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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there was shortage of the standard respiratory protective equipment (RPE). The aim of this study was to develop a procedure to test the performance of alternative RPEs used in the care of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A laboratory-based test was developed to compare RPEs by total inward leakage (TIL). We used a crossflow nebulizer to produce a jet spray of 1-100 µm water droplets with a fluorescent marker. The RPEs were placed on a dummy head and sprayed at distances of 30 and 60 cm. The outcome was determined as the recovery of the fluorescent marker on a membrane filter placed on the mouth of the dummy head. RESULTS: At 30 cm, a type IIR surgical mask gave a 17.7% lower TIL compared with an FFP2 respirator. At 60 cm, this difference was similar, with a 21.7% lower TIL for the surgical mask compared to the respirator. When adding a face shield, the TIL at 30 cm was further reduced by 9.5% for the respirator and 16.6% in the case of the surgical mask. CONCLUSIONS: A safe, fast and very sensitive test method was developed to assess the effectiveness of RPE by comparison under controlled conditions.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Ventiladores Mecânicos , Água
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557403

RESUMO

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic brought about a broader use of masks by both professionals and the general population. This resulted in a severe worldwide shortage of devices and the need to increase import and activate production of safe and effective surgical masks at the national level. In order to support the demand for testing surgical masks in the Italian context, Universities provided their contribution by setting up laboratories for testing mask performance before releasing products into the national market. This paper reports the effort of seven Italian university laboratories who set up facilities for testing face masks during the emergency period of the COVID-19 pandemic. Measurement set-ups were built, adapting the methods specified in the EN 14683:2019+AC. Data on differential pressure (DP) and bacterial filtration efficiency (BFE) of 120 masks, including different materials and designs, were collected over three months. More than 60% of the masks satisfied requirements for DP and BFE set by the standard. Masks made of nonwoven polypropylene with at least three layers (spunbonded-meltblown-spunbonded) showed the best results, ensuring both good breathability and high filtration efficiency. The majority of the masks created with alternative materials and designs did not comply with both standard requirements, resulting in suitability only as community masks. The effective partnering between universities and industries to meet a public need in an emergency context represented a fruitful example of the so-called university "third-mission".


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Laboratórios , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias , Humanos , Itália
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(7): 254-257, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600386

RESUMO

Universal masking is one of the prevention strategies recommended by CDC to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (1). As of February 1, 2021, 38 states and the District of Columbia had universal masking mandates. Mask wearing has also been mandated by executive order for federal property* as well as on domestic and international transportation conveyances.† Masks substantially reduce exhaled respiratory droplets and aerosols from infected wearers and reduce exposure of uninfected wearers to these particles. Cloth masks§ and medical procedure masks¶ fit more loosely than do respirators (e.g., N95 facepieces). The effectiveness of cloth and medical procedure masks can be improved by ensuring that they are well fitted to the contours of the face to prevent leakage of air around the masks' edges. During January 2021, CDC conducted experimental simulations using pliable elastomeric source and receiver headforms to assess the extent to which two modifications to medical procedure masks, 1) wearing a cloth mask over a medical procedure mask (double masking) and 2) knotting the ear loops of a medical procedure mask where they attach to the mask's edges and then tucking in and flattening the extra material close to the face (knotted and tucked masks), could improve the fit of these masks and reduce the receiver's exposure to an aerosol of simulated respiratory droplet particles of the size considered most important for transmitting SARS-CoV-2. The receiver's exposure was maximally reduced (>95%) when the source and receiver were fitted with modified medical procedure masks. These laboratory-based experiments highlight the importance of good fit to optimize mask performance. Until vaccine-induced population immunity is achieved, universal masking is a highly effective means to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2** when combined with other protective measures, such as physical distancing, avoiding crowds and poorly ventilated indoor spaces, and good hand hygiene. Innovative efforts to improve the fit of cloth and medical procedure masks to enhance their performance merit attention.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/normas , /epidemiologia , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(6): 208-211, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571175

RESUMO

Approximately 41% of adults aged 18-24 years in the United States are enrolled in a college or university (1). Wearing a face mask can reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (2), and many colleges and universities mandate mask use in public locations and outdoors when within six feet of others. Studies based on self-report have described mask use ranging from 69.1% to 86.1% among adults aged 18-29 years (3); however, more objective measures are needed. Direct observation by trained observers is the accepted standard for monitoring behaviors such as hand hygiene (4). In this investigation, direct observation was used to estimate the proportion of persons wearing masks and the proportion of persons wearing masks correctly (i.e., covering the nose and mouth and secured under the chin*) on campus and at nearby off-campus locations at six rural and suburban universities with mask mandates in the southern and western United States. Trained student observers recorded mask use for up to 8 weeks from fixed sites on campus and nearby. Among 17,200 observed persons, 85.5% wore masks, with 89.7% of those persons wearing the mask correctly (overall correct mask use: 76.7%). Among persons observed indoors, 91.7% wore masks correctly. The proportion correctly wearing masks indoors varied by mask type, from 96.8% for N95-type masks and 92.2% for cloth masks to 78.9% for bandanas, scarves, and similar face coverings. Observed indoor mask use was high at these six universities with mask mandates. Colleges and universities can use direct observation findings to tailor training and messaging toward increasing correct mask use.


Assuntos
Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Máscaras/normas , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , /prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Ann Fam Med ; 19(1): 55-62, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431393

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led at times to a scarcity of personal protective equipment, including medical masks, for health care clinicians, especially in primary care settings. The objective of this review was to summarize current evidence regarding the use of cloth masks to prevent respiratory viral infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), among health care clinicians. METHODS: We searched 5 databases, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website, and the reference lists of identified articles on April 3, 2020. All identified publications were independently screened by 2 reviewers. Two authors independently extracted data and graded the studies. Randomized control trials (RCTs) were graded using the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist, and observational and nonhuman subject studies were graded using 11 domains common across frequently used critical appraisal tools. All discrepancies were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: Our search identified 136 original publications. Nine studies met inclusion criteria. We performed a qualitative synthesis of the data from these studies. Four nonrandomized trials, 3 laboratory studies, 1 single-case experiment, and 1 RCT were identified. The laboratory studies found that cloth materials provided measurable levels of particle filtration but were less efficacious at blocking biologic material than medical masks. The RCT found that cloth masks were associated with significantly more viral infections than medical masks. CONCLUSIONS: The current literature suggests that cloth materials are somewhat efficacious in filtering particulate matter and aerosols but provide a worse fit and inferior protection compared to medical masks in clinical environments. The quality and quantity of literature addressing this question are lacking. Cloth masks lack evidence for adequate protection of health care clinicians against respiratory viral infections.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/normas , Têxteis , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Teste de Materiais , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Estados Unidos
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e24, 2021 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441205

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious, and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by it has forced many countries to adopt 'lockdown' measures to prevent the spread of the epidemic through social isolation of citizens. Some countries proposed universal mask wearing as a protection measure of public health to strengthen national prevention efforts and to limit the wider spread of the epidemic. In order to reveal the epidemic prevention efficacy of masks, this paper systematically evaluates the experimental studies of various masks and filter materials, summarises the general characteristics of the filtration efficiency of isolation masks with particle size, and reveals the actual efficacy of masks by combining the volume distribution characteristics of human exhaled droplets with different particle sizes and the SARS-CoV-2 virus load of nasopharynx and throat swabs from patients. The existing measured data show that the filtration efficiency of all kinds of masks for large particles and extra-large droplets is close to 100%. From the perspective of filtering the total number of pathogens discharged in the environment and protecting vulnerable individuals from breathing live viruses, the mask has a higher protective effect. If considering the weighted average filtration efficiency with different particle sizes, the filtration efficiencies of the N95 mask and the ordinary mask are 99.4% and 98.5%, respectively. The mask can avoid releasing active viruses to the environment from the source of infection, thus maximising the protection of vulnerable individuals by reducing the probability of inhaling a virus. Therefore, if the whole society strictly implements the policy of publicly wearing masks, the risk of large-scale spread of the epidemic can be greatly reduced. Compared with the overall cost of social isolation, limited personal freedoms and forced suspension of economic activities, the inconvenience for citizens caused by wearing masks is perfectly acceptable.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Máscaras/normas , Aerossóis , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Carga Viral
7.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245688, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481870

