Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.827
Filtrar
1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111350, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961487

RESUMO

Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) negatively affects plant (crop) growth and development, as well the yield and quality in some regions or environments. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF)-mediated amelioration of NO2-induced plant damage has been reported, but the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. This study explored the beneficial effect of AMF symbiosis on tomato plant responses to NO2 at physiology, biochemistry, and gene expression, with an emphasis on nitrate metabolism, antioxidative defense, and photosynthetic performance. Pot-grown plants were used in the experiments, which were performed in laboratory from February to November 2019. NO2 fumigation with a dose of 10 ± 1 ppm was carried out after 50 d of plant growth, and data were collected following 8 h of fumigation. NO2 fumigation (+NO2) and AMF inoculation (+AMF), alone and especially in combination (NO2 + AMF), increased the gene expression of nitrate- and nitrite reductase, and their enzymatic activity in leaves, such as by 61%, 27%, and 126% for the activity of nitrate reductase, and by 95%, 37%, and 188% for nitrite reductase, respectively, in +NO2, +AMF, and AMF + NO2 plants relative the control (-NO2, -AMF) levels. Following NO2 exposure, +AMF leaves displayed stronger activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase, and higher content of glutathione and ratio of its reduced form to oxidized form, as compared with -AMF ones. Correspondingly, lesser oxidative damage was detected in +AMF than in -AMF plants, as indicated by the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde, electrolyte leakage, also by in situ visualization for the formation of H2O2, superoxide anion, and dead cells. The increased antioxidative capacity in +AMF plants was correlated with enhanced expression of antioxidation-related genes. Exposure to NO2 substantially impaired photosynthetic processes in both + AMF and -AMF plants, but an obvious mitigation was observed in the former than in the latter. For example, the total chlorophyll, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity were 18%, 27%, 26%, and 40% higher, respectively, in +AMF than in -AMF plants under NO2 stress. The differential photosynthetic performance was also revealed by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. We analyzed the expression patterns of some genes related to photosynthesis and carbon metabolisms, and found that all of them exclusively presented a higher expression level in +AMF plants relative to -AMF ones under NO2 stress. Taken together, this study provided evidence that AMF symbiosis played a positively regulatory role in host plant responses to NO2, probably by increasing leaf nitrate metabolism and antioxidative defense, and maintaining the photosynthetic efficiency to some extent, wherein the transcription regulation might be a main target.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Micorrizas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790698

RESUMO

Tomato is the most widespread vegetable crop in the world. In Italy, tomatoes are mainly cultivated in the South and in the Campania region, precisely in the area called Agro Nocerino-Sarnese. This flatland is affected by an extreme level of environmental degradation, especially related to the Sarno River, where concentrations of Potential Toxic Elements (PTEs) have been found to be higher than the maximum permitted level. The aim of this study was to determine the PTEs uptake by roots and their translocation to the aerial parts of the plants of two cultivars of tomatoes (Pomodoro Giallo and San Marzano Cirio 3). To the purpose, samples of the two cultivars were grown both in pots with experimentally contaminated soil containing: Cr or Cd or Pb at extremely high concentrations and in pots with uncontaminated soils (control). Additionally, the antioxidant properties of the cultivars selected grown on uncontaminated/contaminated soils were assessed. The results showed that Cd was the contaminant that most significantly interfered with the growth of both cultivars of tomato plants, whereas Pb caused lower phenotypical damage. Cd translocation from root to the organs of tomato plants was observed in both cultivars. Specifically, the total amount of Cd found in stems and leaves was higher in the Pomodoro Giallo (254.4 mg/kg dry weight) than in the San Marzano Cirio 3 (165.8 mg/kg dry weight). Cd was the only PTE found in the fruits of both cultivars, with values of 6.1 and 3.9 mg/kg dry weight of Pomodoro Giallo and San Marzano Cirio 3, respectively. The fruits of tomato plants grown in PTEs-contaminated soil showed inhibition or stimulations of the radical scavenging activity compared to the fruits grown in uncontaminated soil. This study highlighted that, despite the relatively high experimental concentrations of PTEs, their translocation to the edible part was comparatively low or absent.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Bioacumulação , Transporte Biológico Ativo , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cromo/farmacocinética , Cromo/toxicidade , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Radicais Livres/metabolismo , Itália , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Chumbo/toxicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17409-17417, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616567

