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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131061, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547556

RESUMO

This is the first study revealing effects of aspartic acid (AA), proline and valine as well as ascorbic acid on individual anthocyanins in pomegranate and orange juice blend (POJB) during heating at 90-150 â„ƒ. Effect of amino acids on colour and anthocyanin stability varied depending on heating temperature. At 90 â„ƒ (3 h), AA, proline and valine increased (up to 4.7 times) contents of cyanidin-3-glucoside and total anthocyanin, and cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside stability. At 105 â„ƒ (2 h), AA and valine caused the highest absorbance value at maximum wavelength (Amax) and high anthocyanin stability, which pointed out copigmentation. At 150 â„ƒ (0.5 h), AA and valine increased (up to 11%) stabilities of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside and delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, and caused the highest Amax. Owing to copigmentation by hydrophobic interactions/hydrogen bond, degradative effect of ascorbic acid on anthocyanins was slowed down. Thus, these three amino acids might have a high potential for copigmentation in products containing anthocyanins and ascorbic acid at high concentration.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Lythraceae , Romã (Fruta) , Aminoácidos , Antocianinas
2.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641346

RESUMO

In this study, we present the isolation and characterization of the structure of six gallotannins (1-6), three ellagitannins (7-9), a neolignan glucoside (10), and three related polyphenolic compounds (gallic acid, 11 and 12) from Trapa bispinosa Roxb. pericarp extract (TBE). Among the isolates, the structure of compound 10 possessing a previously unclear absolute configuration was unambiguously determined through nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism analyses. The α-glucosidase activity and glycation inhibitory effects of the isolates were evaluated. Decarboxylated rugosin A (8) showed an α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, while hydrolyzable tannins revealed stronger antiglycation activity than that of the positive control. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of the TBE polyphenols were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis, indicating the predominance of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and galloyl glucoses showing marked antiglycation properties. These findings suggest that there is a potential food industry application of polyphenols in TBE as a functional food with antidiabetic and antiglycation activities.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Lythraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Dicroísmo Circular , Ácido Elágico/isolamento & purificação , Indústria Alimentícia , Alimento Funcional/análise , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
3.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 434, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crape myrtles, belonging to the genus Lagerstroemia L., have beautiful paniculate inflorescences and are cultivated as important ornamental tree species for landscaping and gardening. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Lagerstroemia have remained unresolved likely caused by limited sampling and the insufficient number of informative sites used in previous studies. RESULTS: In this study, we sequenced 20 Lagerstroemia chloroplast genomes and combined with 15 existing chloroplast genomes from the genus to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and divergence times within Lagerstroemia. The phylogenetic results indicated that this genus is a monophyletic group containing four clades. Our dating analysis suggested that Lagerstroemia originated in the late Paleocene (~ 60 Ma) and started to diversify in the middle Miocene. The diversification of most species occurred during the Pleistocene. Four variable loci, trnD-trnY-trnE, rrn16-trnI, ndhF-rpl32-trnL and ycf1, were discovered in the Lagerstroemia chloroplast genomes. CONCLUSIONS: The chloroplast genome information was successfully utilized for molecular characterization of diverse crape myrtle samples. Our results are valuable for the global genetic diversity assessment, conservation and utilization of Lagerstroemia.


Assuntos
Genoma de Cloroplastos , Lagerstroemia , Lythraceae , Cloroplastos/genética , Lagerstroemia/genética , Lythraceae/genética , Filogenia
4.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 43: 101383, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862350

RESUMO

Pomegranate is one of the most universally studied medicinal plants for its ethnomedical history, with several studies presenting the positive outcome of its use or its extracts in managing inflammation. The objective of the present trial was to investigate the efficiency of the traditionally used 5% of pomegranate peel extract in treating gingival inflammation. Herein, 34 chronic gingivitis patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio for four weeks in a controlled, double-blind clinical trial to evaluate the effect of the adjunctive use of a pulsating jet irrigator containing 5% pomegranate peel extract solution to nonsurgical periodontal therapy against a placebo in managing these patients' condition. No adverse reactions had been reported, and within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that pomegranate peel extract can serve as a promising alternative in managing chronic gingivitis. This trial is registered on the German clinical trials register (DRKS-ID: DRKS00010602).


