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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141856, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889280

RESUMO

The exact transmission route of many respiratory infectious diseases remains a subject for debate to date. The relative contribution ratio of each transmission route is largely undetermined, which is affected by environmental conditions, human behaviour, the host and the microorganism. In this study, a detailed mathematical model is developed to investigate the relative contributions of different transmission routes to a multi-route transmitted respiratory infection. The following transmission routes are considered: long-range airborne transmission, short-range airborne transmission, direction inhalation of medium droplets or droplet nuclei, direct deposition of droplets of all sizes, direct and indirect contact route. It is illustrated that all transmission routes can dominate the total transmission risk under different scenarios. Influential parameters considered include the dose-response rate of different routes, droplet governing size that determines pathogen content in droplets, exposure distance, and pathogen dose transported to the hand of infector. Our multi-route transmission model provided a comprehensive but straightforward method to evaluate the probability of respiratory diseases transmission via different routes. It also established a basis for predicting the impact of individual-level intervention methods such as increasing close-contact distance and wearing protective masks.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Máscaras , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e51476, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1119621

RESUMO

Objetivo: desenvolver um modelo de máscara de tecido, com aplicação do elemento filtrante em celulose, para fins de utilização como barreira física segura para aerossóis, como estratégia de resposta emergencial à pandemia provocada pelo SARS-CoV-2. Método: pesquisa laboratorial realizada por meio de protótipos, testagens empíricas e análises e discussões junto a expertises. Resultados: a condução da pesquisa demonstrou que os aerossóis são retidos pela barreira física de celulose introduzida à estrutura das máscaras, o que motivou a segunda fase do estudo em unidade da Rede Brasileira de Laboratórios Analíticos de Saúde sobre a eficácia desses materiais. Conclusão: a confecção de máscaras de tecido é um fenômeno mundial importante e urgente frente à pandemia da COVID-19. Em função da crise de abastecimento e dos parâmetros ressaltados neste estudo, acredita-se que o uso desse equipamento possa ser estendido a setores não críticos de unidades de saúde, além da população em geral.


Objective: to develop a model of fabric mask, with the application of a cellulose filter element, for use as a safe physical barrier for aerosols, as an emergency response strategy for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Method: laboratory research carried out by means of prototypes, empirical tests and analyses, and discussions with experts. Results: the research demonstrated that aerosols are retained by the physical cellulose barrier introduced into the structure of the masks, which motivated the second phase of the study into the effectiveness of these materials at a unit of the Brazilian Analytical Health Laboratories Network. Conclusion: the making of fabric masks is an important and urgent worldwide phenomenon in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. In view of the supply crisis and the parameters highlighted in this study, it is believed that the use of this equipment can be extended to non-critical sectors of health units, as well as to the general population.


Objetivo: desarrollar un modelo de mascarilla de tela, con la aplicación de un elemento filtrante de celulosa, para su uso como barrera física segura para aerosoles, como estrategia de respuesta de emergencia para la pandemia SARS-CoV-2. Método: investigación de laboratorio realizada mediante prototipos, pruebas y análisis empíricos y discusiones con expertos. Resultados: la investigación demostró que los aerosoles son retenidos por la barrera física de celulosa introducida en la estructura de las máscaras, lo que motivó la segunda fase del estudio sobre la efectividad de estos materiales en una unidad de la Red Brasileña de Laboratorios Analíticos de Salud. Conclusión: la fabricación de máscaras de tela es un fenómeno mundial importante y urgente para hacer frente a la pandemia de COVID-19. Ante la crisis de oferta y los parámetros resaltados en este estudio, se cree que el uso de este equipamiento puede extenderse a sectores no críticos de las unidades de salud, así como a la población en general.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Betacoronavirus , Máscaras/normas , Teste de Materiais , Brasil , Celulose , Filtros , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50360, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1097275

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever as recomendações sobre o uso racional e seguro dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) no transcorrer da cadeia assistencial de pessoas com suspeita ou confirmação de contaminação pelo novo coronavírus. Conteúdo: o novo coronavírus é responsável pela doença Covid-19, e dentre as pessoas com maior risco de desenvolver a infecção estão os trabalhadores de saúde, devido ao contato muito próximo a pacientes. Desse modo, a utilização de EPI é recomendação prioritária a estes trabalhadores. Todavia, em função do desabastecimento internacional e nacional relacionado a estes equipamentos, o uso racional é fundamental a fim de evitar que o impacto do desabastecimento seja ainda maior. Conclusão: o uso de EPI é indispensável aos trabalhadores de saúde durante a pandemia de Covid-19, contudo, é imprescindível coordenar a cadeia de fornecimento destes insumos, implementar estratégias que minimizem a necessidade de EPI e garantir o uso de maneira adequada.


Objective: to describe the recommendations on the rational, safe use of personal protective equipment (PPE) throughout the chain of care for people with suspected or confirmed contamination by the new coronavirus. Content: the new coronavirus is responsible for the disease Covid-19, and among those at high risk of infection are health workers in very close contact with patients. It is thus a priority recommendation for these workers to use PPE. However, international and national shortages of this equipment make rational use essential in order to prevent even greater impact from these shortages. Conclusion: it is essential that health workers use PPE during the Covid-19 pandemic, but it is also essential to coordinate the supply chain for these inputs, implement strategies that minimize the need for PPE and ensure proper use.


Objetivo: describir las recomendaciones sobre el uso racional y seguro del equipo de protección personal (EPP) en toda la cadena de atención para las personas con sospecha o confirmación de contaminación por el nuevo coronavirus. Contenido: el nuevo coronavirus es responsable de la enfermedad de Covid-19, y entre aquellos con alto riesgo de infección se encuentran los trabajadores de la salud en contacto muy cercano con los pacientes. Por lo tanto, es una recomendación prioritaria para estos trabajadores usar EPP. Sin embargo, la escasez internacional y nacional de este equipo hace que el uso racional sea esencial para evitar un impacto aún mayor de esta escasez. Conclusión: es esencial que los trabajadores de la salud usen EPP durante la pandemia de Covid-19, pero también es esencial coordinar la cadena de suministro para estos insumos, implementar estrategias que minimicen la necesidad de EPP y garantizar un uso adecuado.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Betacoronavirus , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Riscos Ocupacionais , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Máscaras/normas
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228096

RESUMO

People with pre-existing health conditions (PEHC) are vulnerable to viral infection while health literacy (HL) and preventive behaviors (PB) have been shown to benefit people during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to examine the association between PEHC and suspected COVID-19 symptoms (S-COVID-19-S), and to investigate the modification effect of HL and PB. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 8291 participants visiting outpatient departments at 18 hospitals and health centers across Vietnam from 14 February to 31 May 2020. Data were collected regarding participant's characteristics, HL, PB, PEHC, and S-COVID-19-S. Regression models were used for analyzing the associations. Results showed that people with PEHC had a 3.38 times higher likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (odds ratio, OR, 3.38; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 3.01, 3.79; p < 0.001). In comparison to participants without PEHC and with the lowest HL score, those with PEHC and one HL score increment had a 7% lower likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.92, 0.94; p < 0.001). In comparison to participants without PEHC and not adhering to mask wearing, those with PEHC and adhering to mask wearing had a 77% lower likelihood of having S-COVID-19-S (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.32; p < 0.001). Higher HL and adherence to mask wearing can protect people from having S-COVID-19-S, especially in those with PEHC.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Máscaras , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã/epidemiologia
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(47): 1777-1781, 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237889

RESUMO

Wearing masks is a CDC-recommended* approach to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), by reducing the spread of respiratory droplets into the air when a person coughs, sneezes, or talks and by reducing the inhalation of these droplets by the wearer. On July 2, 2020, the governor of Kansas issued an executive order† (state mandate), effective July 3, requiring masks or other face coverings in public spaces. CDC and the Kansas Department of Health and Environment analyzed trends in county-level COVID-19 incidence before (June 1-July 2) and after (July 3-August 23) the governor's executive order among counties that ultimately had a mask mandate in place and those that did not. As of August 11, 24 of Kansas's 105 counties did not opt out of the state mandate§ or adopted their own mask mandate shortly before or after the state mandate was issued; 81 counties opted out of the state mandate, as permitted by state law, and did not adopt their own mask mandate. After the governor's executive order, COVID-19 incidence (calculated as the 7-day rolling average number of new daily cases per 100,000 population) decreased (mean decrease of 0.08 cases per 100,000 per day; net decrease of 6%) among counties with a mask mandate (mandated counties) but continued to increase (mean increase of 0.11 cases per 100,000 per day; net increase of 100%) among counties without a mask mandate (nonmandated counties). The decrease in cases among mandated counties and the continued increase in cases in nonmandated counties adds to the evidence supporting the importance of wearing masks and implementing policies requiring their use to mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2 (1-6). Community-level mitigation strategies emphasizing wearing masks, maintaining physical distance, staying at home when ill, and enhancing hygiene practices can help reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Máscaras , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Kansas/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(42): e380, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140592

RESUMO

There were two rallies of medical students and trainee doctors, where 9,000 participants gathered. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based universal screening for the participants using pooling at a tertiary care hospital. Around 609 (94%) of 646 participants underwent PCR tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; all of them tested negative. Our data suggested low transmission rates in open air mass gatherings when appropriate personal protective practices were followed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Máscaras , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias , Médicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social , Estudantes de Medicina , Centros de Atenção Terciária
9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241949, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170871

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmingly demonstrated the need to accurately evaluate the effects of implementing new or altering existing nonpharmaceutical interventions. Since these interventions applied at the societal level cannot be evaluated through traditional experimental means, public health officials and other decision makers must rely on statistical and mathematical epidemiological models. Nonpharmaceutical interventions are typically focused on contacts between members of a population, and yet most epidemiological models rely on homogeneous mixing which has repeatedly been shown to be an unrealistic representation of contact patterns. An alternative approach is individual based models (IBMs), but these are often time intensive and computationally expensive to implement, requiring a high degree of expertise and computational resources. More often, decision makers need to know the effects of potential public policy decisions in a very short time window using limited resources. This paper presents a computation algorithm for an IBM designed to evaluate nonpharmaceutical interventions. By utilizing recursive relationships, our method can quickly compute the expected epidemiological outcomes even for large populations based on any arbitrary contact network. We utilize our methods to evaluate the effects of various mitigation measures in the District of Columbia, USA, at various times and to various degrees. Rcode for our method is provided in the supplementry material, thereby allowing others to utilize our approach for other regions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , District of Columbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200527, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174963

RESUMO

Even though most current recommendations include the general use of masks to prevent community transmission of SARS-Cov-2, the effectiveness of this measure is still debated. The studies on this policy include physical filtering tests with inanimate microparticles, randomized clinical trials, observational studies, ecological analyses, and even computational modeling of epidemics. Much of the so-called evidence is inferred from studies on different respiratory viruses and epidemiological settings. Heterogeneity is a major factor limiting the generalization of inferences. In this article, we reviewed the empirical and rational bases of mask use and how to understand these recommendations compared to other policies of social distancing, restrictions on non-essential services, and lockdown. We conclude that recent studies suggest a synergistic effect of the use of masks and social distancing rather than opposing effects of the two recommendations. Developing social communication approaches that clarify the need to combine different strategies is a challenge for public health authorities.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Humanos
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(45): 1691-1694, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180757

RESUMO

Mitigation measures, including stay-at-home orders and public mask wearing, together with routine public health interventions such as case investigation with contact tracing and immediate self-quarantine after exposure, are recommended to prevent and control the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1-3). On March 11, the first COVID-19 case in Delaware was reported to the Delaware Division of Public Health (DPH). The state responded to ongoing community transmission with investigation of all identified cases (commencing March 11), issuance of statewide stay-at-home orders (March 24-June 1), a statewide public mask mandate (from April 28), and contact tracing (starting May 12). The relationship among implementation of mitigation strategies, case investigations, and contact tracing and COVID-19 incidence and associated hospitalization and mortality was examined during March-June 2020. Incidence declined by 82%, hospitalization by 88%, and mortality by 100% from late April to June 2020, as the mask mandate and contact tracing were added to case investigations and the stay-at-home order. Among 9,762 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases reported during March 11-June 25, 2020, two thirds (6,527; 67%) of patients were interviewed, and 5,823 (60%) reported completing isolation. Among 2,834 contacts reported, 882 (31%) were interviewed and among these contacts, 721 (82%) reported completing quarantine. Implementation of mitigation measures, including mandated mask use coupled with public health interventions, was followed by reductions in COVID-19 incidence and associated hospitalizations and mortality. The combination of state-mandated community mitigation efforts and routine public health interventions can reduce the occurrence of new COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Delaware/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153145

RESUMO

Wearing face masks is recommended for the prevention of contracting or exposing others to cardiorespiratory infections, such as COVID-19. Controversy exists on whether wearing face masks during vigorous exercise affects performance. We used a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design to evaluate the effects of wearing a surgical mask, a cloth mask, or no mask in 14 participants (7 men and 7 women; 28.2 ± 8.7 y) during a cycle ergometry test to exhaustion. Arterial oxygen saturation (pulse oximetry) and tissue oxygenation index (indicator of hemoglobin saturation/desaturation) at vastus lateralis (near-infrared spectroscopy) were assessed throughout the exercise tests. Wearing face masks had no effect on performance (time to exhaustion (mean ± SD): no mask 622 ± 141 s, surgical mask 657 ± 158 s, cloth mask 637 ± 153 s (p = 0.20); peak power: no mask 234 ± 56 W, surgical mask 241 ± 57 W, cloth mask 241 ± 51 W (p = 0.49)). When expressed relative to peak exercise performance, no differences were evident between wearing or not wearing a mask for arterial oxygen saturation, tissue oxygenation index, rating of perceived exertion, or heart rate at any time during the exercise tests. Wearing a face mask during vigorous exercise had no discernable detrimental effect on blood or muscle oxygenation, and exercise performance in young, healthy participants (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04557605).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Máscaras/classificação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Oximetria , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153155

RESUMO

The role of aerosolized SARS-CoV-2 viruses in airborne transmission of COVID-19 has been debated. The aerosols are transmitted through breathing and vocalization by infectious subjects. Some authors state that this represents the dominant route of spreading, while others dismiss the option. Here we present an adjustable algorithm to estimate the infection risk for different indoor environments, constrained by published data of human aerosol emissions, SARS-CoV-2 viral loads, infective dose and other parameters. We evaluate typical indoor settings such as an office, a classroom, choir practice, and a reception/party. Our results suggest that aerosols from highly infective subjects can effectively transmit COVID-19 in indoor environments. This "highly infective" category represents approximately 20% of the patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We find that "super infective" subjects, representing the top 5-10% of subjects with a positive test, plus an unknown fraction of less-but still highly infective, high aerosol-emitting subjects-may cause COVID-19 clusters (>10 infections). In general, active room ventilation and the ubiquitous wearing of face masks (i.e., by all subjects) may reduce the individual infection risk by a factor of five to ten, similar to high-volume, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtering. A particularly effective mitigation measure is the use of high-quality masks, which can drastically reduce the indoor infection risk through aerosols.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Microbiologia do Ar , Algoritmos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Filtração , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Ventilação
16.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 19(11): 1127-1129, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196736

RESUMO

As the coronavirus pandemic continues into the second half of 2020, states across the US remain steadfast in their search to determine the safest methods of returning to normalcy. Without a readily available, effective COVID-19 vaccine, and as the numbers of infected individuals continues to climb, the best practices to ensure public safety are rooted in good personal hygiene and prevention of transmission of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. To that end, in addition to properly wearing adequate facial covering, individuals should properly wash their hands to prevent direct auto-inoculation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(11): 1127-1129 doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.5557.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Máscaras , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Home Healthc Now ; 38(6): 327-330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165103

RESUMO

Gaining patient trust has been shown to improve health outcomes. Trust between the patient and the clinician starts with the clinician demonstrating empathy and positive attributes such as kindness and approachability. The advent of COVID-19 and the need for clinicians, patients, and caregivers to wear masks at all times has unintentionally limited nonverbal communication and potentially affected the ability of clinicians to quickly gain patients' and caregivers' trust. With so much time being spent on reeducating clinicians on infection control and donning and doffing personal protective equipment, agencies must not lose sight of the need to ensure that clinicians understand how to improve their communication skills while wearing a mask. This article provides tips on ways to use verbal and nonverbal communication to demonstrate empathy and to build trust in patient interactions to offset the difficulties wearing a mask can impose.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Relações Médico-Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Confiança
18.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 179, 2020 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160398

RESUMO

COVID-19 is continuing to ravage the globe. In many Western Countries, the populous has not embraced public health advice which has resulted in a resurgence of the COVID-19 virus. In the United States, there is an absence of a coordinated Federal response. Instead, frontline workers and average citizens are having to cope with extensive mixed messaging regarding mask usage and social distancing from the highest levels of government. This has resulted in the United States not being able to achieve a low level of infection since the pandemic began. In addition, many citizens hold a profound belief that individual freedoms must be preserved, even at the expense of public health; and view the wearing of masks as renouncing this right. These engrained political beliefs can be traced back to the late 1800s. The response of the United States has also been hampered by a highly cost-efficient healthcare system, which does not provide universal care and has a just-in-time supply chain, with far too few supplies in reserve. This efficiency prevented a rapid scaling up of the healthcare response, which resulted in severe deficiencies in available personal protective equipment (PPE) and healthcare staff. To compound issues many healthcare staff are not provided an economic or healthcare safety net. Other frontline workers, such as those who work in transportation and food services, are working under even greater adversities. Many of these workers are from diverse backgrounds, who, along with their families, are at even greater risk for COVID-19. This vulnerable population of frontline workers are faced with a choice of going to work with inadequate PPE or placing food on their families' table. In the United States, official recommendations seem to be ever changing, based more upon supply and test availability, than on science. We must rely on science and learn from the lessons of past pandemics or we will relive, even to a greater degree, the deaths and devastations experienced by our ancestors over 100 years ago.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Internacionalidade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vírus da SARS , Humanos , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução
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