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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044364, 2021 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify, appraise and synthesise studies evaluating the downsides of wearing face masks in any setting. We also discuss potential strategies to mitigate these downsides. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and EuropePMC were searched (inception-18 May 2020), and clinical registries were searched via CENTRAL. We also did a forward-backward citation search of the included studies. INCLUSION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials and observational studies comparing face mask use to any active intervention or to control. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Two author pairs independently screened articles for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes were compliance, discomforts, harms and adverse events of wearing face masks. RESULTS: We screened 5471 articles, including 37 (40 references); 11 were meta-analysed. For mask wear adherence, 47% (95% CI 25% to 68%, p<0.0001), more people wore face masks in the face mask group compared with control; adherence was significantly higher (26%, 95% CI 8% to 46%, p<0.01) in the surgical/medical mask group than in N95/P2 group. The largest number of studies reported on the discomfort and irritation outcome (20 studies); fewest reported on the misuse of masks, and none reported on mask contamination or risk compensation behaviour. Risk of bias was generally high for blinding of participants and personnel and low for attrition and reporting biases. CONCLUSIONS: There are insufficient data to quantify all of the adverse effects that might reduce the acceptability, adherence and effectiveness of face masks. New research on face masks should assess and report the harms and downsides. Urgent research is also needed on methods and designs to mitigate the downsides of face mask wearing, particularly the assessment of possible alternatives. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Open Science Framework website https://osf.io/sa6kf/ (timestamp 20-05-2020).


Assuntos
Máscaras , Humanos , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
Dermatitis ; 32(1): 57-62, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33449481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 has rapidly spread all over the world. Personal protective equipment (PPE) including masks and gloves is needed to avoid transmission. Adverse skin reactions associated with PPE have been described, but there is no information regarding objective measures to assess skin impairment related to PPE. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of using facial mask and nitrile gloves on epidermal barrier function and skin homeostasis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed. Thirty-four health care workers wearing nitrile gloves and a mask for 2 hours were included. Transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, erythema, and temperature were measured. RESULTS: Transepidermal water loss (31.11 vs 14.24 g·m-2·h-1), temperature (33.29°C vs 32.57°C), and erythema were significantly greater at the area covered by gloves compared with the noncovered area. Transepidermal water loss (22.82 vs 13.69 g·m-2·h-1), temperature, and erythema (411.43 vs 335.52 arbitrary units) were significantly increased at the area covered by mask, whereas stratum corneum hydration was lower. Transepidermal water loss was greater at the area covered by a surgical mask than at a filtering respirator mask coded filtering facepiece 2 (27.09 vs 18.02 g·m-2·h-1, P = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: Skin homeostasis and epidermal barrier function may be impaired by gloves and mask use. High-quality PPE should be provided, and adequate skin prevention measures should be implemented to reduce epidermal barrier damage.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Epiderme/fisiopatologia , Eritema/etiologia , Luvas Cirúrgicas/efeitos adversos , Pessoal de Saúde , Temperatura Cutânea/fisiologia , Perda Insensível de Água/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilos , Exposição Ocupacional , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Pele/fisiopatologia
3.
J Radiat Res ; 62(1): 163-171, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392618

RESUMO

The immobilization of patients with a bite block (BB) carries the risk of interpersonal infection, particularly in the context of pandemics such as COVID-19. Here, we compared the intra-fractional patient setup error (intra-SE) with and without a BB during fractionated intracranial stereotactic irradiation (STI). Fifteen patients with brain metastases were immobilized using a BB without a medical mask, while 15 patients were immobilized without using a BB and with a medical mask. The intra-SEs in six directions (anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), left-right (LR), pitch, roll, and yaw) were calculated by using cone-beam computed tomography images acquired before and after the treatments. We analyzed a total of 53 and 67 treatment sessions for the with- and without-BB groups, respectively. A comparable absolute mean translational and rotational intra-SE was observed (P > 0.05) in the AP (0.19 vs 0.23 mm with- and without-BB, respectively), SI (0.30 vs 0.29 mm), LR (0.20 vs 0.29 mm), pitch (0.18 vs 0.27°), roll (0.23 vs 0.23°) and yaw (0.27 vs 22°) directions. The resultant planning target volume (PTV) margin to compensate for intra-SE was <1 mm. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the intra-SE and treatment times. A PTV margin of <1 mm was achieved even when patients were immobilized without a BB during STI dose delivery.