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has made well-fitting face masks a critical piece of protective equipment for healthcare workers and civilians. While the importance of wearing face masks has been acknowledged, there remains a lack of understanding about the role of good fit in rendering protective equipment useful. In addition, supply chain constraints have caused some organizations to abandon traditional quantitative or/and qualitative fit testing, and instead, have implemented subjective fit checking. Our study seeks to quantitatively evaluate the level of fit offered by various types of masks, and most importantly, assess the accuracy of implementing fit checks by comparing fit check results to quantitative fit testing results. METHODS: Seven participants first evaluated N95 and KN95 respirators by performing a fit check. Participants then underwent quantitative fit testing wearing five N95 respirators, a KN95 respirator, a surgical mask, and fabric masks. RESULTS: N95 respirators offered higher degrees of protection than the other categories of masks tested; however, it should be noted that most N95 respirators failed to fit the participants adequately. Fit check responses had poor correlation with quantitative fit factor scores. KN95, surgical, and fabric masks achieved low fit factor scores, with little protective difference recorded between respiratory protection options. In addition, small facial differences were observed to have a significant impact on quantitative fit. CONCLUSION: Fit is critical to the level of protection offered by respirators. For an N95 respirator to provide the promised protection, it must fit the participant. Performing a fit check via NHS self-assessment guidelines was an unreliable way of determining fit.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Têxteis , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras/normas , Máscaras/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , /virologia , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Têxteis/virologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Enferm Clin ; 31 Suppl 1: S73-S77, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487530

RESUMO

The main element of personal protective equipment against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are masks, which protect against droplets and aerosols that can remain suspended in the air. The objective of this study is to summarize the existing evidence on the filtration of different materials for the manufacture of masks. A scoping review or exploratory review has been carried out in the PubMEd and Scopus databases, using the terms "respirator", "mask", "facemask", "material", and "tissue", combined with Boolean operators. The results show some of the materials used for the manufacture of masks, both surgical masks and medium-high filtration masks, as well as materials used for the manufacture of household masks. As a conclusion, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the different materials as well as their properties to guarantee an adequate use according to the specific needs in each context, being fundamental the application of particle filtration systems as well as support materials that comply with current recommendations.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/normas , /epidemiologia , Celulose/normas , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Filtração/instrumentação , Filtração/normas , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Polipropilenos/normas , Eletricidade Estática , Têxteis/normas
9.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 5-11, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350330

RESUMO

Aim: Face masks are an important addition to our arsenal in the fight against COVID-19. The aim of this study is to present a novel method of measuring mask performance which can simultaneously assess both fabric penetration and leakage due to poor fit. Materials & methods: A synthetic aerosol is introduced into the lung of a medical dummy. A conical laser sheet surrounds the face of the dummy where it illuminates the aerosol emitted during a simulated breath. The system is demonstrated with five mask types. Conclusions: The curved laser sheet highlights both penetration through the mask fabric and leakage around the edges of the mask. A large variation in both material penetration and leakage was observed.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/normas , Têxteis , Aerossóis/análise , Vestuário , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Teste de Materiais , Tamanho da Partícula , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Cloreto de Sódio
10.
Anaesthesia ; 76(1): 91-100, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932556

RESUMO

For healthcare workers performing aerosol-generating procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic, well fitted filtering facepiece respirators, for example, N95/FFP2 or N99/FFP3 masks, are recommended as part of personal protective equipment. In this review, we evaluate the role of fit checking and fit testing of respirators, in addition to airborne protection provided by respirators. Filtering facepiece respirators are made of material with sufficient high filter capacity to protect against airborne respiratory viruses. Adequate viral protection can only be provided by respirators that properly fit the wearer's facial characteristics. Initial fit pass rates vary between 40% and 90% and are especially low in female and in Asian healthcare workers. Fit testing is recommended to ensure a proper fit of respirators for the individual healthcare worker so that alternative respirators can be selected if required. Although fit testing is required to comply with respirator standards, it is not performed consistently within all healthcare settings. Fit checking (a self-test) is recommended every time a healthcare worker dons a respirator, but is unreliable in detecting proper fit or leak. Additionally, fit testing has a high educational value and as such is best performed as part of a hospital respiratory protection programme. Whether fit checking alone, as opposed to fit tested and fit checked respirators, provides adequate airborne protection against aerosols containing the SARS-CoV-2 virus and other respiratory viruses remains unknown. While fit testing undoubtedly incurs additional costs, it is still recommended, not only to protect healthcare workers but also as it may reduce overall healthcare cost when considering the potential costs of sickness leave and the associated legal costs of compensation.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Humanos , Pandemias , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas
11.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 6-14, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225745

RESUMO

Wide-spread misinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic has presented challenges for communicating public health recommendations. Should campaigns to promote protective behaviors focus on debunking misinformation or targeting behavior-specific beliefs? To address this question, we examine whether belief in COVID-19 misinformation is directly associated with two behaviors (face mask wearing and social distancing), and whether behavior-specific beliefs can account for this association and better predict behavior, consistent with behavior-change theory. We conducted a nationally representative two-wave survey of U.S. adults from 5/26/20-6/12/20 (n = 1074) and 7/15/20-7/21//20 (n = 889; follow-up response 83%). Scales were developed and validated for COVID-19 related misinformation beliefs, social distancing and face mask wearing, and beliefs about the consequences of both behaviors. Cross-lagged panel linear regression models assessed relationships among the variables. While belief in misinformation was negatively associated with both face mask wearing (B = -.27, SE =.06) and social-distancing behaviors (B = -.46, SE =.08) measured at the same time, misinformation did not predict concurrent or lagged behavior when the behavior-specific beliefs were incorporated in the models. Beliefs about behavioral outcomes accounted for face mask wearing and social distancing, both cross-sectionally (B =.43, SE =.05; B =.63, SE =.09) and lagged over time (B =.20, SE = 04; B =.30, SE =.08). In conclusion, belief in COVID-19-related misinformation is less relevant to protective behaviors, but beliefs about the consequences of these behaviors are important predictors. With regard to misinformation, we recommend health campaigns aimed at promoting protective behaviors emphasize the benefits of these behaviors, rather than debunking unrelated false claims.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Máscaras/normas , Adulto , /psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Occup Environ Hyg ; 18(2): 72-83, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315526

RESUMO

Simple plastic face shields have numerous practical advantages over regular surgical masks. In light of the spreading COVID-19 pandemic, the potential of face shields as a substitution for surgical masks was investigated. In order to determine the efficacy of the protective equipment we used a cough simulator. The protective equipment considered was placed on a manikin head that simulated human breathing. Concentration and size distribution of small particles that reached the manikin respiration pathways during the few tens of seconds following the cough event were monitored. Additionally, water sensitive papers were taped on the tested protective equipment and the manikin face. In the case of frontal exposure, for droplet diameter larger than 3 µm, the shield efficiency in blocking cough droplets was found to be comparable to that of regular surgical masks, with enhanced protection for portions of the face that the mask does not cover. Additionally, for finer particles, down to 0.3 µm diameter, a shield blocked about 10 times more fine particles than the surgical mask. When exposure from the side was considered, the performance of the shield was found to depend dramatically on its geometry. While a narrow shield allowed more droplets and aerosol to penetrate in comparison to a mask under the same configuration, a slightly wider shield significantly improved the performance. The source control potential of shields was also investigated. A shield, and alternatively, a surgical mask, were placed on the cough simulator, while the breathing simulator, situated 60 cm away in the jet direction, remained totally exposed. In both cases, no droplets or particles were found in the vicinity of the breathing simulator. Conducted experiments were limited to short time periods after expiratory events, and do not include longer time ranges associated with exposure to suspended aerosol. Thus, additional evidence regarding the risk posed by floating aerosol is needed to establish practical conclusions regarding actual transmittance reduction potential of face shields and surgical face masks.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Máscaras/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , /isolamento & purificação , Aerossóis/análise , Microbiologia do Ar , Tosse/virologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Teste de Materiais , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
13.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e51476, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1119621

RESUMO

Objetivo: desenvolver um modelo de máscara de tecido, com aplicação do elemento filtrante em celulose, para fins de utilização como barreira física segura para aerossóis, como estratégia de resposta emergencial à pandemia provocada pelo SARS-CoV-2. Método: pesquisa laboratorial realizada por meio de protótipos, testagens empíricas e análises e discussões junto a expertises. Resultados: a condução da pesquisa demonstrou que os aerossóis são retidos pela barreira física de celulose introduzida à estrutura das máscaras, o que motivou a segunda fase do estudo em unidade da Rede Brasileira de Laboratórios Analíticos de Saúde sobre a eficácia desses materiais. Conclusão: a confecção de máscaras de tecido é um fenômeno mundial importante e urgente frente à pandemia da COVID-19. Em função da crise de abastecimento e dos parâmetros ressaltados neste estudo, acredita-se que o uso desse equipamento possa ser estendido a setores não críticos de unidades de saúde, além da população em geral.


Objective: to develop a model of fabric mask, with the application of a cellulose filter element, for use as a safe physical barrier for aerosols, as an emergency response strategy for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Method: laboratory research carried out by means of prototypes, empirical tests and analyses, and discussions with experts. Results: the research demonstrated that aerosols are retained by the physical cellulose barrier introduced into the structure of the masks, which motivated the second phase of the study into the effectiveness of these materials at a unit of the Brazilian Analytical Health Laboratories Network. Conclusion: the making of fabric masks is an important and urgent worldwide phenomenon in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic. In view of the supply crisis and the parameters highlighted in this study, it is believed that the use of this equipment can be extended to non-critical sectors of health units, as well as to the general population.


Objetivo: desarrollar un modelo de mascarilla de tela, con la aplicación de un elemento filtrante de celulosa, para su uso como barrera física segura para aerosoles, como estrategia de respuesta de emergencia para la pandemia SARS-CoV-2. Método: investigación de laboratorio realizada mediante prototipos, pruebas y análisis empíricos y discusiones con expertos. Resultados: la investigación demostró que los aerosoles son retenidos por la barrera física de celulosa introducida en la estructura de las máscaras, lo que motivó la segunda fase del estudio sobre la efectividad de estos materiales en una unidad de la Red Brasileña de Laboratorios Analíticos de Salud. Conclusión: la fabricación de máscaras de tela es un fenómeno mundial importante y urgente para hacer frente a la pandemia de COVID-19. Ante la crisis de oferta y los parámetros resaltados en este estudio, se cree que el uso de este equipamiento puede extenderse a sectores no críticos de las unidades de salud, así como a la población en general.


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Betacoronavirus , Máscaras/normas , Teste de Materiais , Brasil , Celulose , Filtros , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
14.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e50360, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1097275

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever as recomendações sobre o uso racional e seguro dos equipamentos de proteção individual (EPI) no transcorrer da cadeia assistencial de pessoas com suspeita ou confirmação de contaminação pelo novo coronavírus. Conteúdo: o novo coronavírus é responsável pela doença Covid-19, e dentre as pessoas com maior risco de desenvolver a infecção estão os trabalhadores de saúde, devido ao contato muito próximo a pacientes. Desse modo, a utilização de EPI é recomendação prioritária a estes trabalhadores. Todavia, em função do desabastecimento internacional e nacional relacionado a estes equipamentos, o uso racional é fundamental a fim de evitar que o impacto do desabastecimento seja ainda maior. Conclusão: o uso de EPI é indispensável aos trabalhadores de saúde durante a pandemia de Covid-19, contudo, é imprescindível coordenar a cadeia de fornecimento destes insumos, implementar estratégias que minimizem a necessidade de EPI e garantir o uso de maneira adequada.


Objective: to describe the recommendations on the rational, safe use of personal protective equipment (PPE) throughout the chain of care for people with suspected or confirmed contamination by the new coronavirus. Content: the new coronavirus is responsible for the disease Covid-19, and among those at high risk of infection are health workers in very close contact with patients. It is thus a priority recommendation for these workers to use PPE. However, international and national shortages of this equipment make rational use essential in order to prevent even greater impact from these shortages. Conclusion: it is essential that health workers use PPE during the Covid-19 pandemic, but it is also essential to coordinate the supply chain for these inputs, implement strategies that minimize the need for PPE and ensure proper use.


Objetivo: describir las recomendaciones sobre el uso racional y seguro del equipo de protección personal (EPP) en toda la cadena de atención para las personas con sospecha o confirmación de contaminación por el nuevo coronavirus. Contenido: el nuevo coronavirus es responsable de la enfermedad de Covid-19, y entre aquellos con alto riesgo de infección se encuentran los trabajadores de la salud en contacto muy cercano con los pacientes. Por lo tanto, es una recomendación prioritaria para estos trabajadores usar EPP. Sin embargo, la escasez internacional y nacional de este equipo hace que el uso racional sea esencial para evitar un impacto aún mayor de esta escasez. Conclusión: es esencial que los trabajadores de la salud usen EPP durante la pandemia de Covid-19, pero también es esencial coordinar la cadena de suministro para estos insumos, implementar estrategias que minimicen la necesidad de EPP y garantizar un uso adecuado.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Betacoronavirus , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Riscos Ocupacionais , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Máscaras/normas
15.
Rev. patol. respir ; 23(supl.3): S268-S271, dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197103

RESUMO

Las vías de transmisión del SARS-CoV-2 aún no están claras, siendo seguro su contagio por contacto y gotas. Los equipos de protección individual (EPI) deben ser utilizados de forma completa y correcta para disminuir el contagio entre los profesionales sanitarios, sin olvidar las medidas básicas de protección, prevención, aislamiento de los casos confirmados y cuarentena de sus contactos estrechos hasta determinar su diagnóstico. No hay que minimizar esfuerzos en realizar compañas publicitarias en educación sanitaria a fin de favorecer el correcto uso y adherencia de la sociedad a las medidas de prevención, destinando recursos humanos y materiales proporcionados para favorecer el control de la transmisión y romper las rutas de contagio conocidas


The routes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 are not yet clear, being contagious by contact and drops. Personal protective equipment (PPE) must be used completely and properly to reduce contagion among healthcare professionals, without forgetting the basic measures of protection, prevention, isolation of confirmed cases and quarantine of their close contacts until their diagnosis is determined. Efforts should not be minimized in carrying out publicity campaigns in health education in order to favor the correct use and adherence of society to prevention measures, allocating human and material resources provided to favor the control of transmission and break known routes of contagion


Assuntos
Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Máscaras/normas , China , Estados Unidos , Europa (Continente)
18.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052962

RESUMO

Wearing face masks is highly recommended to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission in health care workers and for the general public. The demand for high quality face masks has seen an upsurge in the recent times, leading to exploration of alternative economic and easily available options, without compromising on the quality. Particle removal from air in terms of capture efficiency of the filter media or the face mask is a crucial parameter for testing and quality assurance. Short-term reusability of the face masks is also an important aspect as the demand for masks will potentially outstrip the supply in future. Sterilization Wraps, which are used to wrap sterile surgical instruments, have shown a promising performance in terms of removal of particles from air. In this study, we evaluate the particle filtration characteristics of face masks made of 2 different metric weights [45 and 60 gram per square metre (GSM)] respectively, using locally available Sterilization Wraps. The aerosol filtration characteristics were also studied after sterilisation by different techniques such as heat with 50% humidity (thermal treatment), ethylene oxide (ETO), steam and radiation dose of 30kGy. We found that 60 GSM face mask had particle capture efficiency of 94% for total particles greater than 0.3 microns and this capture efficiency was maintained even after sterilisation with ETO and thermal treatment. The cost of producing these masks was 30 US cents/mask at our institute. Our study suggests that sterilization wrap material made of non-woven polypropylene spunbond-meltblown-spunbond (SMS) fibres could be an appropriate readily available inexpensive material for making face masks or N95 respirators.


Assuntos
Máscaras/normas , Tamanho da Partícula , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Têxteis/normas , Aerossóis/química , Desinfecção/métodos , Desinfecção/normas , Óxido de Etileno/química , Filtração/normas , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Polipropilenos/química
19.
Public Health ; 188: 42-50, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic that emerged in December 2019 has rapidly evolved in recent months to become a worldwide and ongoing pandemic. Shortage of medical masks remains an unresolved problem. This study aims to investigate the filtration efficiency (FE) of home-made masks that could be used as alternatives for community mitigation of COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental observational analytic study. METHODS: The FE of home-made masks and medical masks (as the control) were tested under laminar flow within a scaled air duct system using nebulised NaCl aerosols sized 6-220 nm. The size-resolved NaCl aerosol count was measured using a scanning mobility particle-sizer spectrometer. Home-made masks with an external plastic face shield also underwent a splash test. In addition, the fibre structures of medical masks were studied under an electron microscope after treatment with either 75% alcohol or soap and water at 60 °C. RESULTS: The FE of the home-made masks at 6-200 nm were non-inferior to that of medical masks (84.54% vs 86.94%, P = 0.102). Both types of masks achieved an FE of 90% at 6-89 nm. A significantly higher FE was achieved when one piece of tissue paper was added adjacent to the inner surface of the medical mask than medical mask alone (6-200 nm: 91.64% vs 86.94%, P < 0.0001; 6-89 nm: 94.27% vs 90.54%, P < 0.0001; 90-200 nm: 82.69% vs 73.81%, P < 0.0001). The plastic face shield prevented the home-made mask from fluid splash. The fibre structures of the external surface of medical masks were damaged after treatment with either 75% alcohol or soap and water at 60 °C. CONCLUSIONS: The home-made masks in this study, which were made of one piece of tissue paper and two pieces of kitchen towels, layered from face to external, had an FE at 6-200 nm non-inferior to that of medical mask materials, which had a certified FE of ≥95% at 3 µm. In the current COVID-19 pandemic with the shortage of medical masks, these home-made masks combined with an external plastic shield could be used as an alternative to medical masks for community mitigation. In addition, one piece of tissue paper could be placed adjacent to the inner surface of a medical mask to prolong effective lifespan of the medical mask. These demand reduction strategies could be used to reserve medical masks for use in healthcare and certain high-risk community settings, such as symptomatic persons, caregivers and attendees to healthcare institutions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Filtração/normas , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Aerossóis , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nanopartículas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
20.
mSphere ; 5(5)2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087517

RESUMO

Guidelines from the CDC and the WHO recommend the wearing of face masks to prevent the spread of coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the protective efficiency of such masks against airborne transmission of infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) droplets/aerosols is unknown. Here, we developed an airborne transmission simulator of infectious SARS-CoV-2-containing droplets/aerosols produced by human respiration and coughs and assessed the transmissibility of the infectious droplets/aerosols and the ability of various types of face masks to block the transmission. We found that cotton masks, surgical masks, and N95 masks all have a protective effect with respect to the transmission of infective droplets/aerosols of SARS-CoV-2 and that the protective efficiency was higher when masks were worn by a virus spreader. Importantly, medical masks (surgical masks and even N95 masks) were not able to completely block the transmission of virus droplets/aerosols even when completely sealed. Our data will help medical workers understand the proper use and performance of masks and determine whether they need additional equipment to protect themselves from infected patients.IMPORTANCE Airborne simulation experiments showed that cotton masks, surgical masks, and N95 masks provide some protection from the transmission of infective SARS-CoV-2 droplets/aerosols; however, medical masks (surgical masks and even N95 masks) could not completely block the transmission of virus droplets/aerosols even when sealed.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Máscaras/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Máscaras/classificação
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