RESUMO

Proteolytic cascades regulate immunity and development in animals, but these cascades in plants have not yet been reported. Here we report that the extracellular immune protease Rcr3 of tomato is activated by P69B and other subtilases (SBTs), revealing a proteolytic cascade regulating extracellular immunity in solanaceous plants. Rcr3 is a secreted papain-like Cys protease (PLCP) of tomato that acts both in basal resistance against late blight disease (Phytophthora infestans) and in gene-for-gene resistance against the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Passalora fulva) Despite the prevalent model that Rcr3-like proteases can activate themselves at low pH, we found that catalytically inactive proRcr3 mutant precursors are still processed into mature mRcr3 isoforms. ProRcr3 is processed by secreted P69B and other Asp-selective SBTs in solanaceous plants, providing robust immunity through SBT redundancy. The apoplastic effector EPI1 of P. infestans can block Rcr3 activation by inhibiting SBTs, suggesting that this effector promotes virulence indirectly by preventing the activation of Rcr3(-like) immune proteases. Rcr3 activation in Nicotiana benthamiana requires a SBT from a different subfamily, indicating that extracellular proteolytic cascades have evolved convergently in solanaceous plants or are very ancient in the plant kingdom. The frequent incidence of Asp residues in the cleavage region of Rcr3-like proteases in solanaceous plants indicates that activation of immune proteases by SBTs is a general mechanism, illuminating a proteolytic cascade that provides robust apoplastic immunity.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteólise , Cladosporium , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Phytophthora infestans , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas , Virulência
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110978, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678757

RESUMO

In this study, hydroponic experiments were conducted to elucidate mechanism(s) that are associated with differential effects of low (5 µM) and high (25 µM) dose of cadmium (Cd) stress in tomato. Furthermore, emphasis has also been focused on any involvement of endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in differential behaviour of low and high doses of Cd stress. At low dose of Cd, root growth i.e. root fresh weight, length and fitness did not significantly alter when compared to the control seedlings. Though at low dose of Cd, cellular accumulation of Cd was slightly increased but this was accompanied by higher endogenous H2S and phytochelatins, L-cysteine desulfhydrase (DES) activity, activities of glutathione biosynthetic and AsA-GSH cycle enzymes, and maintained redox status of ascorbate and glutathione. However, addition of hypotaurine (HT, a scavenger of H2S) resulted in greater toxicity, even at low dose of Cd, and these responses resembled with higher dose of Cd stress such as greater decline in root growth, endogenous H2S and phytochelatins, activities of DES, glutathione biosynthesis and AsA-GSH cycle enzymes, disturbed redox status of ascorbate and glutathione which collectively led to higher oxidative stress in tomato roots. Moreover, addition of HT with higher dose of Cd also further enhanced its toxicity. Collectively, the results showed that differential behaviour of low and high dose of Cd stress is mediated by differential regulation of biochemical attributes in which endogenous H2S has a crucial role.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoquelatinas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
5.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(9): 844-853, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657218

RESUMO

A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of biochar on the growth and uptake of Pb and Zn by tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum, L.) cultivated in two highly contaminated Kosovo soils, A and B. Plants were cultivated in the biochar amended and unamended soils. As expected, the biochar addition to the two polluted soils has contributed to significantly improve the crop yields, in terms of both fresh and dry weight. Further, results indicated that the effect of biochar on metal mobility is closely related, besides its properties, to soil's native characteristics. In fact, the addition of biochar to soil B had also beneficial effects on the uptake of both metals, halving in some cases the values of the biological accumulation and transfer coefficients, while it did not show the same efficacy on soil A.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Zinco/farmacocinética , Kosovo , Chumbo/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco/análise
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110869, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585490

