, conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and active organic carbon, which have significant impact on the soil quality. The chemical-bonded functional nanocomposites with a semi-IPN three-dimensional network structures formed by hydrogen-bonding interactions among functional groups of their components can more efficiently improve soil fertility, increase soil nutrient supply capacity, and promote plants growth and development as well as solve the environmental pollution caused by traditional fertilizers. The technology reported in this paper is simple and feasible for large-scale production of fertilizer with both water retention and nutrient slow-release, even nanofertilizer, which has great application potential.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanocompostos/química , Solo/química , Água/química , Acrilamida/química , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Fertilizantes/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Fósforo/análise , Polímeros , Triticum
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5842-5851, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current need to produce food for a growing population, from diminishing natural resources, such as water and energy, and with minimum environmental degradation, demands the optimization of production. We compare the economic feasibility of tomato production in an open system with a perlite substrate, a closed system with the nutrient film technique (NFT), and a hydroponic crop (deep flow technique, DFT) using three levels of salinity that are found within the normal range for irrigation water quality in southeastern Spain. RESULTS: Production with DFT resulted in an increase in the cost of phytosanitary treatments and the cost of maintenance. Production with perlite resulted in an increase in the cost of irrigation water and fertilization, and the use of NFT resulted in an increase in energy costs. The point of price equilibrium was exceeded in the three soilless systems when using low salinity water, and in perlite, with intermediate salinity water. CONCLUSION: Profitability was reduced in the following order: perlite > NFT > DFT. There were positive results when using irrigation water with low salinity, and in the case of perlite, with intermediate salinity. In every case, salinity reduced the profitability of the operation, and this was greater when NFT was employed. The analysis of these soilless systems should be continued to determine the possibility of reducing cultivation costs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/economia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Águas Salinas/economia , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Águas Salinas/análise , Águas Salinas/metabolismo , Salinidade , Cloreto de Sódio/análise
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5368-5376, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Famoxadone is a pesticide that is used to control fungal diseases and its dissipation in vegetables should be monitored. For that purpose, liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has been used. RESULTS: The dissipation of famoxadone has been monitored in cucumber, cherry tomato and courgette under greenhouse conditions at different doses (single and double), using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Bremen, Germany). The concentration of famoxadone increased slightly just after the application of the commercial product and then decreased. The half-lives (DT50 ) of famoxadone are different for each matrix, ranging from 2 days (courgette single dose) to 10 days (cucumber double dose). The main metabolites, 4-phenoxybenzoic acid and 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine, were not detected in vegetable samples. Other metabolites described by the European Food and Safety Authority, such as IN-JS940 [(2RS)-2-hydroxy-2-(4-phenoxyphenyl)propanoic acid], IN-KF015 [(5RS)-5-methyl-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione] and IN-MN467 [(5RS)-5-methyl-3-[(2-nitrophenyl)amino]-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione], were detected in the three matrices. Untargeted analysis allowed for the putative elucidation of a new metabolite of famoxadone in cucumber (up to 290 µg kg-1 ) and cherry tomato (up to 900 µg kg-1 ) samples. CONCLUSION: The dissipation of famoxadone has been investigated in three vegetables: tomato, cucumber and courgette. The persistence of famoxadone was low in the three matrices (DT50 less than 10 days). Metabolites of famoxadone were monitored, detecting IN-JS940, IN-MN467 and IN-KF015, and the putative elucidation of a new metabolite of famoxadone was performed by applying software tools. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Estrobilurinas/química , Verduras/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Alemanha , Humanos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrobilurinas/metabolismo , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verduras/metabolismo
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 656-667, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136876