Assuntos
Irradiação Craniana , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Imobilização/instrumentação , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Posicionamento do Paciente/instrumentação , Radiocirurgia , Erros de Configuração em Radioterapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/secundário , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 149(1): 142, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514131

RESUMO

The effect of face covering masks on listeners' recall of spoken sentences was investigated. Thirty-two German native listeners watched video recordings of a native speaker producing German sentences with and without a face mask, and then completed a cued-recall task. Listeners recalled significantly fewer words when the sentences had been spoken with a face mask. This might suggest that face masks increase processing demands, which in turn leaves fewer resources for encoding speech in memory. The result is also informative for policy-makers during the COVID-19 pandemic, regarding the impact of face masks on oral communication.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/tendências , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(1): 3-9, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33474960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is rapidly transmitted and has aroused enormous concern globally. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydrocolloid dressing combined with 3M Cavilon No-Sting Barrier Film on the prevention of facial pressure injury in medical staff tasked with preventing and controlling COVID-19. METHODS: This was a self-controlled study. Medical staff who treated patients with COVID-19 infection in isolation wards from 6 January to 2 February, 2020, were selected to participate. Phase I was defined as the first 2 weeks of medical personnel entering the isolation ward, with phase II being the following 2 weeks. In phase I, medical workers only used hydrocolloid dressing on their faces, and in phase II, they used both hydrocolloid dressing and 3M Cavilon No-Sting Barrier Film. RESULTS: A total of 116 medical workers were selected as research subjects. The average facial local temperature in phase I was higher than that in phase II from the baseline (day 1) to the end of the study (day 14); however, there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). The incidence of facial pressure injury in phase II was lower than that in phase I (P<0.05); the facial skin comfort level among medical staff in phase II was higher than that in phase I (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Hydrocolloid dressing combined with 3M Cavilon No-Sting Barrier Film for facial skin care can effectively reduce the incidence of facial pressure injury and can improve skin comfort level while ensuring isolation and a protective effect.


Assuntos
Curativos Hidrocoloides , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos/efeitos adversos , Traumatismos Faciais/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , Temperatura Cutânea
6.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 41: 443-446, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic the use of Indirect calorimetry (IC) during nutritional rehabilitation program requires special precautions due to possible contagions for patients and health professionals. We evaluated in a sample of healthy subjects the agreement between oxygen consumption (VO2 mL/min), carbon dioxide production (VCO2 mL/min), respiratory quotient (RQ) and resting energy expenditure (REE kcal/24 h/day) measured by IC with and without a filtering facepiece mask. MATERIALS: 10 subjects with a mean (SD) age of 43 (10) years and a body mass index of 25.2 (5.8) kg/m2 underwent indirect calorimetry both with and without a class 2 filtering facepiece mask (FFP2), in random order. The limits of agreement (LOA) and the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) were used to evaluate the interchangeability of the measurement conditions. RESULTS: The LOA between REE measured with and without FFP2 (-111 to 189 kcal/day) were comparable to those for repeated IC tests without wearing masks and CCC (0.95) showed substantial agreement. CONCLUSIONS: We observed high agreement between REE measured by IC with and without FFP2 mask. These procedures are interchangeable in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Calorimetria Indireta/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Máscaras , Consumo de Oxigênio , Pandemias , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Projetos Piloto , Respiração , Descanso
10.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 41(1): 1-5, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351538

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Masking has been employed as a strategy for reducing transmission of a variety of communicable diseases. With the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, many countries have implemented mandatory public masking. However, the perceived impact of mask use on pulmonary function has been a deterrent to public compliance with recommendations. COVID-19 has shed light on the impact that comorbid cardiac and pulmonary conditions may have on disease severity. This knowledge has led to increased primary and secondary prevention efforts for which exercise and rehabilitation are central. The importance of safe methods of exercise while mitigating risk of viral transmission is paramount to global recovery from the pandemic and prevention of future outbreaks. METHODS: We constructed a focused literature review of the impact of various masks on pulmonary function at rest and with exercise. This was then incorporated into recommendations for the integration of masks with exercise and rehabilitation in the COVID-19 era. RESULTS: While there is a paucity of evidence, we identified the physiological effects of masking at rest and during exercise to be negligible. The perceived impact appears to be far greater than the measured impact, and increased frequency of mask use leads to a physiological and psychological adaptive response. CONCLUSIONS: Masking during daily activities, exercise, and rehabilitation is safe in both healthy individuals and those with underlying cardiopulmonary disease. Rehabilitation participants should be reassured that the benefits of masking during COVID-19 far outweigh the risks, and increased frequency of mask use invokes adaptive responses that make long-term masking tolerable.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Pulmão/fisiologia , Máscaras , Atividades Cotidianas , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Reabilitação , Descanso/fisiologia
11.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 19: 1533033820974021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327884

RESUMO

PURPOSE: With the widespread prevalence of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), cancer patients are suggested to wear a surgical mask during radiation treatment. In this study, cone beam CT (CBCT) was used to investigate the effect of surgical mask on setup errors in head and neck radiotherapy. METHODS: A total of 91 patients with head and neck tumors were selected. CBCT was performed to localize target volume after patient set up. The images obtained by CBCT before treatment were automatically registered with CT images and manually fine-tuned. The setup errors of patients in 6 directions of Vrt, Lng, Lat, Pitch, Roll and Rotation were recorded. The patients were divided into groups according to whether they wore the surgical mask, the type of immobilization mask used and the location of the isocenter. The setup errors of patients were calculated. A t-test was performed to detect whether it was statistically significant. RESULTS: In the 4 groups, the standard deviation in the directions of Lng and Pitch of the with surgical mask group were all higher than that in the without surgical mask group. In the head-neck-shoulder mask group, the mean in the Lng direction of the with surgical mask group was larger than that of the without surgical mask group. In the lateral isocenter group, the mean in the Lng and Pitch directions of the with surgical mask group were larger than that of the without surgical mask group. The t-test results showed that there was significant difference in the setup error between the 2 groups (p = 0.043 and p = 0.013, respectively) only in the Lng and Pitch directions of the head-neck-shoulder mask group. In addition, the setup error of 6 patients with immobilization open masks exhibited no distinguished difference from that of the patients with regular immobilization masks. CONCLUSION: In the head and neck radiotherapy patients, the setup error was affected by wearing surgical mask. It is recommended that the immobilization open mask should be used when the patient cannot finish the whole treatment with a surgical mask.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Máscaras , Erros de Configuração em Radioterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imobilização/instrumentação , Imobilização/métodos , Imobilização/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/métodos , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/normas , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/efeitos adversos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Ombro , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(6): 3562, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379897

RESUMO

Wearing face masks (alongside physical distancing) provides some protection against infection from COVID-19. Face masks can also change how people communicate and subsequently affect speech signal quality. This study investigated how three common face mask types (N95, surgical, and cloth) affected acoustic analysis of speech and perceived intelligibility in healthy subjects. Acoustic measures of timing, frequency, perturbation, and power spectral density were measured. Speech intelligibility and word and sentence accuracy were also examined using the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech. Mask type impacted the power distribution in frequencies above 3 kHz for the N95 mask, and above 5 kHz in surgical and cloth masks. Measures of timing and spectral tilt mainly differed with N95 mask use. Cepstral and harmonics to noise ratios remained unchanged across mask type. No differences were observed across conditions for word or sentence intelligibility measures; however, accuracy of word and sentence translations were affected by all masks. Data presented in this study show that face masks change the speech signal, but some specific acoustic features remain largely unaffected (e.g., measures of voice quality) irrespective of mask type. Outcomes have bearing on how future speech studies are run when personal protective equipment is worn.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Acústica da Fala , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs ; 47(6): 551-557, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201140

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Extended use of N95 respirator masks is far more prevalent during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As WOC nurses, we were tasked with formulating procedures for protecting the facial skin integrity of healthcare workers (HCWs) using personal protective devices when caring for patients with suspected or active COVID-19, while avoiding contamination when the masks are donned or doffed. This quality improvement project describes how we approached this project within the limited time frame available as we cared for patients with established and suspected COVID-19. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: This project focused on HCW use of N95 respirator masks and dressings currently available in our facility. The 4 WOC nurses acted as quality improvement project directors and as participants. The setting for our project was our facility's simulation laboratory. APPROACH: We evaluated 6 topical products (an alcohol-free liquid acrylate, thin film dressing, thin hydrocolloid dressing, hydrocolloid blister care cushion, thin foam transfer dressing, and thick foam dressing) applied to skin in contact with 3 N95 respirators; all are available on our facility's formulary and all are in widespread clinical use. After the product was applied to the face and nose, the N95 respirator was donned and evaluated for fit. Participants then wore the devices for 10 hours and doffed the mask using established facility procedures. In order to evaluate for potential contamination including possible aerosolization, we applied a commercially available fluorescent lotion to simulate the presence of infectious particles. Contamination was assessed using an ultraviolet light for all dressings except for the alcohol-free liquid acrylate. We also evaluated cutaneous responses (skin integrity, irritation, comfort) during this period. OUTCOMES: We found that contamination of the simulated pathogen did not occur with removal of any of the protective products. No skin irritation was noted with any of the tested products after a 10-hour wear time underneath the N95 respirator masks, but mild discomfort was experienced with 3 of the dressings (thin film dressing and both hydrocolloid dressings). CONCLUSION: Based on these experiences, we recommend application of an alcohol-free liquid acrylate film to prevent facial skin injury associated with friction from the extended use of an N95 respirator mask. We further recommend performing a fit test and user-performed seal check with the use of any topical dressing and especially those that add cushion. For the duration of the COVID-19 pandemic, we recommend use of protective dressings to maintain skin integrity and protection from coronavirus infection as HCWs continue to provide care to all of patients under their care.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dermatite Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Melhoria de Qualidade , Dermatopatias/etiologia
14.
Home Healthc Now ; 38(6): 327-330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165103

RESUMO

Gaining patient trust has been shown to improve health outcomes. Trust between the patient and the clinician starts with the clinician demonstrating empathy and positive attributes such as kindness and approachability. The advent of COVID-19 and the need for clinicians, patients, and caregivers to wear masks at all times has unintentionally limited nonverbal communication and potentially affected the ability of clinicians to quickly gain patients' and caregivers' trust. With so much time being spent on reeducating clinicians on infection control and donning and doffing personal protective equipment, agencies must not lose sight of the need to ensure that clinicians understand how to improve their communication skills while wearing a mask. This article provides tips on ways to use verbal and nonverbal communication to demonstrate empathy and to build trust in patient interactions to offset the difficulties wearing a mask can impose.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Relações Médico-Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Confiança
15.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 11: 2150132720966167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084483

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study aimed to explore the prevalence and possible risk factors to prevent the face mask related adverse skin reactions during the ongoing COVID-19 after a recommendation of face mask wearing for public use in Thailand. RESULTS: The prevalence of face mask related adverse skin reactions was 454 cases (54.5%), of which acne was the most frequent (399; 39.9%), followed by rashes on the face (154; 18.4%), and itch symptoms (130; 15.6%). Wearing a surgical mask showed a higher risk of adverse skin reaction compared to a cloth mask, OR (95% CI) = 1.54 (1.16-2.06). A duration of face mask wearing of more than 4 hours/day and the reuse of face masks increased the risk of adverse skin reactions compared to changing the mask every day, adjusted OR(95% CI) = 1.96 (1.29-2.98), and 1.5 (1.11-2.02). CONCLUSION: Suggestions were made for wearing a cloth mask in non-health care workers (HCW) to decrease the risk of face mask related adverse skin reactions. This suggestion could potentially help in decreasing the demand of surgical masks which should be reserved for the HCW population during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 19(9): 858-864, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026745

RESUMO

As the coronavirus epidemic continues, a host of new cutaneous complications is seen on the faces of frontline healthcare workers wearing personal protective equipment on a daily basis. To minimize the risk of COVID-19 infection, healthcare workers wear tight-fitting masks that lead to an excessive amount of pressure on the facial skin. Mechanical pressure, mask materials, and perspiration can all lead to various types of cutaneous lesions such as indentations of the face, skin tears, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, ulceration, crusting, erythema, and infection. The objective of this article is to provide effective and straightforward recommendations to those health care providers using facial masks in order to prevent skin-related complications. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(9):858-864. doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.5259.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dermatoses Faciais/etiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Eritema/etiologia , Eritema/fisiopatologia , Exantema/etiologia , Exantema/fisiopatologia , Dermatoses Faciais/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos Faciais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240285, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057355

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has swept the whole world with high mortality. Since droplet transmission is the main route of transmission, wearing a mask serves as a crucial preventive measure. However, the virus has spread quite quickly, causing severe mask shortage. Finding alternative materials for homemade masks while ensuring the significant performance indicators will help alleviate the shortage of masks. Referring to the national standard for the "Surgical Mask" of China, 17 materials to be selected for homemade masks were tested in four key indicators: pressure difference, particle filtration efficiency, bacterial filtration efficiency and resistance to surface wetting. Eleven single-layer materials met the standard of pressure difference (≤49 Pa), of which 3 met the standard of resistance to surface wetting (≥3), 1 met the standard of particle filtration efficiency (≥30%), but none met the standard of bacterial filtration efficiency (≥95%). Based on the testing results of single-layer materials, fifteen combinations of paired materials were tested. The results showed that three double-layer materials including double-layer medical non-woven fabric, medical non-woven fabric plus non-woven shopping bag, and medical non-woven fabric plus granular tea towel could meet all the standards of pressure difference, particle filtration efficiency, and resistance to surface wetting, and were close to the standard of the bacterial filtration efficiency. In conclusion, if resources are severely lacking and medical masks cannot be obtained, homemade masks using available materials, based on the results of this study, can minimize the chance of infection to the maximum extent.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Têxteis/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Filtração/normas , Humanos , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Têxteis/efeitos adversos , Têxteis/classificação
19.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The use of masks is one of the measures to protect against the Covid-19 pandemic. The type of mask and how to use it during physical exercise has generated controversy. This work aims to analyse the effect of the use of masks in the practice of high intensity physical exercise. METHODS: An exploratory review was conducted by querying the PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and CUIDEN databases. RESULTS: Respiratory physiology at rest and performing intense physical exercise was described, explaining how the use of masks during high-intensity physical exercise affects it in relation to gas exchange. CONCLUSIONS: In case of intense physical exercise, the use of masks is not recommended because of the enhancing effect on PCO2. It would not allow the complete expulsion of the expired CO2 and would increase its concentration, along with the typical increase of the breathing rate during the exercise.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
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