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) contamination is a potential threat to the agricultural soil. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have potential to remediate the heavy metal polluted soils. It was hypothesized that Cr phytoremediation potentiality of AM fungi could be enhanced in combination with saprophytic filamentous fungi and soil amendment. Tomato plants were raised in Cr polluted technosol amended with compost, inoculated with mixed-culture of AM fungi and Aspergillus terreus. It was found that, triple treatment (soil amendment with compost along with AM fungi and A. terreus inoculation) enhanced biomass production (up to 315%), fruit setting (up to 49%), photosynthetic pigments (up to 214%) and carbohydrate content (up to 400%) whereas reduced the proline (up to 76.5%), catalase (up to 34.2%), peroxidase (up to 58.9%) and root membrane permeability (up to 74.2%). The effect of AM fungi with compost amendment was additive, while it was synergistic with A. terreus. AM fungi enhanced the extraction of Cr from the substrate, but retained in the mycorrhizal root, thereby reduced the translocation into shoot and in fruit, Cr translocation was undetectable. At the end of experiment Cr content in the substrate was significantly decreased (up to 37.9%). Soil amendment with compost along with AM fungi and A. terreus inoculation can be used for reclamation of Cr polluted soils at field scale.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/fisiologia , Cromo/farmacocinética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Catalase/metabolismo , Compostagem , Lycopersicon esculentum/enzimologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13800-13809, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493747

RESUMO

While colocalization within a bacterial operon enables coexpression of the constituent genes, the mechanistic logic of clustering of nonhomologous monocistronic genes in eukaryotes is not immediately obvious. Biosynthetic gene clusters that encode pathways for specialized metabolites are an exception to the classical eukaryote rule of random gene location and provide paradigmatic exemplars with which to understand eukaryotic cluster dynamics and regulation. Here, using 3C, Hi-C, and Capture Hi-C (CHi-C) organ-specific chromosome conformation capture techniques along with high-resolution microscopy, we investigate how chromosome topology relates to transcriptional activity of clustered biosynthetic pathway genes in Arabidopsis thaliana Our analyses reveal that biosynthetic gene clusters are embedded in local hot spots of 3D contacts that segregate cluster regions from the surrounding chromosome environment. The spatial conformation of these cluster-associated domains differs between transcriptionally active and silenced clusters. We further show that silenced clusters associate with heterochromatic chromosomal domains toward the periphery of the nucleus, while transcriptionally active clusters relocate away from the nuclear periphery. Examination of chromosome structure at unrelated clusters in maize, rice, and tomato indicates that integration of clustered pathway genes into distinct topological domains is a common feature in plant genomes. Our results shed light on the potential mechanisms that constrain coexpression within clusters of nonhomologous eukaryotic genes and suggest that gene clustering in the one-dimensional chromosome is accompanied by compartmentalization of the 3D chromosome.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/metabolismo , Genoma de Planta , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234011, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484825

RESUMO

The tomato AGC protein kinase Adi3 is a Ser/Thr kinase that functions as a negative regulator of programmed cell death through cell death suppression (CDS) activity in the nucleus. In this study, to understand the mechanism of Adi3 CDS, peptide microarrays containing random Ser- and Thr-peptide phosphorylation substrates were used to screen for downstream phosphorylation substrates. In the microarray phosphorylation assay, Adi3 showed promiscuous kinase activity more toward Ser-peptides compared to Thr-peptides, and a preference for aromatic and cyclic amino acids on both Ser- and Thr-peptides was seen. The 63 highest phosphorylated peptide sequences from the Ser-peptide microarray were selected as queries for a BLAST search against the tomato proteome. As a result, 294 candidate nuclear Adi3 substrates were selected and categorized based on their functions. Many of these proteins were classified as DNA/RNA polymerases or regulators involved in transcription and translation events. The list of potential Adi3 substrates was narrowed to eleven and four candidates were tested for phosphorylation by Adi3. Two of these candidates, RNA polymerase II 2nd largest subunit (RPB2) and the pathogen defense related transcription factor Pti5, were confirmed as Adi3 phosphorylation substrates by in vitro kinase assays. Using a mutational approach two residues, Thr675 and Thr676, were identified as Adi3 phosphorylation sites on RPB2. This study provides the foundation for understanding Adi3 CDS mechanisms in the nucleus as well as other cellular functions.


Assuntos
Morte Celular/genética , Peptídeos/genética , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Núcleo Celular/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Análise em Microsséries , Mutação/genética , Fosforilação/genética , Proteínas Quinases/genética
9.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108439, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504553

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with cigarette smoking being the single most important risk factor for both. Emerging evidence indicates alterations in reverse cholesterol transport-mediated removal of excess cholesterol from lung, and intracellular cholesterol overload to be involved in smoke-promoted COPD and lung cancer development. Since there are currently few effective treatments for COPD and lung cancer, it is important to identify food-derived, biologically active compounds, which can protect against COPD and lung cancer development. High intake of the carotenoid lycopene, as one of phytochemicals, is associated with a decreased risk of chronic lung lesions. This review article summarizes and discusses epidemiologic evidence, in vitro and in vivo studies regarding the prevention of smoke-promoted COPD and lung carcinogenesis through dietary lycopene as an effective intervention strategy. We focus on the recent research implying that lycopene preventive effect is through targeting the main genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport. This review also indicates gaps in knowledge about the function of lycopene against COPD and lung cancer, offering directions for further research.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Licopeno/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticarcinógenos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Licopeno/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474386

RESUMO

It was aimed to examine the role of gibberellic acid (GA) induced production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in alleviating boron toxicity (BT) in tomato plants. Two weeks after germination, a solution consisting of GA (100 mg L-1) was sprayed once a week for 14 days to the leaves of cv. "SC 2121" of tomato under BT stress (BT; 2.0 mM). Before starting BT treatment, half of the seedlings were retained in a solution containing a scavenger of H2S, 0.1 mM hypotaurine (HT), for 12 h. Boron toxicity led to a substantial decrease in dry biomass, leaf water potential, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, photosynthetic quantum yield (Fv/Fm), ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) in the tomato plants. However, it increased the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and free proline as well as the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase. The supplementation of GA mitigated BT by increasing the endogenous H2S, and leaf Ca2+ and K+, and reducing the contents of leaf H2O2, MDA, and B as well as membrane leakage. GA-induced BT tolerance was further enhanced by the supplementation of sodium hydrosulfide (0.2 mM NaHS), an H2S donor. A scavenger of H2S, hypotaurine (0.1 mM HT) was supplied along with the GA and NaHS treatments to assess if H2S was involved in GA-induced BT tolerance of tomato plants. Addition of HT reversed the beneficial effect of GA on oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system by reducing the endogenous H2S without changing L-DES activity, suggesting that H2S participates in GA-induced tolerance to BT of tomato plants.


Assuntos
Boro/toxicidade , Giberelinas/farmacologia , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes , Clorofila , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Malondialdeído , Estresse Oxidativo , Plântula
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 16043-16054, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571919

RESUMO

In the indeterminate nodules of a model legume Medicago truncatula, ∼700 nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides with conserved cysteine signature are expressed. NCR peptides are highly diverse in sequence, and some of these cationic peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding their structural architecture, antifungal activity, and modes of action against plant fungal pathogens. Here, the three-dimensional NMR structure of the 36-amino acid NCR044 peptide was solved. This unique structure was largely disordered and highly dynamic with one four-residue α-helix and one three-residue antiparallel ß-sheet stabilized by two disulfide bonds. NCR044 peptide also exhibited potent fungicidal activity against multiple plant fungal pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea and three Fusarium spp. It inhibited germination in quiescent spores of B. cinerea In germlings, it breached the fungal plasma membrane and induced reactive oxygen species. It bound to multiple bioactive phosphoinositides in vitro. Time-lapse confocal and superresolution microscopy revealed strong fungal cell wall binding, penetration of the cell membrane at discrete foci, followed by gradual loss of turgor, subsequent accumulation in the cytoplasm, and elevated levels in nucleoli of germlings. Spray-applied NCR044 significantly reduced gray mold disease symptoms caused by the fungal pathogen B. cinerea in tomato and tobacco plants, and postharvest products. Our work illustrates the antifungal activity of a structurally unique NCR peptide against plant fungal pathogens and paves the way for future development of this class of peptides as a spray-on fungistat/fungicide.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Simbiose , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Botrytis/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Cisteína/química , Fusarium/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Medicago truncatula/microbiologia , Pichia/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110720, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470680

RESUMO

Acid rain is a widespread environmental issue intensely affecting normal plant growth of crops. Melatonin is well known pleiotropic molecule which improves abiotic and biotic stress tolerance of plants through physiological and molecular mediation. However, the impact of exogenous melatonin on molecular activities under acid rain conditions in plants has never been studied. The objective of the study is to expose the possible role of exogenous melatonin on physiological and molecular changes against acid rain stress in tomato. Transcriptome profile through RNA-sequence analysis identified 1228, 1120 and 1537 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in control plant (Ctr) vs simulated acid rain stressed plant (P25) comparison, control plant vs melatonin treatment in simulated acid rain stressed plant (P25M) comparison and P25 vs P25M comparison, respectively. Among them, 152 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were commonly expressed and the expression of secondary metabolites related gene was noticeably observed in all comparison. Moreover, transcript families such as ERF, WRKY, MYB and bZIP related gene accounted more in all treatment comparison. The RNA-sequence and qPCR results indicated that exogenous melatonin is closely associated with acid rain stress moderator and might be involved in alteration of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites and transcriptional factor encoding genes expression which might have potential application against environmental hazardous conditions.


Assuntos
Chuva Ácida/efeitos adversos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232228, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353077

RESUMO

Heat stress is one of the major abiotic stresses that impair plant growth and crop productivity. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPEB) and humic acid (HA) are used as bio-stimulants and ecofriendly approaches to improve agriculture crop production and counteract the negative effects of heat stress. Current study aimed to analyze the effect of thermotolerant SA1 an isolate of Bacillus cereus and HA on tomato seedlings. The results showed that combine application of SA1+HA significantly improved the biomass and chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato plants under normal and heat stress conditions. Heat stress increased abscisic acid (ABA) and reduced salicylic acid (SA) content; however, combined application of SA1+HA markedly reduced ABA and increased SA. Antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that SA1 and HA treated plants exhibited increased levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced glutathione (GSH). In addition, heat stress markedly reduced the amino acid contents; however, the amino acids were increased with co-application of SA1+HA. Similarly, inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry results showed that plants treated with SA1+HA exhibited significantly higher iron (Fe+), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K+) uptake during heat stress. Heat stress increased the relative expression of SlWRKY33b and autophagy-related (SlATG5) genes, whereas co-application of SA1+HA augmented the heat stress response and reduced SlWRKY33b and SlATG5 expression. The heat stress-responsive transcription factor (SlHsfA1a) and high-affinity potassium transporter (SlHKT1) were upregulated in SA1+HA-treated plants. In conclusion, current findings suggest that co-application with SA1+HA can be used for the mitigation of heat stress damage in tomato plants and can be commercialized as a biofertilizer.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Glutationa/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Substâncias Húmicas , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(3): 518-528, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237545

RESUMO

In order to explore the effect of intercropping on the uptake of heavy metal cadmium (Cd), pot experiments were undertaken using three different planting methods: monoculture, restrictive intercropping and intercropping. The effects of Cd accumulation in different plant parts, and their causes, were examined using a plant species regarded as a relatively high heavy metal accumulator (tomato: Lycopersicon esculentum var. Zhongshu 4) and a species regarded as a relatively low heavy metal accumulator (maize: Zea mays L. var. Jinzhumi). Cd levels for all experiments were 3.70 mg/kg. Results indicate that restricted intercropping and intercropping of tomato and maize increased the accumulation of Cd (from 13.52 mg/kg to 24.94 mg/kg and 27.30 mg/kg in tomato leaf, respectively). Compared with the control group, pH levels in soil surrounding tomato roots in the intercropped samples decreased and the activity of acid phosphatase increased, while the activity of urease decreased. Intercropping can also change the structure of the crop root microorganism population, increase the abundance of microbiological species that promote the uptake of heavy metals, and finally achieve high accumulation of Cd in tomatoes. Our research results provide reference for controlling soil heavy metal pollution and ensuring food safety by using an intercropping model.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Cádmio , Lycopersicon esculentum , Poluentes do Solo , Zea mays , Agricultura/métodos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
15.
Gene ; 746: 144652, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259631