RESUMO

Owing to the active use of rare-earth elements in many areas, it is necessary to study their behavior in the environment and their biological impact on plants. Despite the role of melatonin and sulfur in plant growth, development and abiotic stress tolerance; it is still not clear how they have a strong regulatory influence and synergistic effect on growth, physiological and biochemical characteristics of plants under different environmental stresses. Therefore, this study highlights how melatonin and sulfur together potentially involved in a reversal of lanthanum-inhibited photosynthetic and growth responses in tomato seedlings. Here, we reported that seedlings grown in a medium containing 150 µM lanthanum exhibited increased overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation together with increased Chlorophyll degradation, and activity of chlorophyllase, proline dehydrogenase and glycolate oxidase (GOx), and decreased photosynthesis and growth. However, the application of melatonin and sulfur showed significant responses on tomato seedlings, although the response of their combined treatment was more effective by further increasing photosynthesis and growth under lanthanum toxicity. Melatonin supplied with sulfur suppressed ROS formation, lipid peroxidation and activity of GOx, and increased photosynthesis by upregulating activities of carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Also, sulfur supplementation with melatonin to seedlings resulted in an elevation in the accumulation of Chl and proline by increasing δ-aminolevulinic acid and activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase activity. The administration of melatonin with sulfur substantially induced upregulation of enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase) activities involved in the antioxidant system, thereby mitigating ROS-induced oxidative damage. Thus, this study provides strong evidence that melatonin and sulfur have strong regulatory influence and synergistic role in alleviating the adverse effect of lanthanum-toxicity by increasing photosynthesis and growth.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Lantânio/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Enxofre/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
18.
Nat Plants ; 5(5): 471-479, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061537

RESUMO

Genome editing technologies are being widely adopted in plant breeding1. However, a looming challenge of engineering desirable genetic variation in diverse genotypes is poor predictability of phenotypic outcomes due to unforeseen interactions with pre-existing cryptic mutations2-4. In tomato, breeding with a classical MADS-box gene mutation that improves harvesting by eliminating fruit stem abscission frequently results in excessive inflorescence branching, flowering and reduced fertility due to interaction with a cryptic variant that causes partial mis-splicing in a homologous gene5-8. Here, we show that a recently evolved tandem duplication carrying the second-site variant achieves a threshold of functional transcripts to suppress branching, enabling breeders to neutralize negative epistasis on yield. By dissecting the dosage mechanisms by which this structural variant restored normal flowering and fertility, we devised strategies that use CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing to predictably improve harvesting. Our findings highlight the under-appreciated impact of epistasis in targeted trait breeding and underscore the need for a deeper characterization of cryptic variation to enable the full potential of genome editing in agriculture.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Epistasia Genética/genética , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Duplicação Gênica/fisiologia , Edição de Genes/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Variação Genética/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Reprodução/genética , Reprodução/fisiologia
19.
Chemosphere ; 230: 544-558, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31125883

RESUMO

Plant growth and development could be modulated by minute concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) which serves as a signaling molecule for various processes. The present work was conducted with an aim that H2O2 could also modify root morphology, morphology and movement of stomata, photosynthetic responses, activity of carbonic anhydrase, and antioxidant systems in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants under copper stress (Cu; 10 or 100 mg kg-1 soil). Roots of 20 d old plants were dipped in 0.1 or 0.5 mM of H2O2 solution for 4 h and then transplanted to the soil filled in earthen pots. High Cu stress (100 mg kg-1 soil) altered root morphology, reduced chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity and also affected movement of stomata and generation of antioxidant species at 40 d after transplantation. Further, root dipping treatment of H2O2 to plants under stress and stress-free conditions enhanced accumulation of proline and activity of catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, whereas production of superoxide radical (O2•¯) and H2O2 were decreased. Overall, H2O2 treatment improved growth, photosynthesis, metabolic state of the plants which provided tolerance and helped the plants to cope well under Cu stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/enzimologia , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
20.
Plant Cell Rep ; 38(9): 1053-1064, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123809

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: SlPRE2 is gibberellin inducible and mediates plant response to gibberellin. Silencing of SlPRE2 decreases tomato fruit size, pericarp thickness, placenta size and seed size by regulating cell expansion. Gibberellin is one of the crucial hormones essential for plant growth and developmental processes, including seed germination, stem elongation, and sex expression. Previous studies indicated gibberellin could control fruit development by regulation of genes downstream gibberellin pathway. In the present study, we found that the SlPRE2, a bHLH family transcription factor gene, is highly expressed in immature green fruit. Silencing of SlPRE2 caused reduction of fruits size, pericarp thickness, and placenta size. Meanwhile, smaller seeds were observed in SlPRE2 silenced lines. In addition, the SlPRE2-silenced fruit mesocarp had reduced cell size and expression of SlXTH2 and SlXTH5 which are involved in cell enlargement. Further research showed that SlPRE2 is gibberellic acid-inducible and the expression of gibberellin metabolism-related genes in immature green fruit was affected by the downregulation of SlPRE2. Moreover, the SlPRE2-silenced plants had changed responses to application of exogenous gibberellic acid and paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis. These findings indicated that SlPRE2 is a regulator of fruit development and affects plant response to gibberellic acid via the gibberellin pathway.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA