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1.
Food Chem ; 351: 129328, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647697

RESUMO

A part of the fungicides used in foliar treatment penetrates into the soil. This study describes changes in the bioavailability of (essential) elements in soil, fructification, the amount of green biomass and the production of phenolic compounds related solely to the presence of triazoles (penconazole and cyproconazole) in soil, injected as a single compound or their mixture. The triazoles presence has substantially affected the bioavailability of Fe, Cu and Zn in soil. The amount of green biomass has significantly decreased, whereas the chlorophylls a and b have not been affected. As a potential mark of plant stress, the fruits of the treated variants are significantly bigger. The content of phenolics in tomato peel (e.g. quercetin, quercitrin, hesperidin, naringin, and chlorogenic, salicylic and p-coumaric acid) has been quantified. The biggest changes (increase/decrease) have been observed in the contents of p-coumaric and chlorogenic acid, quercetin and quercitrin.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Solo/química , Triazóis/farmacologia , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Triazóis/análise
2.
Plant Sci ; 303: 110727, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487335

RESUMO

Herbicide application is a common procedure in agriculture, whose potentially adverse effects are assessed mainly with respect to weeds or in terms of residues and environmental impact. However, recent evidence has highlighted possible effects of pesticide treatments on plant metabolism, with potential implications for fruit quality. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the impact of four different herbicides on the metabolic processes in industrial tomato plants. To this aim, plants were treated either with the selective herbicides metribuzin and rimsulfuron or with the non-selective herbicides glyphosate and pelargonic acid. Thereafter, leaves were analyzed using a metabolomics approach, and 247 differential compounds were selected by multivariate statistics and used to examine the changes at the molecular level. Data interpretation via the PlantCyc Pathway Tool revealed that the tested herbicides induced distinctive responses to the treatments, with the phytohormone profile (gibberellins and jasmonates) and secondary metabolism (including stress-related compounds, such as phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) showing the largest modulation. Surprisingly, such metabolic reprogramming also affected several aspects of the fruits even though the herbicides were applied several weeks before, thus opening the possibility of effects on food quality. To date, these hidden effects have been largely underestimated even though they deserve to be carefully considered since they may affect the qualitative and quantitative traits of the yield.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/farmacologia , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica , Piridinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Triazinas/farmacologia
3.
Food Chem ; 337: 127992, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920270

RESUMO

Mechanical wounding causes significant economic losses of fresh produce due to accelerated senescence and spoilage as well as loss of nutritional value. Here, pre-application of oligogalacturonides (OGs) enzymatically hydrolyzed from apple pectin effectively reduced the healing times of mechanical wounds from>24 h in mock groups to 12 h, and the Botrytis cinerea infection rate was reduced from 37.5% to 12.5%. OGs accordingly increased callose deposition; SlPR1, SlPAL and SlHCT gene expression; and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity around the wounds. Inhibition of Ca2+ signaling using the inhibitor Ruthenium Red markedly inhibited OG accelerated healing of mechanical wounding on fruit. SlPG2, SlEXP1, and SlCEL2 mRNAs accumulation was reduced in OG-elicited tomato fruit compared to water-treated fruit with subsequent retardation of the fruit softening during ripening. These results indicated that apple pectin OGs accelerate wound healing and inhibit fruit softening by activating calcium signaling in tomato fruits during postharvest storage.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Cálcio/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucanos/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Malus/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Pectinas/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111081, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927154