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel branch of noncoding RNAs, are widespread in eukaryotic cells. Particularly, due to their abilities to bind microRNA (miRNA) and serve as "sponges", circRNAs can regulate gene expression and participate in multiple biological processes. To detect the function of the circRNAs in tomato resistance, in our study, high-throughput sequencing were used to detect the circRNAs in tomatoes before and after Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans) infection. A total of 68 circRNAs were identified, of them, 18 (26%) were termed as exonic circRNAs, 33 (49%) were termed as intergenic circRNAs, 17 (25%) were termed as intronic circRNAs. Thirty-six out of 68 circRNAs differentially expressed in tomatoes after infection, including 9 up- and 27 down-regulated. Among the up-regulated circRNAs, two exoinc circRNAs, circRNA45 and circRNA47 were annotated as whitefly-induced gp91-phox and ethylene-forming enzyme, respectively. Both of them could act as miR477-3p sponge. Transgenic plants transiently overexpressed circRNA45 and circRNA47 both displayed smaller lesion area than the control plants upon infection, accompanied by lower expression levels of miR477-3p. Furthermore, transiently overexpression of miR477-3p in tomatoes leading to a decline in their targeted disease related genes expression. Our results firstly identified circRNAs in tomato upon P. infestans infection and demonstrated that circRNA45 and circRNA47 may act as positive regulators in tomato resistance by regulating miRNA-mRNAs expression levels.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum , Phytophthora infestans , Doenças das Plantas , RNA Circular , RNA de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , MicroRNAs/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Circular/biossíntese , RNA Circular/genética , RNA de Plantas/biossíntese , RNA de Plantas/genética
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110593, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294596

RESUMO

Arable land contamination with nickel (Ni) has become a major threat to worldwide crop production. Recently, melatonin has appeared as a promising stress-relief substance that can alleviate heavy metal-induced phytotoxicity in plants. However, the plausible underlying mechanism of melatonin function under Ni stress has not been fully substantiated in plants. Herein, we conducted an experiment that unveiled critical mechanisms in favor of melatonin-mediated Ni-stress tolerance in tomato. Ni stress markedly inhibited growth and biomass by impairing the photosynthesis, photosystem function, mineral homeostasis, root activity, and osmotic balance. In contrast, melatonin application notably reinforced the plant growth traits, increased photosynthesis efficiency in terms of chlorophyll content, upregulation of chlorophyll synthesis genes, i.e. POR, CAO, CHL G, gas exchange parameters, and PSII maximum efficiency (Fv/Fm), decreased Ni accumulation and increased mineral nutrient homeostasis. Moreover, melatonin efficiently restricted the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radical production and increased RBOH expression and restored cellular integrity (less malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage) through triggering the antioxidant enzyme activities and modulating AsA-GSH pools. Notably, oxidative stress was effectively mitigated by upregulation of several defense genes (SOD, CAT, APX, GR, GST, MDHAR, DHAR) and melatonin biosynthesis-related genes (TDC, T5S, SNAT, ASMT). Besides, melatonin treatment enhanced secondary metabolites (phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanin) contents along with their encoding genes (PAL, CHS) expression, and these metabolites potentially restricted excess H2O2 accumulation. In conclusion, our findings deciphered the potential functions of melatonin in alleviating Ni-induced phytotoxicity in tomato through boosting the biomass production, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, redox balance, and secondary metabolism.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Níquel/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Níquel/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230646, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208468

RESUMO

Pesticides, widely used in modern agriculture, could potentially cause environmental pollution and affect human lives. Hence, the development of a highly sensitive sensing element to detect pesticide residues is crucial for food safety and ecosystem protection. Optical methods based on fluorescence properties provide an ideal approach for screening and quantification of these compounds in different medias including water, plant, and nutritional products. The development of fluorescence emitting carbon dot-based sensors for monitoring pesticides has attracted great attention in recent years. In comparison to other fluorophores, carbon dots have more promising optical features, higher quantum yields and better biocompatibility. This article aims to present a novel fluorescent sensing method of diazinon, glyphosate, and amicarbazone using plant-based carbon dots. A comprehensive characterization of carbon dots obtained from cauliflower was performed by methods including UV-visible, FTIR spectroscopy, fluorometry, AFM, DLS, and zeta sizer. Following this step, carbon dots were used to detect pesticides. The fluorescence quenching property of carbon dots has been utilized to identify detection limit of 0.25, 0.5, and 2 ng ml-1 for diazinon, amicarbazone, and glyphosate, respectively. Also, real sample study revealed that the detection of pesticides accompanied by our developed nano-sensor is repeatable and accurate. According to carbon dots specificity determination, the prepared nano sensor does not have the potential to identify "bromacil" and "dialen super" pesticides but the other three mentioned pesticides are detectable. The results confirm that synthesized green carbon dots are well qualified for application in food safety and environmental monitoring.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Praguicidas/análise , Pontos Quânticos/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Diazinon/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/análise , Limite de Detecção , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Triazóis/análise
18.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101558

