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1.
Food Chem ; 343: 128396, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131949

RESUMO

Lycopene is a potent lipophilic antioxidant in tomato. We aim to clarify the evidence for associations between tomato and lycopene and multiple health outcomes. Umbrella review of meta-analyses and systematic reviews was performed in humans. A total of 174 articles were searched, 17 articles with 20 health outcomes were identified by eligibility criteria. Tomato intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease mortality, cerebrovascular disease mortality, prostate cancer, and gastric cancer. Dietary lycopene intake or serum lycopene was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, prostate cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and male infertility. Caution was warranted for potential allergy and pollution. The quality of the vast majority of evidence by GRADE was low or very low with the remaining six as moderate. The intake of tomato or lycopene was generally safe and beneficial for multiple health outcomes in humans. But the quality of the evidence was not high.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Licopeno/administração & dosagem , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Antioxidantes/química , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Humanos , Licopeno/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
2.
Food Chem ; 338: 128062, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950009

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of freeze drying and oven drying on appearance, chemical components and antioxidant activities of three cultivars of tomatoes. This study showed cultivar 18,131 would provide the highest phenolic contents and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and cultivar 1862 provide the highest lycopene content after oven drying. On the basis of appearance and contents of polyphenols, freeze drying showed better results. However, oven drying was found superior in decreasing degradation of lycopene. The effects of drying on the polyphenol contents varied depending on the cultivars. In addition, there is no significant difference of antioxidant activities between freeze dried and oven dried tomatoes. These results also demonstrated that freeze drying is superior in maintaining physical structure and phenolic contents of tomato slices. However, oven drying is a viable option for drying tomatoes considering both costing and contents of lycopene.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Dessecação/métodos , Licopeno/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Polifenóis/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Liofilização , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Análise de Componente Principal
3.
Food Chem ; 340: 127925, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889213

RESUMO

The addition of strawberry pulp to ketchup sauces may be an alternative to attend the consumers' demand for innovative products with functional appeal. Sauces were made using different tomato/strawberry pulp ratios (100:0; 75:25; 50:50; 25:75; 0:100) and characterized for the physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and consumers' acceptance. The strawberry-enriched ketchup sauces presented higher phenolics, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, and increased fluidity, and lower browning index, hue angle, chroma, pH, and Bostwick consistency. The antioxidant activities (ABTS and DPPH) were positively correlated with phenolics (r = 0.96 and 0.91) and flavonoids (r = 0.92 and 0.89) contents, respectively. The replacement of up to 50% tomato pulp by strawberry pulp did not change the acidity, flavor, and overall acceptance of the samples. The strawberry pulp has proven to be an effective alternative to increase the concentrations of bioactive compounds while reducing the amount of sugar used in traditional ketchup formulations.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Alimentos , Fragaria/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Flavonoides/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenóis/análise , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Food Sci ; 85(11): 3806-3814, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073376

RESUMO

Tomato is an important source of health-promoting constituents, and researchers have focused on enhancing the content. In the present study, the influence of net-house (NH) and open-field (OF) growing conditions on physicochemical traits of tomatoes from eight different cultivars were evaluated. The tomato fruit qualities, such as color, total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), and pH were measured. Furthermore, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS) was used for identification and quantification of health-promoting compounds such as ascorbic acid, ß-carotene, lycopene, and its isomers. In addition, in vitro bile acid binding capacity of all tomato samples was analyzed along with soluble and insoluble dietary fiber analysis as biofunctional properties. The results suggest that production systems influenced tomato fruit quality and biofunctional characteristics in a variety-specific manner. Notably, TA and all-trans-ß-carotene values were considerably influenced by production systems, and their levels were higher in the NH- and OF-grown tomatoes, respectively. Our findings underline the importance of the rational choice of genotype and production system to obtain high-quality tomatoes with enhanced desired traits for breeders and consumers. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Tomato is one of the nutritional high-valued horticultural crops. The present study aimed to assess the impact of production systems, such as net-house and open-field conditions, on physicochemical traits and biofunctional properties, in vitro bile acid binding capacity of eight tomato varieties. This study supplies a good reference for the rational selection of genotype and production system to obtain high-quality tomatoes with improved desired traits for breeders and consumers.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Genótipo , Humanos
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(11): 1509-1516, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055449

RESUMO

Mono-(5Z)-, -(9Z)-, and -(13Z)-lycopenes are found in food containing processed tomato products, while tetra-Z-(7Z, 9Z, 7'Z, 9'Z)-lycopene (prolycopene) is found in tangerine-strain tomatoes. We prepared pure mono-Z-lycopenes from all-E-lycopene via chemical reaction (heating in CH2Cl2 at 80℃ for 1 h) followed by purification using preparative silica gel HPLC, while prolycopene was isolated from tangerine tomatoes by partitioning with n-hexane and 90% MeOH followed by silica gel column chromatography. A simple method of distinguishing the mono-Z-lycopenes using the 13C NMR chemical shifts of their Z-methyl carbons is proposed. Additionally, the 1O2 quenching and 3T3-L1 cell differentiation activities of the compounds were then compared with all-E-lycopene for the first time. All the evaluated Z-isomers showed 1O2 quenching activities that were equal to or slightly lower than that of all-E-lycopene, with the IC50 values for the 1O2 quenching activities of (all-E)-, (5Z)-, (9Z)-, (13Z)-, and (7Z, 9Z, 7'Z, 9'Z)-lycopene being 4.4±0.36, 4.0±1.44, 5.3±1.08, 6.9±1.67, and 8.7±0.34 µM, respectively. The mouse 3T3-L1 cell differentiation activities followed the order: (all-E) > (9Z) > (5Z) ≈ (9Z) ≈ (13Z) ≈ (7Z, 9Z, 7'Z, 9'Z).


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Licopeno/isolamento & purificação , Licopeno/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hexanos , Isomerismo , Licopeno/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metanol , Camundongos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Temperatura
6.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 155: 888-897, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32905983

RESUMO

In tomato production, the accruing green biomass shows promising potential as source of health-promoting compounds, such as rutin and solanesol, that are of high interest due to their medicinal properties. Naturally, they accumulate in plants growing in suboptimal growing conditions, e.g. influenced by biotic and abiotic stressors. With the aim to evaluate the potential use of tomato residues as source, we analyzed both leaf metabolites during a complete cultivation cycle, while applying single and combined stresses practically realized in greenhouse production. In the late season, contents of both metabolites were significantly enhanced by nutrient deficit in combination with 2 °C colder nights for 4 weeks and prolonged for in total 9 weeks. Particularly, higher solanesol contents were achieved by salt stress and elevated temperature after one week, even stronger when combined with drought. At harvest, stressed plants consist of less green biomass reducing the overall economic potential. However, practicable abiotic stresses should be considered as potential tool to induce the accumulation of beneficial compounds. Extracting profitable metabolites from the green biomass of the model crop tomato supports the overall goal to promote sustainable approaches in horticultural production.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Rutina/análise , Terpenos/análise , Biomassa , Secas
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15970, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994443

RESUMO

Plant roots are able to exude vast amounts of metabolites into the rhizosphere in response to phosphorus (P) deficiency. Causing noteworthy costs in terms of energy and carbon (C) for the plants. Therefore, it is suggested that exudates reacquisition by roots could represent an energy saving strategy of plants. This study aimed at investigating the effect of P deficiency on the ability of hydroponically grown tomato plants to re-acquire specific compounds generally present in root exudates by using 13C-labelled molecules. Results showed that P deficient tomato plants were able to take up citrate (+ 37%) and malate (+ 37%), particularly when compared to controls. While glycine (+ 42%) and fructose (+ 49%) uptake was enhanced in P shortage, glucose acquisition was not affected by the nutritional status. Unexpectedly, results also showed that P deficiency leads to a 13C enrichment in both tomato roots and shoots over time (shoots-+ 2.66‰, roots-+ 2.64‰, compared to control plants), probably due to stomata closure triggered by P deficiency. These findings highlight that tomato plants are able to take up a wide range of metabolites belonging to root exudates, thus maximizing C trade off. This trait is particularly evident when plants grew in P deficiency.


