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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762913

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite the fact that mothers know the exact age to wean their infants, majority of the mothers do not practice exclusive breastfeeding due to cultural beliefs and practices. The purpose of the study was to explore cultural beliefs and practices associated with weaning children at the Maternal Child Health Clinic Kalisizo Hospital. Methods: This was a simple qualitative study. Seven in-depth-interviews were conducted among 7 mothers of children within the ages 0-12 months attending post-natal care services using self-generated semi-structured key informant's guide. This took place at the Maternal Child Health Clinic Kalisizo Hospital. Purposive sampling method was used to select mothers for the study. Three themes were generated namely: identification of the different cultural beliefs and practices associated with weaning, how the different cultural beliefs are practiced and the impacts of these cultural beliefs and practices. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Although a majority of the mothers knew the recommended age to wean their infants, they did not ignore the ill-informed cultural beliefs, taboos and practices from their elders such as peer pressure, advice and counselling from mother-in laws and teachings from older women who are seen as role models. Conclusion: Adherence to cultural beliefs, taboos and practices, have a powerful influence on weaning, hence hindering exclusive breast feeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Desmame/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Centros de Saúde Materno-Infantil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1516, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In populations that lack vital registration systems, under-5 mortality (U5M) is commonly estimated using survey-based approaches, including indirect methods. One assumption of indirect methods is that a mother's survival and her children's survival are not correlated, but in populations affected by HIV/AIDS this assumption is violated, and thus indirect estimates are biased. Our goal was to estimate the magnitude of the bias, and to create a predictive model to correct it. METHODS: We used an individual-level, discrete time-step simulation model to measure how the bias in indirect estimates of U5M changes under various fertility rates, mortality rates, HIV/AIDS rates, and levels of antiretroviral therapy. We simulated 4480 populations in total and measured the amount of bias in U5M due to HIV/AIDS. We also developed a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood to correct this bias. RESULTS: We found that indirect methods can underestimate U5M by 0-41% in populations with HIV prevalence of 0-40%. Applying our model to 2010 survey data from Malawi and Tanzania, we show that indirect methods would underestimate U5M by up to 7.7% in those countries at that time. Our best fitting model to correct bias in U5M had a root median square error of 0.0012. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect estimates of U5M can be significantly biased in populations affected by HIV/AIDS. Our predictive model allows scholars and practitioners to correct that bias using commonly measured population characteristics. Policies and programs based on indirect estimates of U5M in populations with generalized HIV epidemics may need to be reevaluated after accounting for estimation bias.


Assuntos
Viés , Mortalidade da Criança , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Causas de Morte , Pré-Escolar , Epidemias , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17737, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689820

RESUMO

The World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative is aimed at the global promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding. In this study, we compared breastfeeding-related information received, knowledge and behaviours among postpartum women in Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative accredited and non-accredited hospitals. We selected 10 hospitals: 9 non-accredited hospitals in the Campania region in southern Italy and one accredited hospital in the Piedmont region in northern Italy. In total, 786 women (580 (73.8%) in Campania and 206 (26.2%) in Piedmont) in the hospitals' maternity wards completed a questionnaire comprising 5 sections within 24 to 72hours after giving birth. The questionnaire investigated breastfeeding activities in the days immediately following childbirth, as well as the information provided by health personnel, knowledge about breastfeeding before and during hospitalisation, and participation in antenatal classes. To evaluate the comparison between the 2 regions, we performed at first a bivariate analysis and then a multinomial and a multivariate logistic regression. Compared with Piedmont, in Campania hospitals there was a rate of breastfeeding of 44.3% vs 89.3%, a skin-to-skin contact between mother and child of 74.5% vs 90.7% and first milk feed within 2hours of 15.0% vs 87.2%. The Campania group had fewer problems with child latching. The Campania group reported receiving less information about breastfeeding in general compared with the Piedmont group. In general, both groups showed good basic knowledge about different aspects of breastfeeding. In both regions, about 90% reported that the information received during the antenatal classes simplified the breastfeeding experience. Our study confirms the importance of systematic promotion of breastfeeding and subsequent delivery of adequate support to maternity departments, in accordance with international guidelines.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidade Hospitalar de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Modelos Logísticos , Mães/psicologia , Análise Multivariada , Unidade Hospitalar de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia/normas , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
4.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 31(3): 451-458, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640333

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The study had for object to identify factors associated to the cessation of the exclusive breast-feeding at the mothers of children from 0 to 6 months in the urban and rural circles in Mali. METHOD: The study was longitudinal forward-looking, realized in Bamako (urban area) and in Dialakoroba (rural area) from April till November, 2016. in total, 218 mothers were enlisted (114 by area) in a voluntary way in health centers. A monthly follow-up of six months was realized in the place of residence. The SPSS 20 software was used for the seizure and the data analysis. The expected event was to give to the child another food than maternal milk. Test statistics such as Chi2 of Log Rank and Hazard Ratio (HR) were used with threshold of meaning p ≤ 0,05. RESULTS: In urban zones and rural respectively 68,5 % and 71,5% of the mothers had stopped the Exclusive Breast-feeding (EBF) before six months. Factors associated to this cessation of the EBF were: the use of the feeding-bottle (HR=2,61; IC 95%: [1,46-4,48]), the care of the child during less than three months as main occupation (HR=3,18; IC 95%: [1,95-5,20]), the support for the mother during less than three months (HR=3,79; IC 95%: [2,31-6,22]), the advice(council) on the EBF (HR=0,64; IC 95%: [0,46-0,98]) and the experience (experiment) of breastfeeding (HR=0,34; IC 95%: [0,15-0,84]). CONCLUSION: The consideration of the identified factors(mailmen) will allow to improve the practice of the EBF in six months in the sites of the study.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mali , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 95, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with outpatient follow-up of children with congenital syphilis. METHODS: A non-concurrent cohort study performed in primary care units and three reference maternity hospitals in Fortaleza (Ceará State). Data were collected from September 2013 to September 2016 in the notification forms and in the medical records of hospitalization and outpatient follow-up, and they were presented considering an adequate and inadequate follow-up. Children who attended the primary care unit or referral outpatient clinic during the period recommended by the Ministry of Health were considered adequately followed up and performed the recommended examinations. Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used in the comparative analysis. The estimated risk of adequate non-follow-up was verified by simple and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The total of 460 children with congenital syphilis were notified, of which 332 (72.2%) returned for at least one appointment and were part of the study. Exactly 287 (86.4%) children attended the primary health unit; however, there was no reference to congenital syphilis in 236 (71.1%) medical records and no information on the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test was found in 264 (79.5%) children. There was nonadherence to subsequent appointments by 272 (81.9%) individuals. The following variables had a statistically significant association with the non-adequate follow-up of the children: marital status of the mothers, number of prenatal appointments, number of pregnancies, blood count, and radiography of long bones. CONCLUSIONS: Most children with congenital syphilis attended primary care for follow-up, but the services do not meet the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health for adequate follow-up.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis Congênita/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e096, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664359

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of environmental and socioeconomic characteristics with the use of dental floss in preschool children. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 402 preschool children aged 1-5 years, from Santa Cruz do Sul, a Southern city in Brazil. Mothers answered questions about environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics. Behavior variables as use of dental floss (study outcome) and dental attendance were also evaluated. Poisson regression analysis with robust variance through a hierarchical approach was used to investigate the association of explanatory variables for use of dental floss. Prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated. The mean sample age was 3.32 years (standard deviation [SD] 1.10). Of the included children, 291 (73.12%) did not use dental floss. The environmental model indicated that children who attended daycare (PR 2.53; 95%CI 1.39-4.60) and those whose parents were members of volunteer networks (RP 1.58; 95%CI 1.02-2.46) were more likely to use dental floss. Children from families with higher income (PR 1.55; 95%CI 1.07-2.24) and maternal schooling (PR 2.21; 95%CI 1.31-3.74) presented a higher prevalence of dental floss use. Older children and those who attended dental services were also related to higher dental floss use. Our findings suggest that children who live in a supporting environment and those with a higher socioeconomic status are more likely to use dental floss.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição de Poisson , Valores de Referência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(12): 1658-1669, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584144

RESUMO

Objectives mHealth interventions for MNCH have been shown to improve uptake of antenatal and neonatal services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, little systematic analysis is available about their impact on infant health outcomes, such as reducing low birth weight or malnutrition among children under the age of five. The objective of this study is to determine if an age- and stage-based mobile phone voice messaging initiative for women, during pregnancy and up to 1 year after delivery, can reduce low birth weight and child malnutrition and improve women's infant care knowledge and practices. Methods We conducted a pseudo-randomized controlled trial among pregnant women from urban slums and low-income areas in Mumbai, India. Pregnant women, 18 years and older, speaking Hindi or Marathi were enrolled and assigned to receive mMitra messages (intervention group N = 1516) or not (Control group N = 500). Women in the intervention group received mMitra voice messages two times per week throughout their pregnancy and until their infant turned 1 year of age. Infant's birth weight, anthropometric data at 1 year of age, and status of immunization were obtained from Maternal Child Health (MCH) cards to assess impact on primary infant health outcomes. Women's infant health care practices and knowledge were assessed through interviews administered immediately after women enrolled in the study (Time 1), after they delivered their babies (Time 2), and after their babies turned 1 year old (Time 3). 15 infant care practices self-reported by women (Time 3) and knowledge on ten infant care topics (Time 2) were also compared between intervention and control arms. Results We observed a trend for increased odds of a baby being born at or above the ideal birth weight of 2.5 kg in the intervention group compared to controls (odds ratio (OR) 1.334, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.983-1.839, p = 0.064). The intervention group performed significantly better on two infant care practice indicators: giving the infant supplementary feeding at 6 months of age (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.08-1.82, p = 0.009) and fully immunizing the infant as prescribed under the Government of India's child immunization program (OR 1.531, 95% CI 1.141-2.055, p = 0.005). Women in the intervention group had increased odds of knowing that the baby should be given solid food by 6 months (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.371-2.605, p < 0.01), that the baby needs to be given vaccines (OR 1.567, 95% CI 1.047-2.345, p = 0.028), and that the ideal birth weight is > 2.5 kg (OR 2.279, 95% CI 1.617-3.213, p < 0.01). Conclusions for Practice This study provides robust evidence that tailored mobile voice messages can significantly improve infant care practices and maternal knowledge that can positively impact infant child health. Furthermore, this is the first prospective study of a voice-based mHealth intervention to demonstrate a positive impact on infant birth weight, a health outcome of public health importance in many LMICs.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Cuidado do Lactente/métodos , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Mães/psicologia , Voz , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Telemedicina , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533243

RESUMO

Delaying motherhood is becoming increasingly common, raising questions of the possible influence that maternal age may have on newborn health. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the association between maternal age and different newborn health parameters. An observational study was conducted in Spain on primiparous women and their infants. Data were collected on newborn health variables, breastfeeding, and different clinical practices that are beneficial for child health and development. Crude and adjusted mean differences were calculated along with the standard error of the mean. A total of 373 women and their children participated. In terms of early commencement skin-to-skin contact, the mean age of women that did skin-to-skin contact was 29.95 ± 0.31 years compared to 31.49 ± 0.66 years in those that did not (p = 0.042). In terms of other newborn parameters, such as preterm birth, health problems or complications, or the need for hospital admission, these were more frequent in the oldest group of mothers, but the differences found were not significant (p > 0.05). Hence, indicators of newborn morbidity were not found to be significantly associated with maternal age; however, beneficial practices such as early commencement skin-to-skin contact were found to be significantly associated with maternal age.


Assuntos
Saúde do Lactente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade Materna , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 675, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ghana Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) initiative is a national strategy for improving access to primary health care services for underserved communities. Following a successful trial in the North Eastern part of the country, CHPS was adopted as Ghana's flagship programme for achieving the Universal Health Coverage. Recent empirical evidence suggests, however, that scale-up of CHPS has not necessarily replicated the successes of the pilot study. This study examines the community's perspective of the performance of CHPS and how the scale up could potentially align with the original experimental study. METHOD: Applying a qualitative research methodology, this study analysed transcripts from 20 focus group discussions (FGDs) in four functional CHPS zones in separate districts of the Northern and Volta Regions of Ghana to understand the community's assessment of CHPS. The study employed the thematic analysis to explore the content of the CHPS service provision, delivery and how community members feel about the service. In addition, ordinary least regression model was applied in interpreting 126 scores consigned to CHPS by the study respondents. RESULTS: Two broad areas of consensus were observed: general favourable and general unfavourable thematic areas. Favourable themes were informed by approval, appreciation, hard work and recognition of excellent services. The unfavourable thematic area was informed by rudeness, extortion, inappropriate and unprofessional behaviour, lack of basic equipment and disappointments. The findings show that mothers of children under the age of five, adolescent girls without children, and community leaders generally expressed favourable perceptions of CHPS while fathers of children under the age of five and adolescent boys without children had unfavourable expressions about the CHPS program. A narrow focus on maternal and child health explains the demographic divide on the perception of CHPS. The study revealed wide disparities in actual CHPS deliverables and community expectations. CONCLUSIONS: A communication gap between health care providers and community members explains the high and unrealistic expectations of CHPS. Efforts to improve program acceptability and impact should address the need for more general outreach to social networks and men rather than a sole focus on facility-based maternal and child health care.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gana , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1275, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunization is an effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality among children and it will become more effective if the child can receive the full course of recommended immunization doses. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of childhood immunization defaulters and its associated factors among children below 5 years attending registered child care centers in Petaling District, Selangor. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey among mothers with children below 5 years from 60 registered child care centers in District of Petaling, Selangor. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1015 mothers. Simple Logistic Regression, Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were performed to determine the association between individual categorical variables and childhood immunization defaulters. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of childhood immunization defaulters. RESULTS: The study showed that the prevalence rate for defaulting immunization was 20.7%. After adjusting all confounders, six statistically significant predictors of childhood immunization defaulters were determined. They were non-Muslims (aOR = 1.669, 95% CI = 1.173, 2.377, p = 0.004), mothers with diploma and below educational background (aOR = 2.296, 95% CI = 1.460, 3.610, p < 0.0001), multiple children of 5 and above in a family (aOR = 2.656, 95% CI = 1.004, 7.029, p = 0.040), mothers with younger children aged 2 years and below (aOR = 1.700, 95% CI = 1.163, 2.486, p = 0.006), long travelling time of more than 30 min to the immunization health facility (aOR = 2.303, 95% CI = 1.474, 3.599, p < 0.0001) and had delayed at least one of the immunization schedule (aOR = 2.747, 95% CI = 1.918, 3.933, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study highlights the need of implementation of intervention programs should be intensified to improve the childhood immunization status, focusing on the Non-Muslim community, mothers with low educational level, mothers with multiple children and mothers with children aged 2 years and below. In light of the growing problem of immunization defaulters in Malaysian children, identifying mothers at risk of not completing their children immunization schedule and educating them is an important strategy to recurrent outbreaks of infectious disease in the country.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Malásia , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(9): 578-587, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526297

RESUMO

This study aimed to clarify the association between mothers' problematic Internet use (PIU) and the thinness of their children. We analyzed data collected from health examinations of young children aged 4 months, 1.5 years, and 3 years of age performed in Matsue city, Japan, between April 2016 and March 2017. The subjects comprised 1,685 (866 boys, 819 girls) children aged 4 months, 1,728 (898 boys, 830 girls) aged 1.5 years, and 1,672 (802 boys, 870 girls) aged 3 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to clarify the association between mothers' PIU (Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction score: ≥4) and the thinness (body mass index: <15) of their children after adjusting for covariates such as birth weight, nutritional form, parental smoking status, maternal age, skipping breakfast, eating snacks, sleeping late, outdoor play, and daytime caregiver. Analysis after stratification by sex and age revealed that the mothers' PIU was significantly associated with their children's thinness only in boys aged 4 months or 1.5 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-9.96 and OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.04-6.89, respectively). Mothers' PIU may promote thinness among boys aged <3 years. As the nutritional status of children aged <3 years is affected by maternal feeding attitudes, our findings suggested that mothers who exhibit PIU do not provide adequate care for their children, particularly regarding feeding. In contrast, no association between mothers' PIU and their children's thinness was observed in girls.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Internet , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 483, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382978

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most neonatal deaths occur in low income and middle-income countries and about half of the deaths occur at home. It is estimated that about 75% of neonatal deaths could be avoided with simple, low-cost tools that already exist such as antibiotics for pneumonia and sepsis, sterile blades to cut the umbilical cords using knit caps and kangaroo care to keep babies warm. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of newborn care among postnatal mothers at Bahir Dar, Ethiopia 2016. An institutional based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample size was calculated by using a single population proportion formula. The total sample size was 422. The collected data was coded and entered to Epi-Data version 3.1 and exported and analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Both descriptive and multivariate logistic regression was performed. RESULT: A total of 414 postnatal mothers were interviewed with a response rate of 98.1%, among them 55.3% had good knowledge and 60.6% had a good practice of newborn care. Age of the mother, occupation, the month of pregnancy at first ANC visits, overall knowledge and attitude level was found to have a significant association with newborn care practice.


Assuntos
Instalações de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Med ; 16(8): e1002868, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High body mass index (BMI) is associated with mortality, but the pervasive problem of confounding and reverse causality in observational studies limits inference about the direction and magnitude of causal effects. We aimed to obtain estimates of the causal association of BMI with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a record-linked, intergenerational prospective study from the general population of Sweden, we used two-sample instrumental variable (IV) analysis with data from 996,898 fathers (282,407 deaths) and 1,013,083 mothers (153,043 deaths) and their sons followed up from January 1, 1961, until December 31, 2004. Sons' BMI was used as the instrument for parents' BMI to compute hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of mortality per standard deviation (SD) higher parents' BMI. Using offspring exposure as an instrument for parents' exposure is unlikely to be affected by reverse causality (an important source of bias in this context) and reduces confounding. IV analyses supported causal associations between higher BMI and greater risk of all-cause mortality (HR [95% confidence interval (CI)] per SD higher fathers' BMI: 1.29 [1.26-1.31] and mothers' BMI: 1.39 [1.35-1.42]) and overall cancer mortality (HR per SD higher fathers' BMI: 1.20 [1.16-1.24] and mothers' BMI: 1.29 [1.24-1.34]), including 9 site-specific cancers in men (bladder, colorectum, gallbladder, kidney, liver, lung, lymphatic system, pancreas, and stomach) and 11 site-specific cancers in women (gallbladder, kidney, liver, lung, lymphatic system, ovaries, pancreas, stomach, uterus, cervix, and endometrium). There was evidence supporting causal associations between higher BMI in mothers and greater risk of mortality from kidney disease (HR: 2.17 [1.68-2.81]) and lower risk of mortality from suicide (HR: 0.77 [0.65-0.90]). In both sexes, there was evidence supporting causal associations between higher BMI and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), stroke, diabetes, and respiratory diseases. We were unable to test the association between sons' and mothers' BMIs (as mothers' data were unavailable) or whether the instrument was independent of unmeasured or residual confounding; however, the associations between parents' mortality and sons' BMI were negligibly influenced by adjustment for available confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous large-scale meta-analyses and reviews, results supported the causal role of higher BMI in increasing the risk of several common causes of death, including cancers with increasing global incidence. We also found positive effects of BMI on mortality from respiratory disease, prostate cancer, and lung cancer, which has been inconsistently reported in the literature, suggesting that the causal role of higher BMI in mortality from these diseases may be underestimated. Furthermore, we expect different patterns of bias in the current observational and IV analyses; therefore, the similarities between our findings from both methods increases confidence in the results. These findings support efforts to understand the mechanisms underpinning these effects to inform targeted interventions and develop population-based strategies to reduce rising obesity levels for disease prevention.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Crianças Adultas/estatística & dados numéricos , Família , Pai/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1087, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In South Africa, the occurrence of the double burden of malnutrition is on the rise at a household level predisposing children and their mothers to negative health outcomes. However, few studies have been conducted at a household level. Therefore, we studied a double burden of malnutrition using child-mother pairs in a rural setting. METHODS: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted among 508 child-mother pairs selected from primary schools using a multistage sampling in a rural Dikgale Health and Demographic Site in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements of children and mothers, and socio-demographic data were collected. WHO AnthroPlus was used to generate body-mass-index z-scores of children and the BMI was used to indicate overweight and obesity among the mothers. Mann Whitney test was used to compare the means of variables between sexes and age groups, while the prevalence of thinness and overweight/obesity were compared using a chi-square. Multivariate logistic regression with a stepwise backward elimination procedure, controlling for confounding, was used to determine the association between the thinness and overweight/obesity and the covariates. RESULTS: Twenty five percent (25%) of the children were thin, 4% were overweight and 1% obese, while mothers were overweight (27.4%) and 42.3% obesity (42.3%) were observed among the mothers. The odds of being thin were higher in boys than in girls (AOR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.01-2.35). Overweight/obese mothers were more likely to have thin children (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.01-2.18) and less likely to have overweight/obese children (AOR = 0.18, 95%CI: 0.07-0.46). CONCLUSION: A double burden of malnutrition was observed on a household level with thinness among children and overweight/obesity among mothers. A need to address the dual problems of undernutrition and rapidly rising trends of overweight/obesity cannot be over-emphasized.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições Acadêmicas , África do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1034, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate complementary feeding practices significantly contribute to undernutrition among children under 2 years of age in India. However, there is limited up-to-date evidence on the prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices to guide policy actions at the subnational level in India. We investigated the regional prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices in India. METHODS: This study used a sample of 69,464 maternal responses from the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey in India. The prevalence of complementary feeding indicators was estimated using data for each administrative region, namely: North (n = 8469), South (n = 12,828), East (n = 18,141), West (n = 8940), North-East (n = 2422) and Central (n = 18,664). Factors associated with complementary feeding by region in India were investigated using logistic regression Generalized Linear Latent and Mixed Models (GLLAMM) with a logit link and binomial family that adjusted for clustering and sampling weights. RESULTS: The study showed a wide variation in the prevalence of introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods (complementary foods) among infants aged 6-8 months in regional India; highest in the South (61%) and lowest in the Central and Northern regions (38%). Similarly, minimum dietary diversity (MDD) was highest in the South (33%) and lowest in the Central region (12%). Both minimum meal frequency (MMF) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) varied substantially across the regions. The factors associated with complementary feeding practices also differed across Indian regions. Significant modifiable factors associated with complementary feeding practices included higher household wealth index for the introduction of complementary foods in the North and Eastern India; higher maternal education for MMF and MDD in the North and Central regions; and frequent antenatal care visits (≥4 visits) for all indicators but for different regions. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that there are wide differences in regional prevalence and factors associated with complementary feeding practices in India. The improvement of complementary feeding practices in India would require national and sub-national efforts that target vulnerable mothers, including those with no education and limited health service contacts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Mães/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(34): 745-748, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465319