RESUMO

Brassinosteroids and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are extensively used to combat several environmental factors, including heavy metal stress in plants, but their cumulative impact on the maintenance of copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants could not be dissected at elevated level. This study was executed to explore the roles of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL; foliar) and H2O2 (root dipping) in resilience of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants to Cu stress. The cumulative effect of EBL and H2O2 in tomato plants grown under Cu stress (10 or 100 mg kg-1 soil) were assessed. Roots of 20 d old plants were submerged in 0.1 mM of H2O2 solution for 4 h and subsequently transplanted in the soil-filled earthen pots and at 30 day after transplantation (DAT), the plants were sprinkled with deionized water (control), and/or 10-8 M EBL and plant performances were evaluated at 40 DAT. High Cu (100 mg kg-1 soil) concentration considerably reduced photosynthetic efficacy, cell viability, and plant growth, and deformed chloroplast ultrastructure and root morphology with altered stomatal behavior, but boosted the activity of antioxidant enzymes, proline content and electrolyte leakage in the leaves of tomato. Moreover, EBL and H2O2 implemented through distinct modes improved photosynthetic efficiency, modified chloroplast ultrastructure, stomatal behavior, root structure, cell viability and production of antioxidants and proline (osmolyte) that augmented resilience of tomato plants to Cu stress. This study revealed the potential of EBL and H2O2 applied through distinct mode could serve as an effective strategy to reduce Cu-toxicity in tomato crop.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Explosão Respiratória , Solo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 159: 89-99, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348242

RESUMO

The macronutrient potassium (K) has vital physiological functions in plants and its availability can strongly impact quality of crops like tomato. The impact of K nutrition on conventional tomato fruit quality parameters has been described several times, but detailed investigations on the effect of K supply on the fruit metabolite profile are still rare. To fill this gap, we investigated the influence of K fertilization on the metabolite profile of tomato fruits. For this purpose, an outdoor pot experiment with three different cocktail tomato cultivars was performed. A fertilization regimen with five K levels was applied, ranging from deficiency to sufficient supply. Fruit samples were analyzed by untargeted GC×GC-MS to cover the primary metabolite profile as well as some secondary metabolites. As verified using ICP-OES, fruit K content was highly proportional to the supplied amount of K. At the metabolite profile level, the most prominent and cultivar-independent effect of increased K fertilization was the rise of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Further effects were more cultivar-specific, for example an increase of the mobile nitrogen pool (e.g. amines like putrescine and amides like asparagine), changes in the profile of minor sugars (especially disaccharides) as well as higher levels of some secondary metabolites. Pronounced response patterns were mainly observed in the cultivars Primavera and Yellow Submarine that were recently characterized as higher yielding, demanding a stronger consideration of cultivar differences in future studies.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Frutas , Lycopersicon esculentum , Potássio , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Potássio/farmacologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338077

RESUMO

This study attempted to address molecular, developmental, and physiological responses of tomato plants to foliar applications of selenium nanoparticles (nSe) at 0, 3, and 10 mgl-1 or corresponding doses of sodium selenate (BSe). The BSe/nSe treatment at 3 mgl-1 increased shoot and root biomass, while at 10 mgl-1 moderately reduced biomass accumulation. Foliar application of BSe/nSe, especially the latter, at the lower dose enhanced fruit production, and postharvest longevity, while at the higher dose induced moderate toxicity and restricted fruit production. In leaves, the BSe/nSe treatments transcriptionally upregulated miR172 (mean = 3.5-folds). The Se treatments stimulated the expression of the bZIP transcription factor (mean = 9.7-folds). Carotene isomerase (CRTISO) gene was transcriptionally induced in both leaves and fruits of the nSe-treated seedlings by an average of 5.5 folds. Both BSe or nSe at the higher concentration increased proline concentrations, H2O2 accumulation, and lipid peroxidation levels, suggesting oxidative stress and impaired membrane integrity. Both BSe or nSe treatments also led to the induction of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase and peroxidase), an increase in concentrations of ascorbate, non-protein thiols, and soluble phenols, as well as a rise in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme. Supplementation at 3 mgl-1 improved the concentration of mineral nutrients (Mg, Fe, and Zn) in fruits. The bioaccumulated Se contents in the nSe-treated plants were much higher than the corresponding concentration of selenate, implying a higher efficacy of the nanoform towards biofortification programs. Se at 10 mgl-1, especially in selenate form, reduced both size and density of pollen grains, indicating its potential toxicity at the higher doses. This study provides novel molecular and physiological insights into the nSe efficacy for improving plant productivity, fruit quality, and fruit post-harvest longevity.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Ácido Selênico/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Selênico/química , Selênio/efeitos adversos , Selênio/química , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , cis-trans-Isomerases/genética , cis-trans-Isomerases/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5802, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199718

RESUMO

A major bottleneck in identifying therapies to control citrus greening and other devastating plant diseases caused by fastidious pathogens is our inability to culture the pathogens in defined media or axenic cultures. As such, conventional approaches for antimicrobial evaluation (genetic or chemical) rely on time-consuming, low-throughput and inherently variable whole-plant assays. Here, we report that plant hairy roots support the growth of fastidious pathogens like Candidatus Liberibacter spp., the presumptive causal agents of citrus greening, potato zebra chip and tomato vein greening diseases. Importantly, we leverage the microbial hairy roots for rapid, reproducible efficacy screening of multiple therapies. We identify six antimicrobial peptides, two plant immune regulators and eight chemicals which inhibit Candidatus Liberibacter spp. in plant tissues. The antimicrobials, either singly or in combination, can be used as near- and long-term therapies to control citrus greening, potato zebra chip and tomato vein greening diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizobiaceae/fisiologia , Sequência de Bases , Citrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Citrus/microbiologia , Edição de Genes , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Rhizobiaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/efeitos dos fármacos , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Transgenes
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790698

RESUMO

Tomato is the most widespread vegetable crop in the world. In Italy, tomatoes are mainly cultivated in the South and in the Campania region, precisely in the area called Agro Nocerino-Sarnese. This flatland is affected by an extreme level of environmental degradation, especially related to the Sarno River, where concentrations of Potential Toxic Elements (PTEs) have been found to be higher than the maximum permitted level. The aim of this study was to determine the PTEs uptake by roots and their translocation to the aerial parts of the plants of two cultivars of tomatoes (Pomodoro Giallo and San Marzano Cirio 3). To the purpose, samples of the two cultivars were grown both in pots with experimentally contaminated soil containing: Cr or Cd or Pb at extremely high concentrations and in pots with uncontaminated soils (control). Additionally, the antioxidant properties of the cultivars selected grown on uncontaminated/contaminated soils were assessed. The results showed that Cd was the contaminant that most significantly interfered with the growth of both cultivars of tomato plants, whereas Pb caused lower phenotypical damage. Cd translocation from root to the organs of tomato plants was observed in both cultivars. Specifically, the total amount of Cd found in stems and leaves was higher in the Pomodoro Giallo (254.4 mg/kg dry weight) than in the San Marzano Cirio 3 (165.8 mg/kg dry weight). Cd was the only PTE found in the fruits of both cultivars, with values of 6.1 and 3.9 mg/kg dry weight of Pomodoro Giallo and San Marzano Cirio 3, respectively. The fruits of tomato plants grown in PTEs-contaminated soil showed inhibition or stimulations of the radical scavenging activity compared to the fruits grown in uncontaminated soil. This study highlighted that, despite the relatively high experimental concentrations of PTEs, their translocation to the edible part was comparatively low or absent.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Bioacumulação , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cromo/farmacocinética , Cromo/toxicidade , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Itália , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Chumbo/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual
9.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(9): 844-853, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657218

RESUMO

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of biochar on the growth and uptake of Pb and Zn by tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum, L.) cultivated in two highly contaminated Kosovo soils, A and B. Plants were cultivated in the biochar amended and unamended soils. As expected, the biochar addition to the two polluted soils has contributed to significantly improve the crop yields, in terms of both fresh and dry weight. Further, results indicated that the effect of biochar on metal mobility is closely related, besides its properties, to soil's native characteristics. In fact, the addition of biochar to soil B had also beneficial effects on the uptake of both metals, halving in some cases the values of the biological accumulation and transfer coefficients, while it did not show the same efficacy on soil A.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Zinco/farmacocinética , Kosovo , Chumbo/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110978, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678757