Assuntos
Exsudatos e Transudatos/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fósforo/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Exsudatos e Transudatos/metabolismo , Frutose/química , Frutose/metabolismo , Glicina/química , Glicina/metabolismo , Hidroponia/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Malatos/química , Malatos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química
8.
J Food Sci ; 85(10): 3264-3272, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885436

RESUMO

In this work, a new type of tomato puree was obtained from the whole fruit including seeds and skins without any waste. Currently, the food industry aims to develop products that both bring benefits to consumer health and are ecosustainable. Several efforts in fact have been carried out to revalue tomato by-products, such as seeds and skins, for human use. The physicochemical properties of the whole tomato puree immediately after production and after 6 months of storage were investigated and compared to the properties of a traditional tomato puree. Two tomato varieties were used in this study: Villa Literno and Piccadilly. pH, dry weight, water activity, titratable acidity, reducing sugars, soluble solid, lycopene, polyphenol, and volatile organic compound contents were evaluated. Tomato puree obtained from whole fruits mainly showed higher lycopene (90 to 150 mg/kg), flavonoid (39 to 41 mg/kg), and aldehyde (in particular hexanal) contents and a greater stability over time compared to those of the traditional puree. The proposed process allowed to obtain a tomato puree with a higher content of bioactive compounds, producing no waste. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: In this study, we proposed a new type of tomato puree made from the whole fruit. The whole tomato puree is richer in phenolic compounds and volatile organic compounds than the traditional puree that is made by removing skins and seeds. It can be an interesting product for the food industries because it is a source of bioactive compounds and reduces to zero the amount of waste.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Preparações de Plantas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Licopeno/análise , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 333: 127439, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653686

RESUMO

Anthocyanin is derived from a flavylium cation structure, and it promotes health in humans and functions in plants as protection against environmental stress. The rapid analysis of anthocyanin structure and content is a critical challenge for improving fruit quality. In this study, the tomato cultivar Indigo Rose, which is a popular purple cultivated tomato used for breeding, was taken as an example for anthocyanin analysis. A rapid analysis method was developed to minimize anthocyanin loss from the fresh fruit. Four new anthocyanins were discovered in the tomato, and the structures of a total of 12 anthocyanins were determined. Among these, petunidin-3-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the main anthocyanins in Indigo Rose. The structural modifications of these anthocyanins were mainly glycosylation and acylation, and there were also hydroxylation and methylation. Our findings provide new insight into the biosynthesis pathway in tomato fruit.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Acilação , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Frutas/química , Glicosilação , Estrutura Molecular
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12704, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728091

RESUMO

The role of root exudates in mediating plant-microbe interactions has been well documented. However, the function of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plant roots has only recently begun to attract attention. This newly recognized relevance of belowground VOCs has so far mostly been tested using systems limited to a two-compartment Petri-dish design. Furthermore, many of the plant-microbe interaction studies have only investigated the effects of microbial VOCs on plant growth. Here, we go two steps further. First we investigated the volatile profile of healthy and pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum) infected tomato roots grown in soil. We then used a unique soil-based olfactometer-choice assay to compare the migration pattern of four beneficial bacteria (Bacillus spp.) towards the roots of the tomato plants. We demonstrate that the blend of root-emitted VOCs differs between healthy and diseased plants. Our results show that VOCs are involved in attracting bacteria to plant roots.


Assuntos
Bacillus/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cromatografia Gasosa , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo
11.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(10): 865-875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657214

RESUMO

This research aimed at implementing and validating a method for analysis of pesticide residues in crops. QuEChERS extraction method with PSA purification was used following analyzes by gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in Selected Reaction Monitoring mode. A short run method was successfully developed for the determination of 41 pesticides, confirmed by two precursor-products for each analyte. The calibration curve for each analyte was linear at concentration range from 1 to 500 µg kg-1 with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99, low limits of detection (0.03 - 10.22 µg kg-1) and satisfactory precision. The developed method was used to investigate apples; mangos; strawberries; cucumbers and tomatoes from the Rio de Janeiro Food Distribution Center (CEASA).Most of the targeted pesticides (78%) were below detection limits. Apple and strawberry presented the highest pesticide contamination levels, many of which are not authorized by tthe Brazilian national regulatory agency (ANVISA).


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Triazinas/análise , Brasil , Cucumis sativus/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fragaria/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Malus/química , Mangifera/química
12.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 325-331, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647963

RESUMO

The objectives of this study was to diagnose Cd and Pb contamination in soil and to identify the main factors that contribute to the transfer of these elements to tomato plants and fruits and contamination levels of the fruits in tropical mountain conditions. Contamination of the study area soils by Cd and Pb was verified. This contamination stemmed from the intensive use of agricultural inputs, mainly organic fertilizers and soluble mineral fertilizers. The relief of the terrain and inadequate soil management influenced the spatial distribution of these two metals. The Cd concentration in tomato fruits was very low, but the Pb contamination detected in approximately 80% of the fruit samples was considerably higher than the limits that pose a danger to human health. The translocation of Pb to the tomato fruits was associated with the use of organic fertilizer, mainly poultry litter.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais , Solo , Fator de Transferência
13.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 1997-2003, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572983

RESUMO

Designing modified atmosphere packages (MAPs) for fresh produce requires respiration rate (RR) data. A steady-state (SS) approach is widely used but is expensive, tedious, and time-consuming. Unsteady-state (USS) methods mitigate shortcomings of the SS approach, but comparisons between the two approaches have not been done to verify the design outcomes of MAPs, especially those with microperforations. RR measurement methods for grape tomatoes and blueberries were compared. Data were then used to design microperforated MAP packages to compare predicted design specifications created from RR data with observed shelf life. Results show that the USS method provides similar magnitudes of RR and predicts similar numbers of perforations as the SS method. Observations of packages produced using 100 µm perforations, using measured respiration data, suggest that both methods underestimated what might have been deemed correct by about one microperforation. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Designing packaging for fresh produce requires the knowledge of produce respiration. Steady-state methods are conceptually simple, but time-consuming. Unsteady-state methods are rapid. This work compares methods on design of packages.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Vitis/química , Atmosfera , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo
14.
Photochem Photobiol Sci ; 19(7): 879-884, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579662

RESUMO

We investigated the autofluorescence of tomato surface tissues during overripening at 25 °C for 13 days. Microscopic images and fluorescence spectra of tissues, including the epidermis and cuticle, were examined (excitation at 360 nm), revealing that the autofluorescence changes were related to the epidermis, particularly the fluorophores in the cuticle.


Assuntos
Epiderme/química , Fluorescência , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Propriedades de Superfície
15.
Food Chem ; 330: 127202, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531637

RESUMO

The effect of supercritical fluid extract of tomato pomace (TP) and essential oil of organic peppermint (PM) on pH, color, residual nitrite content, lipid oxidation (TBARS value) and total plate count (TPC) of cooked pork sausages produced with 50 mg/kg of sodium nitrite was investigated. Five batches were produced: T1: 100 mg/kg of sodium nitrite; T2: 50 mg of sodium nitrite; T3: 50 mg of sodium nitrite and 0.150 µL/g TP; T4: 50 mg of sodium nitrite, 0.075 µL/g TP and 0.075 µL/g PM; T5: 50 mg of sodium nitrite and 0.150 µL/g PM. The lowest residual nitrite content and TBARS value were observed in treatment T4. The inclusion of TP increased redness of cooked pork sausages. TPC was the lowest in treatment T5. The results of this study showed that the addition of TP and PM enhanced quality of cooked sausages produced with reduced level of sodium nitrite.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Mentha piperita/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Nitrito de Sódio/química , Animais , Cor , Culinária , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química , Suínos
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(24): 6776-6787, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396374

RESUMO

Genetic engineering (GE) technology is widely used in plant modification. However, the results of modification may not exactly meet the expectations. Herein, we propose a new multi-omics method for GE plant evaluation based on the optimized use of the metID algorithm. Using this method, we found that flavonoid accumulation was at the expense of the great sacrifice of l-phenylalanine in GE tomatoes for the first time. Meanwhile, the ceramide series of sphingolipid is synthesized de novo from l-serine, and ceramides are the primary source of vesicles coated with flavonoids and secreted from the endoplasmic reticulum. Therefore, the accumulation of the ceramide series of sphingolipid changed the cell component of intracellular organelles. Furthermore, the improvement of the method allows us to identify more metabolites related to dysregulated pathways.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/química , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Engenharia Genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 328: 127134, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473493