RESUMO

Surveillance of U.S. breastfeeding duration and exclusivity has historically reported estimates among all infants, regardless of whether they had initiated breastfeeding. These surveillance estimates have consistently shown that non-Hispanic black (black) infants are less likely to breastfeed, compared with other racial/ethnic groups.* Less is known about disparities in breastfeeding duration when calculated only among infants who had initiated breastfeeding, compared with surveillance estimates based on all infants. CDC analyzed National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) data for infants born in 2015 to describe breastfeeding duration and exclusivity at ages 3 and 6 months among all black and non-Hispanic white (white) infants, and among only those who had initiated breastfeeding. When calculated among all infants regardless of breastfeeding initiation, breastfeeding differences between black and white infants were 14.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.7-18.8) for any breastfeeding at age 3 months and were significantly different for both any and exclusive breastfeeding at both ages 3 and 6 months. Among only infants who had initiated breastfeeding, the magnitude of black-white differences in breastfeeding rates were smaller. This was most notable in rates of any breastfeeding at 3 months, where the percentage point difference between black and white infants was reduced to 1.2 (95% CI = -2.3-4.6) percentage points and was no longer statistically significant. Black-white disparities in breastfeeding duration result, in part, from disparities in initiation. Interventions both to improve breastfeeding initiation and to support continuation among black mothers might help reduce disparities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Aleitamento Materno/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1019, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is one of the cost effective strategies reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. Further improvement of immunization coverage would halt about 1.5 million additional deaths globally. Understanding the level of immunization among children is vital to design appropriate interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to assess full immunization coverage and its determinants among children aged 12-23 months in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study was based on secondary data analysis from the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). Information about 1,909 babies aged 12-23 months was extracted from children dataset. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were utilized to assess the status and factors associated with full immunization. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed. Variables with less than 0.05 p-values in the multivariable logistic regression model were considered as statistically and significantly associated with the outcome variable. RESULTS: The overall full immunization coverage was 38.3% (95% CI: 36.7, 41.2). Rural residence (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.84), employed (AOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.31, 2.0), female household head (AOR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.76), wealth index [middle (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.94) and richness (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.25,2.19)], primary school maternal education (AOR = 1.38,95% CI: 1.07, 1.78), secondary school maternal education (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.43, 3.36), diploma graduated mothers (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.61), ANC follow ups (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI:2.17 3.59), and delivery at health facilities (AOR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.24) were significantly associated factors with full immunization. CONCLUSION: Full immunization coverage in Ethiopia was significantly lower than the global target. Female household head and rural dwellings were negatively associated with full immunization. In contrast higher maternal education, employment, middle and rich economic status, ANC follow up, and delivery at health facility were positively associated with full immunization among 12-23 months old children. This suggests that improved health education and service expansion to remote areas are necessary to step immunization access.


Assuntos
Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Demografia , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 53: e03480, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the maternal characteristics and perinatal and the first year outcomes of life according to the self-reported color of the mothers. METHOD: Cohort study with mothers and their babies developed in a city in the interior of São Paulo. Follow-up occurred from June 2015 to February 2017. Data were collected at five moments: in the first month and at three, six, nine and 12 months of the child's life. Sociodemographic variables related to prenatal and delivery were included in the study. Among the perinatal outcomes, we analyzed the birth weight and the need for hospitalization in neonatal units; for the outcomes of the first year of life, the occurrence of respiratory infection and the breastfeeding duration were measured. RESULTS: A total of 507 mothers participated in the study. Black/brown women presented an unfavorable socio-demographic situation when compared to white women. The only more favorable outcome among black/brown women was the breastfeeding duration. CONCLUSION: Despite the unfavorable socio-demographic situation considering the selected outcomes, black/brown women did not have worse results. The hypothesis that the quality of care may negate the negative effects of their sociodemographic conditions needs to be tested in future studies.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Pigmentação da Pele , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1062, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 17% of children in the U.S. are obese. Children that are overweight or obese are also more likely to be obese as adults and suffer from various chronic diseases and premature death. Maternal obesity can affect the weight status of her offspring through intrauterine mechanisms like excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). Current literature shows a positive association between maternal weight status and GWG on child obesity, yet the direct and indirect effects have not been decomposed or quantified. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of maternal obesity on child obesity, mediated by GWG, which is a modifiable risk factor. METHODS: The study participants were a birth cohort of offspring from women who received prenatal care in the Duke/Durham Regional health care system in Durham, NC between 2005 and 2009. Anthropomorphic data was collected via electronic medical records (EMRs) during each voluntary visit to a health care facility. The exposure of interest was maternal obesity, measured by pre-pregnancy body mass index, the mediator was GWG, dichotomized into excessive and not excessive based on maternal prenatal BMI, and the outcome was child obesity at age 4, measured as BMI z-scores from the last recorded height and weight. A counterfactual theory-based product method analysis estimated the mediated effects of GWG, adjusted for maternal race, socioeconomic status, and smoking status. RESULTS: Of the 766 children, 25% were overweight or obese, and among all mothers, 25 and 31% were overweight and obese, respectively. Maternal BMI was associated with an overall increase of 0.04 in offspring z-score. The proportion of the effect of maternal obesity on child age 4 obesity mediated by GWG was 8.1%. CONCLUSION: GWG, in part, mediated the relationship between maternal BMI and childhood adiposity. Even when the mediator is fixed, children are at an increased risk of a higher BMI if the mother is obese. These findings highlight an important public health education opportunity to stress the impact of a pre-pregnancy weight and excessive GWG on the risk of child obesity for all mothers.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(7): 2387-2397, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To verify the association of maternal and anthropometric factors with consumption of ultra-processed foods in children between 4 to 24 months. METHODS: cross-sectional study with 300 children hospitalized in a tertiary hospital and their mothers. The interview took place during the first 72 hours of hospitalization to avoid interference in the responses about the child's diet. Maternal factors investigated: age, schooling, income, parity, BMI and guidance on complementary feeding. Variables related to the child investigated: age, breastfeeding, infant school, BMI/age, height/age, weight/age and introduction of ultra-processed food. The association between the factors studied and introduction of ultra-processed food was tested by linear regression. The significance level considered was 0.05. RESULTS: . It was verified that only 21% of the children had not yet received any type of ultra-processed food, and 56.5% received any of these foods before 6 months. In the multivariate analysis, maternal schooling, family income, maternal age and parity were associated with ultra-processed food supply. CONCLUSIONS: The feeding practices of children between 4 and 24 months are inadequate when compared to the recommendations for the age group.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Hospitalização , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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