RESUMO

In this study, hydroponic experiments were conducted to elucidate mechanism(s) that are associated with differential effects of low (5 µM) and high (25 µM) dose of cadmium (Cd) stress in tomato. Furthermore, emphasis has also been focused on any involvement of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in differential behaviour of low and high doses of Cd stress. At low dose of Cd, root growth i.e. root fresh weight, length and fitness did not significantly alter when compared to the control seedlings. Though at low dose of Cd, cellular accumulation of Cd was slightly increased but this was accompanied by higher endogenous H2S and phytochelatins, L-cysteine desulfhydrase (DES) activity, activities of glutathione biosynthetic and AsA-GSH cycle enzymes, and maintained redox status of ascorbate and glutathione. However, addition of hypotaurine (HT, a scavenger of H2S) resulted in greater toxicity, even at low dose of Cd, and these responses resembled with higher dose of Cd stress such as greater decline in root growth, endogenous H2S and phytochelatins, activities of DES, glutathione biosynthesis and AsA-GSH cycle enzymes, disturbed redox status of ascorbate and glutathione which collectively led to higher oxidative stress in tomato roots. Moreover, addition of HT with higher dose of Cd also further enhanced its toxicity. Collectively, the results showed that differential behaviour of low and high dose of Cd stress is mediated by differential regulation of biochemical attributes in which endogenous H2S has a crucial role.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
11.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127350, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554012

RESUMO

The adverse effects of glyphosate herbicide on plants are well recognised, however, potential hormetic effects have not been well studied. This study aimed to use tomato as a model organism to explore the potential hormetic effects of glyphosate in water (0-30 mg L-1) and in compost soil (0-30 mg kg-1). The growth-promoting effects of glyphosate at concentrations of 0.03-1 mg L-1 in water or 0.03-1 mg kg-1 in compost were demonstrated in tomato for the first time. These hormetic effects were manifest as increased hypocotyl and radicle growth of seedlings germinated on paper towel soaked in glyphosate solution and also in crops which had been sprayed with glyphosate. Increased rates of photosynthesis (up to 2-fold) were observed in 4-week old crops when seeds were sown in compost amended with glyphosate and also when leaves were sprayed with glyphosate. The examination of chloroplast morphology using transmission electron microscopy revealed that the hormetic effects were associated with elongation of chloroplasts, possibly due to lateral expansion of thylakoid grana.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Cloroplastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/toxicidade , Hormese/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 153: 53-63, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474386

RESUMO

It was aimed to examine the role of gibberellic acid (GA) induced production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in alleviating boron toxicity (BT) in tomato plants. Two weeks after germination, a solution consisting of GA (100 mg L-1) was sprayed once a week for 14 days to the leaves of cv. "SC 2121" of tomato under BT stress (BT; 2.0 mM). Before starting BT treatment, half of the seedlings were retained in a solution containing a scavenger of H2S, 0.1 mM hypotaurine (HT), for 12 h. Boron toxicity led to a substantial decrease in dry biomass, leaf water potential, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, photosynthetic quantum yield (Fv/Fm), ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) in the tomato plants. However, it increased the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and free proline as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. The supplementation of GA mitigated BT by increasing the endogenous H2S, and leaf Ca2+ and K+, and reducing the contents of leaf H2O2, MDA, and B as well as membrane leakage. GA-induced BT tolerance was further enhanced by the supplementation of sodium hydrosulfide (0.2 mM NaHS), an H2S donor. A scavenger of H2S, hypotaurine (0.1 mM HT) was supplied along with the GA and NaHS treatments to assess if H2S was involved in GA-induced BT tolerance of tomato plants. Addition of HT reversed the beneficial effect of GA on oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system by reducing the endogenous H2S without changing L-DES activity, suggesting that H2S participates in GA-induced tolerance to BT of tomato plants.


Assuntos
Boro/toxicidade , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes , Clorofila , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Malondialdeído , Estresse Oxidativo , Plântula
13.
J Biotechnol ; 318: 68-77, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416108