Assuntos
Gengivite , Lythraceae , Romã (Fruta) , Frutas , Gengivite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112249, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756351

RESUMO

The exotic mangrove species Sonneratia apetala has been planted widely in China since 1985. As an exotic mangrove species, it is important to understand the influence of Sonneratia plantations on marine nematode assemblages. We studied the Zhanjiang and Xiatanwei mangrove wetlands on the South China Coast during the four seasons of 2010 and 2019. The results showed that S. apetala plantations increased the number of genera, Shannon-Wiener diversity, richness, evenness, maturity index (MI) and decreased the index of trophic diversity (ITD) values for nematodes compared to those in mudflats, but did not change significantly compared to those of native mangrove forests. In addition, Sonneratia plantations did not significantly change nematode assemblages compared to those of native mangroves, though they did change significantly compared to those in mudflats. Thus, interplanting S. apetala into native mangrove forests may be an effective substitute for using native mangroves in mangrove plantation.


Assuntos
Lythraceae , Nematoides , Animais , China , Estações do Ano , Áreas Alagadas
6.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 85(3): 666-674, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590040

RESUMO

Water chestnut is a floating leaf plant native to Asia and Europe. Its fruit has long been used as an edible and herbal medicine. Water chestnut contains many polyphenols and its consumption can prevent lifestyle-related diseases because it has a suppressive effect on postprandial blood glucose elevation; however, its suitability as a cosmetic material is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating the antiaging effect of polyphenols contained in the husk of the devil water chestnut (Trapa natans). Six hydrolyzable polyphenols-1,6-di-O-galloyl-ß-d-glucopyranose, 1,2,6-tri-O-galloyl-ß-d-glucopyranose, 1,6-di-O-galloyl-2,3-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-ß-d-glucopyranose (nobotanin D), eugeniin, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-ß-d-glucopyranose, and trapain-were collected and isolated from the water chestnut husk. These polyphenols showed high antioxidant and antiglycation activities. In addition, inhibitory activities against hyaluronidase, elastase, and collagenase were observed. Especially, eugeniin and trapain, which have many gallic acids and a hexahydroxy-biphenyl group, showed high inhibitory activities. Thus, the polyphenols in water chestnut are beneficial for antiaging effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Lythraceae/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrólise , Pele/enzimologia
7.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 40(6): 502-516, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606612

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It was aimed at comparing the glycating capacities of glucose and ribose in bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anti-glycation activity of pomegranate mesocarp extract (PME). The protective mechanism of PME against ribosylated BSA (BSARIB)-induced toxicity was also investigated. METHODS: BSA was incubated with glucose or ribose in the presence or absence of PME for 15 days. In preadipocytes pretreated with PME, cell viability, ROS production, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential were investigated following 1, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h exposure to BSARIB. Nuclear translocation of NFκB was assessed at 1 h and 24 h of BSARIB insult. Accumulation of oxidized proteins, activities of intrinsic antioxidant enzymes and IL-6 secretion were also determined after 24 h exposure to BSARIB. RESULTS: Ribose was a harsher glycating agent as compared to glucose and PME showed strong anti-glycation activity by suppressing (P < 0.05) the increase in levels of fluorescent AGEs, Amadori products, protein carbonyl and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP). In preadipocytes, BSARIB potentiated pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NFκB. BSARIB induced a time dependent decrease in cell viability, which was significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) by PME. The extract also significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the time dependent increase in ROS level and associated lipid peroxidation as well as loss in mitochondrial membrane potential caused by BSARIB. PME also counteracted the BSARIB-induced accumulation of oxidized proteins, decrease in intrinsic antioxidant activity and IL-6 over-secretion. CONCLUSIONS: PME showed anti-glycation activity and afforded protection against BSARIB-induced toxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in preadipocytes.


Assuntos
Lythraceae , Romã (Fruta) , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Soroalbumina Bovina/toxicidade
8.
Protein Pept Lett ; 28(7): 781-787, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brazilian flora is rich in plants with medicinal properties, which though popular, has contributed to the development of a range of phytotherapic products that use plants to treat and cure diseases. However, studies that use Brazilian plants in the treatment of metabolic disorders are still scarce in the literature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of hepatotoxicity Lafoensia pacari on the metabolism of mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet and to verify the phytochemical difference between the Lafoensia pacari bark of the trunk, leaves, and branches. METHODS: The plant material was collected from April to May in the municipality of Bonito de Minas, MG, Brazil. Qualitative tests for the presence of secondary metabolite classes were performed for leaves, branches and bark of the trunk. Through histological analysis, we evaluated hepatocytes and cell lesions in the liver. RESULTS: The comparative phytochemical analysis of the plant did not reveal alterations between the different plant parts. The phytochemical test showed that is preferable to use the leaves to make the extract to be applied, aiming to reduce the plant aggression. After treatment, greater changes were observed in the animals that received the high-fat diet and the hydroethanolic extract; the levels of AST, ALT, albumin and creatinine that were increased, thus demonstrating a possible toxicity. There were no significant differences in body weight. In the histological analysis, the animals without plant treatment displayed decreased liver weight and reduction in the inflammatory infiltrate. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Lafoensia pacari should be better evaluated for oral consumption and may cause liver damage.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Lythraceae/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Creatinina/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/toxicidade , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
9.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(8): e13999, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taking into account the adverse impact of the drug therapy on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), adjuvant therapies without such undesirable effects have recently gained increasing interest. Several studies have examined the potential properties of pomegranate on RA with some uncertain mechanisms suggested. This review aimed to systematically review the available evidence in this regard. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, WOS, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Embase and a search engine Google Scholar were searched until March 2020 and search alert services have been applied to identify related articles published after the initial search. There was no limitation regarding language or publication date. Relevant clinical, animal and in vitro studies were chosen. Review papers, conference abstracts, book chapters and articles regarding the effects of pomegranate in combination with other plants as well as articles regarding the effects of pomegranate on other illnesses were deleted. RESULTS: Twelve papers were considered in current systematic review. Human, animal and in vitro studies indicated the beneficial effects of pomegranate on clinical symptoms, inflammatory and oxidative factors in RA. Pomegranate is capable to manage RA complications by reducing the inflammation and oxidative stress. No critical unfavourable results following pomegranate consumption were reported. CONCLUSION: This paper gives compelling evidence regarding the efficacy of pomegranate in RA and justifies the significance of further clinical researches.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Lythraceae , Romã (Fruta) , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamação , Estresse Oxidativo
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 172: 542-549, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454327

RESUMO

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Eleocharis dulcis, Sagittaria sagittifolia L., and Trapa bispinosa Roxb. are common aquatic vegetables that are rich in starch. Starches from these four aquatic vegetables and their applications in edible films were studied to facilitate full use of starch resources. Significant differences in transparency, freeze-thaw stability, water solubility index, swelling power, water and oil absorption capacities, starch particle morphology, and rheology were observed among the starches from these four aquatic vegetables. All starches exhibited a typical "A" type diffraction pattern. N. nucifera, E. dulcis, and S. sagittifolia starches have similar thermal properties, while T. bispinosa starch has a higher gelatinization temperature. S. sagittifolia starch film has the highest transparency and lower WVP and water solubility. These results will promote the development of products based on starch obtained from aquatic vegetables.


Assuntos
Eleocharis/química , Lythraceae/química , Nelumbo/química , Sagittaria/química , Amido/química , Verduras/química , Organismos Aquáticos , China , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Reologia , Solubilidade , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Amido/ultraestrutura , Água/química
11.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(6): 982-999, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314615

RESUMO

Increasing awareness about the use of compounds obtained from natural sources exerting health-beneficial properties, including antimicrobial and antioxidant effects, led to increased number of research papers focusing on the study of functional properties of target compounds to be used as functional foods or in preventive medicine. Pomegranate has shown positive health properties due to the presence of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, tannins, and anthocyanins. Punicalagin is the major antioxidant, abundantly found in pomegranate's peel. Research has shown that pomegranate polyphenols not only have a strong antioxidant capacity but they also inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria like V. cholera, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and S. virulence factor, and inhibits fungi such as A. Ochraceus, and P. citrinum. Compounds of natural origin inhibit the growth of various pathogens by extending the shelf life of foodstuffs and assuring their safety. Therefore, the need to find compounds to be used in combination with antibiotics or as new antimicrobial sources, such as plant extracts. On the basis of the above discussion, this review focuses on the health benefits of pomegranate, by summarizing the current body of research focusing on pomegranate bioactive constituents and their therapeutic potential against some pathogenic microbes.


Assuntos
Lythraceae , Romã (Fruta) , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Escherichia coli , Frutas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus
12.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 150, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although Trapa is a well-defined genus of distinctive freshwater plants with accumulations of extensive morphological and embryological autapomorphies, its phylogenetic relationships have long been unclear. Formerly placed in the monotypic family Trapaceae, Trapa is now recognized as sister to Sonneratia within Lythraceae s.l., although both genera lack morphological synapomorphies. Thus, a split between the two taxa must have occurred in deep evolutionary time, which raises the possibility of finding transitional forms in the fossil record. RESULTS: Here we describe a new genus and species, Primotrapa weichangensis Y. Li et C.-S. Li (Lythraceae s.l.: Trapoideae), based on three-dimensionally preserved floral cups, fruits, and seeds from the early Miocene of Weichang County, Hebei Province, China. Primotrapa is characterized by a shallow, saucer-shaped floral cup, four distally barbellate sepals, four intersepal appendages alternating with the sepals at the rim of cup, a superior to basally inferior ovary, a fusiform or ovoid, one-seeded fruit with a ribbed surface, and a long persistent peduncle. Two fossil species of Hemitrapa are proposed as new combinations of Primotrapa, namely P. alpina (T. Su et Z.-K. Zhou) Y. Li et C.-S. Li comb. nov. and P. pomelii (Boulay) Y. Li et C.-S. Li comb. nov. Our phylogenetic analysis based on fifteen flower and fruit characters supports the placement of Primotrapa, Hemitrapa and Trapa in a monophyletic clade, which comprise subfamily Trapoideae. The phylogenetic analysis places Primotrapa at the base of Trapoideae. CONCLUSIONS: In view of its superior ovary, which is a plesiomorphic character of Lythraceae s.l., the newly recognized genus Primotrapa and its three species likely represent transitional forms that bridge the evolutionary gap between the basal taxa of Lythraceae s.l., i.e. Lythrum, and the highly derived taxon Trapa.


Assuntos
Especiação Genética , Lythraceae/classificação , Filogenia , China , Extinção Biológica
13.
J Vet Dent ; 37(3): 133-140, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234003

RESUMO

Herbal therapies are used worldwide to treat a variety of health conditions, including dental conditions in veterinary medicine. In this context, the use of medicinal plant-based formulations as potential therapeutics and preventatives in veterinary dentistry is worth highlighting. The objective of the present study was to develop a mucoadhesive ointment formulation, named orabase, that contained pomegranate extract for use in the oral cavity of dogs, with the aim of improving their oral hygiene. The hydroalcoholic extracts of pomegranate peels was incorporated into the orabase in 3 different concentrations. The formulations were subjected to in vitro microbiological testing by a modified disc-diffusion method to study the susceptibility of microorganisms collected from the oral cavities of the dogs. The samples were taken from the buccal mucosa of dogs having the same management and diet. The most effective formulation was submitted to physicochemical tests to evaluate the functionality of the product, namely pH, swelling index, spreadability, and mechanical properties (hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness). The formulation containing 25.0% w/w of the extract was considered most suitable for the intended use as it showed antiseptic activity and demonstrated a swelling index of approximately 35% in the first 20 minutes of the test, high spreadability, and suitable mechanical properties. The results suggest that the product obtained from pomegranate peel extract is a viable option for use to improve oral hygiene, helping to reduce the bacterial component of dental plaque in dogs.


Assuntos
Lythraceae , Animais , Cães , Pomadas , Higiene Bucal/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais , Romã (Fruta)
14.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 75(4): 477-486, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040298

RESUMO

The use of complementary medicine has recently increased in an attempt to find effective alternative therapies that reduce the adverse effects of drugs. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) by-products, such as seeds, is a rich source of phytochemicals with a high antioxidant activity, thus possessing health benefits. For the identification and quantification of the pomegranate seeds chemical compounds, particular attention has been drawn to the latest developments in the HPLC coupling with electrospray ionization (ESI) MS/MS detection. In fact, a wide range of phytochemicals including phenolic acid, anthocyanins, flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins and other polyphenols were characterized. Furthermore, an exhaustive review of the scientific literature on pomegranate seeds on biomedicine and pharmacotherapy was carried out. Indeed, both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated how pomegranate seeds possess antioxidant, anti- cardiovascular diseases, anti-osteoporosis, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. The present review describes a recent tendency in research focusing on the chemical and biomedical features of the pomegranate seeds to value them as natural additives or active compounds for first-order diseases.


Assuntos
Lythraceae , Romã (Fruta) , Frutas , Sementes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
15.
J Food Prot ; 83(12): 2102-2106, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663262

RESUMO

Salmonella, a bacterial foodborne pathogen, can contaminate meat, milk, and vegetables. While appropriate measures are available to control Salmonella, the inhibitory phytochemicals from plants are gaining increased attention. Punicalagin, a natural antimicrobial, is one of the main active tannins isolated from Punica granatum L. To obtain a broader understanding of the effect of punicalagin on the cell membranes of Salmonella Typhimurium, the growth curves, extracellular potassium concentration, release of cell constituents, intracellular pH, membrane potential, and morphological features were characterized to elucidate the mechanisms of action. Treatment with punicalagin induced an increase in the extracellular concentrations of potassium and a release of cell constituents. A higher pH gradient, an increase in the intracellular pH, and cell membrane depolarization were observed after punicalagin treatment. Electron microscopy observations showed that the cell membrane structures of Salmonella Typhimurium were damaged by punicalagin. It is concluded that punicalagin inhibits the proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium and destroys the integrity of the cell membrane, leading to a loss of cell homeostasis. These findings indicate that punicalagin has the potential to be developed as a future alternative to control Salmonella Typhimurium contamination in foods and reduce the risk of salmonellosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Lythraceae , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9204620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509875

RESUMO

Age-related cataract (ARC) is the major cause of blindness worldwide. The most significant factors are the maximal exposure of the eye lens to environmental stressors, including oxidative and glycative load. The administration of antioxidant and antiglycative supplements may reduce the risk of cataract progression. In this study, the effects of lutein (LU) and water chestnut (Trapa bispinosa Roxb.) extract (TBE) on cataracts and the expression of antioxidant-related genes were assessed in Shumiya cataract rats (SCRs). LU+TBE or castor oil (COil) as a control was administered to 6- or 9-week-old cataractous SCRs and noncataractous SCRs via a feeding needle for 3 or 4 weeks. Five-week-old SCRs were provided ad libitum access to solid regular chow containing LU, TBE, LU+TBE, or the same chow without LU and/or TBE for 3 weeks. Lenses from all rats were then extracted and photographed. The right eyes of the rats were processed for histological observation, and the left eyes were used for total RNA extraction from lens epithelial cells (LEC). The mRNA levels of antioxidant proteins, peroxiredoxin 6, and catalase were examined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lens opacity appeared in all cataractous SCRs that began receiving LU+TBE at 9 weeks of age. However, compared to the COil group, lens opacity was decreased in the cataractous LU+TBE SCRs in all experiments. The mRNA expression levels of peroxiredoxin 6 and catalase in LECs of cataractous SCRs and cultured human LECs increased after the administration of LU+TBE. Collectively, our results highlight the anticataract and antioxidative effects of LT+TBE in SCRs. LT+TBE supplementation may, thus, be useful in delaying cataract progression.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catarata/metabolismo , Cristalino , Luteína/farmacologia , Lythraceae/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Cristalino/citologia , Cristalino/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110890, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593096

RESUMO

The presence of tetracycline is ubiquitous and has adverse effects on aquatic systems. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the ecological sensitivity of Hydrocharis dubia (Bl.) Backer and Trapa bispinosa Roxb. Exposed to different concentrations of tetracycline (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 and 50 mg/L) for one day (1D) and 14 days (14D). The results showed that after 1D of tetracycline exposure, the physiological indices of H. dubia had no remarkable change except for proline which was significantly stimulated under 0.1 mg/L tetracycline. For T. bispinosa, guaiacol peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and protein and proline content were notably promoted under different concentrations of tetracycline, but PPO activity was significantly decreased in 50 mg/L. After 14D, tetracycline caused no harm to the growth and protein content of H. dubia, but negatively influenced lipid peroxidation product and chlorophyll content in H. dubia under high tetracycline concentrations. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and POD activity of H. dubia significantly increased at high tetracycline concentrations, while catalase (CAT) and PPO activity significantly decreased. APX activity in H. dubia increased with tetracycline concentrations at low tetracycline concentrations. For T. bispinosa, high concentrations of tetracycline application significantly inhibited its growth and the content of protein and chlorophyll. SOD, POD, CAT, and PPO activity of T. bispinosa were induced under different concentrations of tetracycline and no lipid peroxidation was observed. APX activity in T. bispinosa was significantly inhibited at high tetracycline concentrations. The results suggest that tetracycline can cause oxidative damage in H. dubia but harm the metabolism process of T. bispinosa without inducing oxidative damage. Overall, the sensitivity of T. bispinosa exposed to tetracycline exposure is higher than that of H. dubia.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Hydrocharitaceae/fisiologia , Tetraciclina/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Hydrocharitaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lythraceae , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase , Prolina/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Planta Med ; 86(11): 749-759, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428937