RESUMO

An efficient single quadrupole gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of indoxacarb residues in tomato and soil. Residues were extracted from the samples using acetonitrile as extracting solvent and the extracts were purified through primary secondary amine and graphitized carbon black. Recoveries were obtained in the range of 92.12-110.51% with the relative standard deviation of 1.32-4.32%. Indoxacarb dissipated with half-life of 3.12-3.21 and 1.24-1.35d for tomato and soil, respectively following doses of indoxacarb 14.5% SC at 60, 90 and 120 g.a.i./ha. Safe waiting periods were found to be 1-3d. The residues were removed from tomato fruit was in the range of 16.73 to 54.32% using simple decontamination approaches. The present study suggest that the use of indoxacarb in tomato at recommended dose, does not seem to pose any dietary risk to the consumers. The soil RQ values indicated low level of risk to earthworms and arthropods.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Oxazinas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Acetonitrilos/química , Exposição Dietética , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Índia , Oxazinas/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solventes/química , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Phytother Res ; 34(8): 1956-1965, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243013

RESUMO

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) phytochemicals, which include phytoene, phytofluene, beta-carotene, flavonoids, lycopene, and polyphenols, have been shown to improve the effects of fasting on plasma triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting blood sugar (FBS). The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the effects of Tomato TC, TG, HDL, LDL, and FBS in humans. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of sciences, and SCOPUS databases by two researchers for studies published until August of 2019 without language and time limitations. Results were combined with random effect models. Six studies were included in this meta-analysis. Combined results reveal a significant reduction in cholesterol (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -4.39 mg/dl, 95% CI: -7.09, -1.68, I2 = % 48, p heterogeneity: .05), TG (WMD: -3.94 mg/dl, 95% CI: -7.67, -0.21, I2 = % 90, p heterogeneity: .001), LDL levels (WMD: -2.09 mg/dl, 95% CI: -3.73, -0.81, I2 = % 78, p heterogeneity: .001), and increasing in HDL levels (WMD: 2.25 mg/dl, 95% CI: 0.41, 4.10, I2 = % 97, p heterogeneity: .001). Tomato was found to have a higher reduction effect on TG and LDL in younger participants. While pooled results indicate no significant effect on FBS levels (WMD: 0.59 mg/dl, 95% CI: -0.28, 1.46, I2 = % 95, p heterogeneity: .001). In conclusion, the results indicate a significant reduction in total cholesterol, TG, and LDL and increase in HDL levels that is caused by tomato consumption.


Assuntos
Glicemia/química , Lipídeos/sangue , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Jejum , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230646, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208468

RESUMO

Pesticides, widely used in modern agriculture, could potentially cause environmental pollution and affect human lives. Hence, the development of a highly sensitive sensing element to detect pesticide residues is crucial for food safety and ecosystem protection. Optical methods based on fluorescence properties provide an ideal approach for screening and quantification of these compounds in different medias including water, plant, and nutritional products. The development of fluorescence emitting carbon dot-based sensors for monitoring pesticides has attracted great attention in recent years. In comparison to other fluorophores, carbon dots have more promising optical features, higher quantum yields and better biocompatibility. This article aims to present a novel fluorescent sensing method of diazinon, glyphosate, and amicarbazone using plant-based carbon dots. A comprehensive characterization of carbon dots obtained from cauliflower was performed by methods including UV-visible, FTIR spectroscopy, fluorometry, AFM, DLS, and zeta sizer. Following this step, carbon dots were used to detect pesticides. The fluorescence quenching property of carbon dots has been utilized to identify detection limit of 0.25, 0.5, and 2 ng ml-1 for diazinon, amicarbazone, and glyphosate, respectively. Also, real sample study revealed that the detection of pesticides accompanied by our developed nano-sensor is repeatable and accurate. According to carbon dots specificity determination, the prepared nano sensor does not have the potential to identify "bromacil" and "dialen super" pesticides but the other three mentioned pesticides are detectable. The results confirm that synthesized green carbon dots are well qualified for application in food safety and environmental monitoring.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Praguicidas/análise , Pontos Quânticos/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Diazinon/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Glicina/análise , Limite de Detecção , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Triazóis/análise
20.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178255

RESUMO

Benefits of nanotechnology in agriculture include reduced fertilizer loss, improved seed germination rate and increased crops quality and yield. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), at 1500 ppm, on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growth. ZnO-NPs were synthetized to produce either spherical or hexagonal morphologies. In this research, we also studied two application methods (foliar and drench) and nanoparticles' (NPs) surface modification with maltodextrin. The results obtained indicate that ZnO-NP-treated tomato plants significantly increased plant height, stem diameter and plant organs (leaves, stem and root) dry weight compared to plants without NP treatment.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Fertilizantes , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido de Zinco/química
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