RESUMO

Unprecedented anthropogenic activities have led to contamination of soil and water with toxic metals that present a great threat to crop yields. This situation has compelled researchers to understand metal toxicity responses in order to develop strategies to curtail toxic metal-mediated losses in crop yields. Past decade has witnessed tremendous developments with regard to the role of nitric oxide (NO) in regulating abiotic stresses including toxic metal in crop plants. However, mechanisms related with NO-mediated mitigation of metal toxicity are still less known, and thus investigation in this domain remains underway. Therefore, in this study potential of NO along with its mechanisms of action in mitigating hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] toxicity in tomato roots were investigated. Root length and dry weight were declined by Cr(VI) which coincided with increased accumulation of Cr. Major amount of Cr was in the cell wall fraction followed by soluble (including vacuoles) and cell organelles fraction and thus, leading to the cell death in roots. Further, Cr(VI) also declined endogenous NO by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase like activity, and down-regulated ascorbate-glutathione cycle and glutathione biosynthesis, but stimulated oxidative stress markers. In contrast, exogenous addition of NO (as a sodium nitroprusside) reduced toxic effects of Cr(VI) in tomato roots by decreasing Cr accumulation as well as triggering sequestration of Cr into vacuoles and thus collectively protect root from cell death. Moreover, NO also up-regulated ascorbate-glutathione cycle and glutathione biosynthesis, and stimulated phytochelatins, but greatly declined oxidative stress markers. Interestingly, addition of 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) further worsened Cr(VI) toxicity, and Cr(VI) toxicity alleviatory effect of NO was partly reversed by the addition of c-PTIO, suggesting that NO has a crucial role in rendering Cr(VI) toxicity tolerance in tomato roots. Collectively, results suggest that NO mitigates Cr(VI) toxicity in tomato roots by reducing Cr and oxidative stress markers accumulation, triggering sequestration of Cr into vacuoles, and up-regulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle and glutathione biosynthesis, and phytochelatins.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Cromo/toxicidade , Glutationa/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromo/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Vacúolos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacúolos/metabolismo
14.
J Plant Physiol ; 250: 153184, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464590

RESUMO

Although it is well known that parasitic weeds such as Orobanche (broomrape) significantly reduce the yield of economically important crops, their infection-induced oxidative changes need more exploration in their host plants. Moreover, applying an eco-friendly approach to minimize the infection is not yet available. This study was conducted to understand the effect of Orobanche ramosa infection on oxidative and redox status of tomato plants and the impact of hormonal (indole acetic acid (IAA); 0.09 mM and salicylic acid (SA); 1.0 mM) seed-priming upon mitigating the infection threats. Although Orobanche invades tomato roots, its inhibitory effects on shoot biomass were also indicted. Orobanche infection usually induces oxidative damage i.e., high lipid peroxidation, lipoxygenase activity and H2O2 levels, particularly for roots. Interestingly, hormonal seed-priming significantly enhanced tomato shoots and roots growth under both healthy and infected conditions. Also, IAA and SA treatment significantly reduced Orobanche infection-induced oxidative damage. The protective effect of seed-priming was explained by increasing the antioxidant defense markers including the antioxidant metabolites (i.e., total antioxidant capacity, carotenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, ASC, GSH, tocopherols) and enzymes (CAT, POX, GPX, SOD, GR, APX, MDHAR, DHAR), particularly in infected tomato seedlings. Additionally, cluster analysis indicated the differential impact of IAA- and SA-seed-priming, whereas lower oxidative damage and higher antioxidant enzymes' activities in tomato root were particularly reported for IAA treatment. The principal component analysis (PCA) also proclaimed an organ specificity depending on their response to Orobanche infection. Collectively, here and for the first time, we shed the light on the potential of seed-priming with either IAA or SA to mitigate the adverse effect of O. ramosa stress in tomato plants, especially at oxidative stress levels.


Assuntos
Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Orobanche/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Plantas Daninhas/fisiologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/parasitologia , Sementes/fisiologia
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110720, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470680

RESUMO

Acid rain is a widespread environmental issue intensely affecting normal plant growth of crops. Melatonin is well known pleiotropic molecule which improves abiotic and biotic stress tolerance of plants through physiological and molecular mediation. However, the impact of exogenous melatonin on molecular activities under acid rain conditions in plants has never been studied. The objective of the study is to expose the possible role of exogenous melatonin on physiological and molecular changes against acid rain stress in tomato. Transcriptome profile through RNA-sequence analysis identified 1228, 1120 and 1537 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in control plant (Ctr) vs simulated acid rain stressed plant (P25) comparison, control plant vs melatonin treatment in simulated acid rain stressed plant (P25M) comparison and P25 vs P25M comparison, respectively. Among them, 152 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were commonly expressed and the expression of secondary metabolites related gene was noticeably observed in all comparison. Moreover, transcript families such as ERF, WRKY, MYB and bZIP related gene accounted more in all treatment comparison. The RNA-sequence and qPCR results indicated that exogenous melatonin is closely associated with acid rain stress moderator and might be involved in alteration of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites and transcriptional factor encoding genes expression which might have potential application against environmental hazardous conditions.


Assuntos
Chuva Ácida/efeitos adversos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110593, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294596

RESUMO

Arable land contamination with nickel (Ni) has become a major threat to worldwide crop production. Recently, melatonin has appeared as a promising stress-relief substance that can alleviate heavy metal-induced phytotoxicity in plants. However, the plausible underlying mechanism of melatonin function under Ni stress has not been fully substantiated in plants. Herein, we conducted an experiment that unveiled critical mechanisms in favor of melatonin-mediated Ni-stress tolerance in tomato. Ni stress markedly inhibited growth and biomass by impairing the photosynthesis, photosystem function, mineral homeostasis, root activity, and osmotic balance. In contrast, melatonin application notably reinforced the plant growth traits, increased photosynthesis efficiency in terms of chlorophyll content, upregulation of chlorophyll synthesis genes, i.e. POR, CAO, CHL G, gas exchange parameters, and PSII maximum efficiency (Fv/Fm), decreased Ni accumulation and increased mineral nutrient homeostasis. Moreover, melatonin efficiently restricted the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical production and increased RBOH expression and restored cellular integrity (less malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage) through triggering the antioxidant enzyme activities and modulating AsA-GSH pools. Notably, oxidative stress was effectively mitigated by upregulation of several defense genes (SOD, CAT, APX, GR, GST, MDHAR, DHAR) and melatonin biosynthesis-related genes (TDC, T5S, SNAT, ASMT). Besides, melatonin treatment enhanced secondary metabolites (phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanin) contents along with their encoding genes (PAL, CHS) expression, and these metabolites potentially restricted excess H2O2 accumulation. In conclusion, our findings deciphered the potential functions of melatonin in alleviating Ni-induced phytotoxicity in tomato through boosting the biomass production, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, redox balance, and secondary metabolism.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Níquel/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Níquel/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6547, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300135

RESUMO

Microbial volatile compounds (MVCs) significantly influence the growth of plants and phytopathogens. However, the practical application of MVCs at the field level is limited by the fact that the concentrations at which these compounds antagonize the pathogens are often toxic for the plants. In this study, we investigated the effect of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), one of the MVCs produced by microorganisms, on the fitness of tomato plants and its fungicidal potential against a fungal phytopathogen, Sclerotinia minor. DMDS showed strong fungicidal and plant growth promoting activities with regard to the inhibition of mycelial growth, sclerotia formation, and germination, and reduction of disease symptoms in tomato plants infected with S. minor. DMDS exposure significantly upregulated the expression of genes related to growth and defense against the pathogen in tomato. Especially, the overexpression of PR1 and PR5 suggested the involvement of the salicylic acid pathway in the induction of systemic resistance. Several morphological and ultrastructural changes were observed in the cell membrane of S. minor and the expression of ergosterol biosynthesis gene was significantly downregulated, suggesting that DMDS damaged the membrane, thereby affecting the growth and pathogenicity of the fungus. In conclusion, the tripartite interaction studies among pathogenic fungus, DMDS, and tomato revealed that DMDS played roles in antagonizing pathogen as well as improving the growth and disease resistance of tomato. Our findings provide new insights into the potential of volatile DMDS as an effective tool against sclerotial rot disease.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Membrana Celular/patologia , Resistência à Doença , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ascomicetos/ultraestrutura , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Família 51 do Citocromo P450/metabolismo , Ergosterol/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucanos/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
18.
J Vis Exp ; (157)2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225152

RESUMO

Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating soil borne vascular pathogen that can infect a large range of plant species, causing an important threat to agriculture. However, the Ralstonia model is considerably underexplored in comparison to other models involving bacterial plant pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae in Arabidopsis. Research targeted to understanding the interaction between Ralstonia and crop plants is essential to develop sustainable solutions to fight against bacterial wilt disease but is currently hindered by the lack of straightforward experimental assays to characterize the different components of the interaction in native host plants. In this scenario, we have developed a method to perform genetic analysis of Ralstonia infection of tomato, a natural host of Ralstonia. This method is based on Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of tomato roots, followed by Ralstonia soil-drenching inoculation of the resulting plants, containing transformed roots expressing the construct of interest. The versatility of the root transformation assay allows performing either gene overexpression or gene silencing mediated by RNAi. As a proof of concept, we used this method to show that RNAi-mediated silencing of SlCESA6 in tomato roots conferred resistance to Ralstonia. Here, we describe this method in detail, enabling genetic approaches to understand bacterial wilt disease in a relatively short time and with small requirements of equipment and plant growth space.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Ralstonia solanacearum/fisiologia , Transformação Genética , Agrobacterium/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Ralstonia solanacearum/efeitos dos fármacos , Ralstonia solanacearum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Solo , Transformação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230577, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251438

RESUMO

Vermicompost application has been shown to promote plant growth, alter the rhizosphere microbiome, and suppress plant pathogens. These beneficial properties are often attributed to the activity of vermicompost-associated microorganisms. However, little is known about the microbial shifts that occur in the rhizosphere after vermicompost application. To better understand the impact of vermicompost treatments on the assembly of rhizosphere bacterial communities, 16S rDNA communities of vermicompost and rhizospheres of each peat- and soil-grown tomatoes were profiled after conventional fertigation, irrigation without additional nutrients, and addition of three different vermicompost-extracts. The full dataset consisted of 412 identified genera, of which 317 remained following stringent quality filtration. Tomato rhizosphere microbiome responses to treatments were complex and unique between peat and soil growth substrates. Direct colonization of vermicompost-origin taxa into rhizospheres was limited, with genera Photobacterium and Luteimonas colonizing peat rhizospheres, genera Truepera, Phenylobacterium, and Lysinibacillus colonizing soil rhizospheres, and genus Pelagibius appearing in both soil and peat rhizospheres. Further patterns of differential abundance and presence/absence between treatments highlight vermicompost-mediated effects on rhizosphere microbiome assembly as an interplay of rhizosphere medium, direct colonization of vermicompost-origin taxa and vermicompost-induced shifts in the rhizosphere microbial community. This exploratory analysis is intended to provide an initial look at 16S community composition of vermicompost and the effects of vermicompost treatment on the rhizosphere microbiome assembly to highlight interactions of potential merit for subsequent investigations.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Compostagem , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 150: 109-120, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135476

RESUMO

We investigated vanillic acid-induced salt tolerance in tomato by exploring the plant defense systems. Ten-d-old tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Pusa Ruby) seedlings were treated with salt (NaCl; 150 mM) and vanillic acid (VA; 40 and 50 µM) separately and in combination with salt. Salinity restricted seedlings growth, biomass accumulation, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Salt-induced osmotic stress was indicated by lower leaf relative water content (RWC) and elevated proline (Pro) content, where higher Na+/K+ ratio indicated the ionic toxicity. Tomato seedlings went through oxidative damage due to acute reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and confirmed by higher lipid peroxidation and membrane damage under salinity. Conversely, exogenous VA reduced osmotic and ionic toxicity in stressed-seedlings by enhancing the RWC and Pro level, and lowering Na+/K+ ratio, respectively. Exogenous VA up-regulated the components of antioxidant defense system in salt-treated seedlings resulted in the reduction of ROS production, LOX activity and membrane damage in stressed-seedlings. Additionally, VA application caused the reduction of toxic methylglyoxal accumulation under salt stress through the enhancement of glyoxalase system. Thus, VA-induced alleviation of osmotic, ionic and oxidative stresses leading to improve plant growth and chlorophyll synthesis in stressed-seedlings. So, VA significantly improves salinity tolerance and plant growth performance by involving the actions of plant antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Tolerância ao Sal , Ácido Vanílico , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Vanílico/farmacologia
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