RESUMO

The pomegranate phenolics are reported to have cutaneous benefits and to be effective in treating skin disorders, including hyperpigmentation. In this context, a preparation method was developed by which to obtain phenolic-rich pomegranate peel extract. Sinapic acid was presented as the major pomegranate peel phenolics, followed by gallic and ellagic acids, and 4 additional phenolics. The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activity with an in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effect. The skin hyperpigmentation treating potency was confirmed by the suppression of cellular melanogenesis through tyrosinase and TRP-2 inhibitions as examined in the B16F10 melanoma cells. Cellular antioxidant and proliferative activities of the extract toward human dermal fibroblasts were evidenced, as well as an inhibitory effect against MMP-2. The extract was developed into the stable serum and mask. The products were proved to be non-irritated in 30 Thai volunteers participating in a single application closed patch test. A split-face, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled test of the skin lightening effect was evaluated in the 30 volunteers over 28 consecutive daily treatments and monitored by the Mexameter MX 18. The active serum and mask were better in facial skin lightening efficacy than the placebo (p < 0.005). That was in accordance with the sensory evaluation scored by the volunteers. Phenolic-rich pomegranate peel extract is evidenced as a safe herbal derived material promising for skin hyperpigmentation treatment. Supportive information regarding chemical and biological profiles is presented with the confirmed safety and cutaneous benefits in volunteers.


Assuntos
Hiperpigmentação , Lythraceae , Antioxidantes , Humanos , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais , Romã (Fruta)
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(20): 25785-25793, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356055

RESUMO

According to the global survey, Iran, China, India, and USA are leading producers of pomegranate. Among them, India tops the chart as the highest producer of pomegranate, cultivating 1.14 million tons per annum. Peels cover 50% weight of whole pomegranate fruit and are mostly discarded as waste. This enormous peel waste has innumerable health benefits. Pomegranate peel (PP) constitutes various antioxidants, anthocyanins, and polyphenols such as ellagic acid, pectin, gallic acid, and many others which can be extracted. A detailed process for sequential extraction, with zero discharge, of such valuable chemicals from biorefinery point of view is developed in this study. Major products considered for extraction include ellagic acid (EA), lignin, and pectin. Also, the total phenolic content (TPC) and total reducing sugar (TRS) content are found in the intermediate stages. The percent yield of the products EA, lignin, and pectin is 10%, 13%, and 19% with respect to the weight of pomegranate peels (PP) processed. For the first time, a sequential extraction of products with its detailed process flow diagram, process inventory, and life cycle assessment (LCA) of PP biorefinery is presented. The global warming potential of the PP biorefinery is found to be 4505.8 kg CO2 eq. per ton of PP processed. The intense hydrolysis step contributed majorly to the overall GWP indicator.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Lythraceae , Antioxidantes , China , Índia , Irã (Geográfico) , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Romã (Fruta)
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 178, 2020 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mangroves have adapted to intertidal zones - the interface between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Various studies have shown adaptive evolution in mangroves at physiological, ecological, and genomic levels. However, these studies paid little attention to gene regulation of salt adaptation by transcriptome profiles. RESULTS: We sequenced the transcriptomes of Sonneratia alba under low (fresh water), medium (half the seawater salinity), and high salt (seawater salinity) conditions and investigated the underlying transcriptional regulation of salt adaptation. In leaf tissue, 64% potential salinity-related genes were not differentially expressed when salinity increased from freshwater to medium levels, but became up- or down-regulated when salt concentrations further increased to levels found in sea water, indicating that these genes are well adapted to the medium saline condition. We inferred that both maintenance and regulation of cellular environmental homeostasis are important adaptive processes in S. alba. i) The sulfur metabolism as well as flavone and flavonol biosynthesis KEGG pathways were significantly enriched among up-regulated genes in leaves. They are both involved in scavenging ROS or synthesis and accumulation of osmosis-related metabolites in plants. ii) There was a significantly increased percentage of transcription factor-encoding genes among up-regulated transcripts. High expressions of salt tolerance-related TF families were found under high salt conditions. iii) Some genes up-regulated in response to salt treatment showed signs of adaptive evolution at the amino acid level and might contribute to adaptation to fluctuating intertidal environments. CONCLUSIONS: This study first elucidates the mechanism of high-salt adaptation in mangroves at the whole-transcriptome level by salt gradient experimental treatments. It reveals that several candidate genes (including salt-related genes, TF-encoding genes, and PSGs) and major pathways are involved in adaptation to high-salt environments. Our study also provides a valuable resource for future investigation of adaptive evolution in extreme environments.


Assuntos
Lythraceae/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Salinidade , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Árvores/genética
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