RESUMO

We hypothesize that by simulating the natural priming in seeds of a species that forms transient seed banks it is possible to clarify molecular aspects of germination that lead to the recruitment of seedlings when the next rainy season begins. We used seeds of Solanum lycocarpum as a biological model. Our findings support the idea that the increment of seed germination kinetics when the rainy season returns is mainly based on the metabolism and embryonic growth, and that the hydropriming, at the end of seed dispersion, increases the germination window time of these seeds by mainly increasing the degradation of galactomannan of the cell wall. This can improve the energy supply (based on carbon metabolism) for seedling growth in post-germination, which improves the seedling's survival chances. From these findings, we promote a hypothetical model about how the priming at the end of the rainy season acts on mRNA synthesis in the germination of seeds from transient banks and the consequence of this priming at the beginning of the following rainy season. This model predicts that besides the Gibberellin and Abscisic Acid balance (content and sensitivity), Auxin would be a key component for the seed-seedling transition in Neotropical areas. Seed collection was performed under authorization number SISGEN AB0EB45.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Germinação , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Teóricos , Chuva , Banco de Sementes , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Dispersão de Sementes , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(4): 903-914, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary supplementation with carotenoids can have beneficial health effects, but carotenoids are poorly absorbed. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate how milk fermented by lactic acid bacteria affects dietary carotenoid bioavailability in humans and rats and to investigate mechanisms by which active components in milk fermented by Lactobacilli enhance dietary carotenoid absorption. METHODS: Male rats (n = 8/group) were administered ß-carotene or ß-carotene + fermented milk. Rats (n = 6/group) were also pretreated with ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, to investigate ß-carotene transport mechanisms. In humans, 3 studies were conducted using a randomized crossover method. Subjects (n = 16/study) consumed a vegetable (carrot, tomato, or spinach) drink alone or with a fermented milk drink. Blood samples were collected at various time points after consumption. RESULTS: In rats, the serum ß-carotene area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was significantly higher for the ß-carotene + fermented milk than for ß-carotene only. A significant correlation (r = 0.83, P < 0.001) between the exopolysaccharide (EPS) content of fermented milk and serum ß-carotene AUC was observed. Ezetimibe treatment did not suppress elevations in serum ß-carotene concentrations induced by fermented milk ingestion. In humans, the incremental area under the concentration-time curve (iAUC) for ß-carotene in the plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction was significantly (1.8-fold, range: 0.6-3.9) higher when carrot + fermented milk was consumed compared with carrot drink alone. A significantly (6.5-fold, range: 0.04-7.7) higher iAUC for lycopene in the plasma TRL fraction was observed for subjects who consumed tomato + fermented milk compared with tomato drink alone. A significant increase in plasma lutein in all fractions was observed after consumption of spinach + fermented milk, but not with spinach drink alone. CONCLUSIONS: Co-ingestion of ß-carotene and fermented milk significantly increased dietary ß-carotene bioavailability in humans and rats. EPSs could affect the physical properties of fermented milk to enhance dietary ß-carotene absorption mediated by simple diffusion mechanisms. These findings may be relevant for methods to increase dietary carotenoid bioavailability.This trial was registered at umin.ac.jp/ctr as UMIN000034838, UMIN000034839, and UMIN000034840.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Leite/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Daucus carota/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Masculino , Leite/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Verduras/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(7): 3874-3883, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015118

RESUMO

Microbial communities associated with roots confer specific functions to their hosts, thereby modulating plant growth, health, and productivity. Yet, seminal questions remain largely unaddressed including whether and how the rhizosphere microbiome modulates root metabolism and exudation and, consequently, how plants fine tune this complex belowground web of interactions. Here we show that, through a process termed systemically induced root exudation of metabolites (SIREM), different microbial communities induce specific systemic changes in tomato root exudation. For instance, systemic exudation of acylsugars secondary metabolites is triggered by local colonization of bacteria affiliated with the genus Bacillus Moreover, both leaf and systemic root metabolomes and transcriptomes change according to the rhizosphere microbial community structure. Analysis of the systemic root metabolome points to glycosylated azelaic acid as a potential microbiome-induced signaling molecule that is subsequently exuded as free azelaic acid. Our results demonstrate that rhizosphere microbiome assembly drives the SIREM process at the molecular and chemical levels. It highlights a thus-far unexplored long-distance signaling phenomenon that may regulate soil conditioning.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microbiota , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia , Rizosfera , Solo/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA