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Diving Hyperb Med ; 49(4): 245-252, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828742


INTRODUCTION: A temporary myopic shift is a well-recognized complication of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT). Oxidation of proteins in the crystalline lens is the likely cause. Direct exposure of the eye to hyperbaric oxygen may exacerbate the effect. Our aim was to measure the magnitude of the myopic shift over a course of HBOT when using two different methods of oxygen delivery. METHODS: We conducted a randomised trial of oxygen delivery via hood versus oronasal mask during a course of 20 and 30 HBOT sessions. Subjective refraction was performed at baseline and after 20 and 30 sessions. We repeated these measurements at four and 12 weeks after completion of the course in those available for assessment. RESULTS: We enrolled 120 patients (mean age 57.6 (SD 11.2) years; 81% male). The myopic shift was significantly greater after both 20 and 30 sessions in those patients using the hood. At 20 treatments: refractory change was -0.92 D with hood versus -0.52 D with mask, difference 0.40 D (95% CI 0.22 to 0.57, P < 0.0001); at 30 treatments: -1.25 D with hood versus -0.63 with mask, difference 0.62 D (95% CI 0.39 to 0.84, P < 0.0001). Recovery was slower and less complete in the hood group at both four and 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Myopic shift is common following HBOT and more pronounced using a hood system than an oronasal mask. Recovery may be slower and less complete using a hood. Our data support the use of an oronasal mask in an air environment when possible.

Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Miopia , Feminino , Humanos , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/efeitos adversos , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/instrumentação , Oxigenação Hiperbárica/métodos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/etiologia , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem
Anaesthesia ; 74(12): 1620, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681990
JAMA ; 322(9): 824-833, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479137


Importance: Clinical studies have been inconclusive about the effectiveness of N95 respirators and medical masks in preventing health care personnel (HCP) from acquiring workplace viral respiratory infections. Objective: To compare the effect of N95 respirators vs medical masks for prevention of influenza and other viral respiratory infections among HCP. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cluster randomized pragmatic effectiveness study conducted at 137 outpatient study sites at 7 US medical centers between September 2011 and May 2015, with final follow-up in June 2016. Each year for 4 years, during the 12-week period of peak viral respiratory illness, pairs of outpatient sites (clusters) within each center were matched and randomly assigned to the N95 respirator or medical mask groups. Interventions: Overall, 1993 participants in 189 clusters were randomly assigned to wear N95 respirators (2512 HCP-seasons of observation) and 2058 in 191 clusters were randomly assigned to wear medical masks (2668 HCP-seasons) when near patients with respiratory illness. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Secondary outcomes included incidence of acute respiratory illness, laboratory-detected respiratory infections, laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness, and influenzalike illness. Adherence to interventions was assessed. Results: Among 2862 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 43 [11.5] years; 2369 [82.8%]) women), 2371 completed the study and accounted for 5180 HCP-seasons. There were 207 laboratory-confirmed influenza infection events (8.2% of HCP-seasons) in the N95 respirator group and 193 (7.2% of HCP-seasons) in the medical mask group (difference, 1.0%, [95% CI, -0.5% to 2.5%]; P = .18) (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.18 [95% CI, 0.95-1.45]). There were 1556 acute respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 1711 in the mask group (difference, -21.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -48.2 to 4.4]; P = .10); 679 laboratory-detected respiratory infections in the respirator group vs 745 in the mask group (difference, -8.9 per 1000 HCP-seasons, [95% CI, -33.3 to 15.4]; P = .47); 371 laboratory-confirmed respiratory illness events in the respirator group vs 417 in the mask group (difference, -8.6 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -28.2 to 10.9]; P = .39); and 128 influenzalike illness events in the respirator group vs 166 in the mask group (difference, -11.3 per 1000 HCP-seasons [95% CI, -23.8 to 1.3]; P = .08). In the respirator group, 89.4% of participants reported "always" or "sometimes" wearing their assigned devices vs 90.2% in the mask group. Conclusions and Relevance: Among outpatient health care personnel, N95 respirators vs medical masks as worn by participants in this trial resulted in no significant difference in the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT01249625.

Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Máscaras , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão
Cient. dent. (Ed. impr.) ; 16(2): 111-116, mayo-ago. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183721


Introducción: La extracción de los terceros molares es una práctica habitual en la consulta odontológica. Es muy común la aparición postoperatoria de respuestas fisiológicas como el dolor, inflamación, hematomas y trismo, y cuyo tratamiento de elección sigue siendo la farmacología. La hiloterapia es un tratamiento alternativo complementario que forma parte de la medicina física terapéutica. Se trata de una unidad conectada a una máscara preformada de contorno facial que, mediante la reducción de la termperatura tisular de manera constante, persigue conseguir la disminución del flujo sanguíneo, la inflamación, el dolor y el edema. Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso clínico de una mujer de 22 años de edad, sin antecedentes médicos de interés, que acudió al Hospital Virgen de la Paloma por presentar dolor en el tercer molar inferior izquierdo. Una vez realizada la exploración clínica y radiológica de la paciente, se propuso como plan de tratamiento la extracción de los cuatro cordales, bajo anestesia general. Inmediatamente después de la cirugía se colocó a la paciente la máscara facial de Hilotherm(R), programada a una temperatura constante de 15ºC. Se revisó a las 24h y a los 8 días tras la intervención. Conclusiones: La terapia con la máscara facial Hilotherm(R) ha demostrado ser de utilidad en la disminución del dolor y la inflamación postoperatorios derivados de la extracción quirúrgica de los terceros molares, probablemente debido a la posibilidad de un control constante de la temperatura y a la mayor colaboración del paciente. No hay evidencia científica suficiente que respalde su posible participación en la reducción de hematomas. Asimismo, este sistema sugiere un aumento significativo de la calidad de vida de los pacientes, así como una buena aceptación por parte de éstos otorgando más comodidad y satisfacción

Introduction: The extraction of third molars is common practice in the dental practice. The postoperative appearance of physiological responses such as pain, inflammation, bruising and trismus is very common, for which the treatment of choice is still pharmacology. The hilotherapy is a complementary alternative treatment that is part of the therapeutic physical medicine which consists on a unit connected to a preformed face contour mask that, by constantly reducing tissue temperature, aims to achieve decreased blood flow, inflammation, pain and edema. Clinical case: A clinical case of a 22-year-old woman is presented, with no interesting medical record, who went to the Virgen de la Paloma Hospital with pain in the left lower third molar. Once the clinical and radiological examination of the patient had been carried out, a treatment plan for the extraction of the four wisdom teeth, under general anesthesia, was proposed. Immediately after the surgery, the patient was placed the facial mask of Hilotherm(R) on, programmed at a constant temperature of 15ºC. It was reviewed twice, 24h and 8 days after the intervention. Conclusions: Hilotherm(R) facial mask therapy has been shown to be useful in the reduction of postoperative pain and inflammation derived from the surgical extraction of third molars, probably due to the possibility of constant temperature control and greater patient collaboration. There is not enough scientific evidence to support its possible participation in the reduction of bruising. Likewise, this system suggests a significant increase in the quality of life of patients, as well as a good acceptance from patients, providing them with more comfort and satisfaction

Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Dente Serotino/cirurgia , Edema/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Crioterapia/métodos , Máscaras , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais , Equimose/prevenção & controle , Hematoma/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios
J Med Radiat Sci ; 66(3): 184-190, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343118


INTRODUCTION: Distress related to wearing an immobilisation mask for radiotherapy treatment (RT) is a common experience for the person undergoing RT for head and neck cancer (HNC). Described as 'mask anxiety', there is little known about the patterns of this distress through the course of the treatment or what strategies are being used by people to help alleviate mask anxiety. METHODS: The study used a prospective cohort design to examine the patterns of patient-reported mask anxiety during the course of RT, using a modified Distress Thermometer (DT) and a survey to explore strategies patients used to assist their mask anxiety. RESULTS: Thirty-five participants, who identified as experiencing mask anxiety, were followed throughout RT treatment. At baseline, females were more likely to experience higher mask anxiety (P = 0.03). Across the course of treatment, mask anxiety significantly (P < 0.001) reduced within the total cohort. In 72% of participants, the level of initial distress was found to reduce over time. Only 22% experienced mask anxiety that remained constant. Few (6%) experienced an increase in mask anxiety across the course of RT. Participants reported relying on intervention from health professionals, self-taught strategies, music, visualisation and medication to manage their mask anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Due to its high prevalence and variable patterns over time, it is recommended that routine screening for mask anxiety be implemented as standard care throughout the course of RT for HNC. Multiple, diverse strategies are being used by patients and studies are needed to develop effective interventions for managing mask anxiety.

Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Pacientes/psicologia , Radioterapia/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Radioterapia/instrumentação
Acta Oncol ; 58(9): 1216-1224, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311375


Background: It has been reported that canine scent tests offer the possibility to screen for cancer. Assuming that breath samples can be collected with carrier materials, we tested the practicability of different carrier materials to be presented to dogs and validated and compared results with an electronic nose (eNose). Moreover, we hypothesized that cancer detection ability of dogs differs according to their working experience. Methods: In a methodological approach, two dog teams participated, one using experienced working dogs and the other ordinary household dogs to find the most qualified dogs and training method. To find best carrier material for breath sampling we compared charcoal containing glass tubes and fleece masks. In a second validating part, experienced working dogs were trained with improved training strategies. For breath sampling, two different, previously successfully tested fleece-based carrier materials were used: one was used with the dog team and both materials were compared with eNose. Results: In the methodological approach, it turned out that the charcoal-based sampling strategy qualified not sufficiently for VOC-detection. Moreover, we could determine that using experienced working dogs provided several advantages. Overall results of dogs in the validating part regarding specificity were 83%, regarding sensitivity 56%, but with great variability among dogs. Using eNose for breath analysis collected with both fleece carrier materials, specificity was 97% and sensitivity 89-100%. Conclusion: Our data confirmed that the diagnostic accuracy of dogs depended on the type of dog training and on the carrier materials. A comparison of breath samples analysis with an eNose achieved better results for both, sensitivity and specificity than for dogs. The use of fleece masks or fleeces in glass tubes as a sampling material can be recommended as successful VOC carriers, encouraging their use for clinical screenings.

Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Cães , Nariz Eletrônico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Olfato , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Testes Respiratórios/instrumentação , Expiração , Feminino , Vidro , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Animais de Estimação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Ensino
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 743-753, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280156


In order to provide an overall evaluation and characterization of the comfort sensation and performance of face mask related to breathing resistance for healthcare in fog and haze weather, and address the influence of structural features on breathing resistance properties, an experimental set-up was developed, which was able to continuously change the direction and rate of air flow and the breathing frequency to simulate the dynamic breathing process during the actual wearing of face mask. The dynamic changes of airflow rate and the breathing resistance were acquired by a virtual instrument (VI) system and a microelectronics system. Six evaluation indices were defined for the dynamic performance and comfort sensation of face mask, derived from the source data of dynamic breathing resistance. Twelve types of face masks from different department stores with different features such as shape, respiratory valve, brand, main materials and protection level were tested using the experimental set-up. The one-way ANOVA analysis was carried out to identify the significance of the differences of the indices among the test masks. The results showed that each evaluation index was significantly different (P < 0.05) among different test masks. The change rate of breathing resistance could be obtained using the dynamic measurement of breathing resistance and could be applied for the dynamic performance evaluation of face mask compared with the static measurement of breathing resistance under constant airflow rate. The influences of structural features such as respiratory valve, shape and main materials on breathing resistance were evaluated and analyzed. The face masks with respiratory valve had lower change rate of breathing resistance. Moreover, the cup type mask had lower change rate of breathing resistance than the folding mask. Furthermore, the cotton mask had lower change rate of breathing resistance than the nonwoven fabric mask.

Movimentos do Ar , Máscaras , Respiração , Humanos
Saudi Med J ; 40(7): 694-700, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287130


OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical performance of the baska mask (PTY Ltd, Australia), i-gel (Intersurgical Ltd, UK) and classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) in adult patients undergoing outpatient urologic interventions. METHODS: One hundred fifty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists I-III physical status were enrolled between January 2017 and September 2017 in Yuksek Ihtisas Research and Educational Hospital, Ankara, Turkey for elective urological surgery for this prospective randomized controlled trial. There were 50 patients in each of the following groups: baska mask, i-gel, and cLMA. In each group, the insertion times, ventilation times, 'first attempt' success rates, airway dynamics-complications and hemodynamic variables were evaluated. RESULTS: No statistically significant values were observed in means of demographic data, airway dynamics, complications, and hemodynamic variables. Insertion and ventilation times were different between groups (p less than 0.001 for each). In cLMA group, insertion and ventilation times were found to be shorter than others (insertion times 5.78±1.72 seconds and ventilation times 11.72±4.72 seconds). The longest insertion and ventilation times were observed in baska mask with 12.04±6.25 and 21.26±8.53 seconds. The 'first attempt' success rates were 98% for cLMA, 92% for i-gel, and 88% for baska mask. The addition maneuvering requirements in baska mask group was  20% (40/10). Conclusion: When cLMA, i-gel and baska mask are compared regarding insertion and ventilating times, first attempt success rates, and additional maneuvers, cLMA and i-gel are superior to baska mask in urological ambulatory surgical cases.

Anestesia Geral/métodos , Máscaras Laríngeas , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Transtornos de Deglutição/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 491, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159777


BACKGROUND: Medical masks are commonly used in health care settings to protect healthcare workers (HCWs) from respiratory and other infections. Airborne respiratory pathogens may settle on the surface of used masks layers, resulting in contamination. The main aim of this study was to study the presence of viruses on the surface of medical masks. METHODS: Two pilot studies in laboratory and clinical settings were carried out to determine the areas of masks likely to contain maximum viral particles. A laboratory study using a mannequin and fluorescent spray showed maximum particles concentrated on upper right, middle and left sections of the medical masks. These findings were confirmed through a small clinical study. The main study was then conducted in high-risk wards of three selected hospitals in Beijing China. Participants (n = 148) were asked to wear medical masks for a shift (6-8 h) or as long as they could tolerate. Used samples of medical masks were tested for presence of respiratory viruses in upper sections of the medical masks, in line with the pilot studies. RESULTS: Overall virus positivity rate was 10.1% (15/148). Commonly isolated viruses from masks samples were adenovirus (n = 7), bocavirus (n = 2), respiratory syncytial virus (n = 2) and influenza virus (n = 2). Virus positivity was significantly higher in masks samples worn for > 6 h (14.1%, 14/99 versus 1.2%, 1/49, OR 7.9, 95% CI 1.01-61.99) and in samples used by participants who examined > 25 patients per day (16.9%, 12/71 versus 3.9%, 3/77, OR 5.02, 95% CI 1.35-18.60). Most of the participants (83.8%, 124/148) reported at least one problem associated with mask use. Commonly reported problems were pressure on face (16.9%, 25/148), breathing difficulty (12.2%, 18/148), discomfort (9.5% 14/148), trouble communicating with the patient (7.4%, 11/148) and headache (6.1%, 9/148). CONCLUSION: Respiratory pathogens on the outer surface of the used medical masks may result in self-contamination. The risk is higher with longer duration of mask use (> 6 h) and with higher rates of clinical contact. Protocols on duration of mask use should specify a maximum time of continuous use, and should consider guidance in high contact settings. Viruses were isolated from the upper sections of around 10% samples, but other sections of masks may also be contaminated. HCWs should be aware of these risks in order to protect themselves and people around them.

Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/virologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/virologia , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Unidades Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Vírus/classificação , Adulto Jovem
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(6): 869-873, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201394


OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk and preventive factors of working in a cement plant. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from July to September, 2016, at a leading cement manufacturing plant in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data about the characteristics of exposed and unexposed subjects. The characteristics and occupational illnesses were compared between exposed and unexposed workers. Logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratio for risk and preventive factors associated with pulmonary illnesses linked with the profession. RESULTS: Of the 550 workers contacted, 260(47.3%) agreed to participate. The mean age of the sample was 30.48}6.13 years. Of the total, 80(31%) were exposed and 180(69%) were unexposed. Overall, 96(37%) workers had medical coverage facility, while 114(63%) reported very good health. All socioeconomic and working characteristics were highly significant between exposed and unexposed workers (p<0.05). There were 67(25.7%) workers with pulmonary illnesses and the difference between the exposed and unexposed groups were significant (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary health among workers could be improved by implementing occupational health improving strategies..

Poeira , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Roupa de Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Indústria Manufatureira , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 30(2): 92-93, abr.-jun. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182964


Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de la ventilación con mascarilla-bolsa autoinflable (Ambú(R)) sobre la hipoxemia durante la intubación traqueal en pacientes críticos. La hipótesis planteada es que la ventilación con mascarilla-bolsa autoinflable durante el intervalo desde la inducción anestésica hasta la laringoscopia mejora la SpO2 en comparación con la no ventilación. Diseño: Ensayo clínico, pragmático, no ciego, con asignación aleatoria realizado en 7 Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos en EEUU desde marzo de 2017 a mayo de 2018. Dada la naturaleza de la intervención, los pacientes, los clínicos y el personal de investigación conocían el grupo al que el paciente era asignado. Pacientes:Criterios de inclusión: adultos > 18 años que son sometidos a inducción anestésica e intubación traqueal. Criterios de exclusión: necesidad inmediata de intubación que impide la aleatorización; consideración por parte del médico encargado de necesidad de ventilación con mascarilla-bolsa autoinflable por hipoxemia o acidemia muy graves, contraindicación para ventilación por alto riesgo de aspiración debido a vómitos, hematemesis o hemoptisis; embarazadas; presos. Las causas para la exclusión fueron: indicación urgente para ventilación (42%), indicación urgente para intubación (35%), contraindicación para ventilación (22%), otras (1%)

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Humanos , Adulto , Máscaras/tendências , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Respiração Artificial , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/enfermagem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Hipóxia/epidemiologia , Laringoscopia
Rev. Asoc. Esp. Espec. Med. Trab ; 28(2): 117-125, jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-FGT-2165


Objetivo: caracterizar la bioseguridad respiratoria que practican los trabajadores en catorce ciudades del Perú. Metodología: trabajo transversal descriptivo de tipo multicéntrico, a través de una encuesta auto-aplicada, donde se consultó temas relacionados con la bioseguridad respiratoria y de las prácticas de higiene que tenían. Estos se describieron con frecuencias y porcentajes. Resultados: de los 4287 encuestados, el 68% (2913) fueron hombres, la mediana de edades fue de 31 años (rango intercuartílico: 24-40 años). El 91% y el 53% sabían para que se usan las mascarillas respiratorias y la forma de trasmisión de las enfermedades respiratorias, respectivamente. El 46% se auto-medica cuando está resfriado; se han vacunado contra la gripe estacional entre 31-41% para los trabajadores, familiares o compañeros de trabajos, estos porcentajes suben cuando se les preguntó si se vacunarían el año en curso y la mayoría de los que no se vacunarían es porque no saben dónde (rango: 35-40%); el brazo y la mano son los más usados para cubrirse cuando estornudan. Conclusión: estas características muestran a una población que puede ser susceptible a contraer y trasmitir enfermedades respiratorias, por lo que se deben tomar medidas de educación e intervenciones para la mejora del conocimiento/actitudes y la generación de prácticas adecuadas

Objective: to describe biosecurity of respiratory diseases practiced by workers in fourteen cities of Peru. Methodology: a descriptive multicenter cross-sectional study was carried out in February through a self-administered questionnaire, where some concepts related to biosecurity of respiratory diseases and hygiene practices were asked. These were described in frequencies and percentages. Results: Of the 4287 respondents, 68% (2913) were men; the average age was 31 years piloto(interquartile range: 24-40 years). 91% and 53% knew what respiratory masks are used for and how respiratory diseases are transmitted, respectively. 46% self-medicate when they have the cold; 31-41% of workers, relatives or co-workers have been vaccinated against seasonal flu, these percentages go up when they were asked if they would be vaccinated in current year and most would not be vaccinated because they do not know where (Range: 35-40%); the arm and the hand are the most used to cover when sneezing. Conclusion: These characteristics show a population that may be susceptible to get and transmit respiratory diseases, so educational measures and interventions should be taken to improve knowledge/attitudes and to create good practices

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/métodos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Peru
Sci Total Environ ; 682: 729-736, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141754


Many brands of filtering facepiece respirators are used against air pollution, including bioaerosols; however, studies have explored exposure to bioaerosols from the inside surfaces of respirators. We evaluated the filtration efficiencies and microbial recovery rates of commercial filtering facepiece respirators against bioaerosols. Eight filtering facepiece respirators and one surgical mask were selected, all with high market shares in the Republic of Korea and certified by national or international standards. The tested filtering facepiece respirators were installed on the head of a mannequin under various airflow velocity and relative humidity (RH) conditions. The filtration efficiency against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli bioaerosols, the pressure drop of the filter, and the relative recovery rates for the bacteria were evaluated. The filtration efficiency of each filtering facepiece respirator ranged from 82% to 99%, depending on the filtration grade. The pressure drop was significantly affected by variations in the surrounding RH. The mean relative recovery rates of all filtering facepiece respirators were 14 ±â€¯4.8% and 9 ±â€¯4.7% for S. epidermidis and E. coli, respectively. These results indicate that airborne microorganisms can survive and accumulate on the surfaces of filtering facepiece respirators, which may lead to harmful health outcomes. Our findings will be useful as background information for the development of commercial filtering facepiece respirators while considering their biological properties and reliable guidance to users.

Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Filtração/instrumentação , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Máscaras , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
Anaesthesia ; 74(10): 1227-1230, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106854