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1.
J Vet Med Educ ; 48(1): 8-13, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594955

RESUMO

The veterinary workplace consists of different professionals working together in inter-professional teams. Previous work has explored the benefits of effective veterinary teamwork for multiple stakeholders. In this teaching tip article, we outline the underlying educational theories and tips for developing inter-professional teaching to foster students' appreciation of the different roles and responsibilities of veterinarians and veterinary nurses/vet techs. Inter-professional education (IPE) requires students to learn with, about, and from each other and implies recognition of social learning as an underpinning approach. It involves developing learning opportunities to address students' potential misunderstandings of each other's motivations, to allow them to explore issues present in the other profession's practice, and to clarify sometimes overlapping roles and responsibilities. Students are given opportunities to explore the complexity of inter-professional teamwork in a safe environment using real-life topics as context for their collaboration. Two veterinary examples of IPE at the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) are provided to explore different teaching methods and topics that have proved successful in our context: dentistry and directed learning scenarios. We describe how RVC has developed an IPE team consisting of faculty members who champion IPE, which has, in turn, inspired students to create a student-led IPE club, hosting extracurricular educational events. This is an example of an effective student-teacher partnership. A number of challenges exist in embedding IPE, but the benefits it offers in integrating clinical and professional elements of the curricula make it worthy of consideration.


Assuntos
Técnicos em Manejo de Animais , Educação Profissionalizante , Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Currículo , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais
2.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(5): 619-631, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231519

RESUMO

Limitations in workforce size and access to resources remain perennial challenges to greater progress in academic veterinary medicine and engagement between human and veterinary medicine (One Health). Ongoing resource constraints occur in part due to limited public understanding of the role veterinarians play in improving human health. One Health interactions, particularly through interdisciplinary collaborations in biomedical research, present constructive opportunities to inform resource policies and advance health care. To this end, inter-institutional partnerships between individual veterinary medical education programs (VMEPs) and several National Institutes of Health (NIH) intramural research programs have created synergies beyond those provided by individual programs. In the NIH Comparative Biomedical Scientist Training Program (CBSTP), interdisciplinary cross-training of veterinarians consisting of specialty veterinary medicine coupled with training in human disease research leading to a PhD, occurs collaboratively on both VMEP and NIH campuses. Pre-doctoral veterinary student research opportunities have also been made available. Through the CBSTP, NIH investigators and national biomedical science policy makers gain access to veterinary perspective and expertise, while veterinarians obtain additional opportunities for NIH-funded research training. CBSTP Fellows serve as de facto ambassadors enhancing visibility for the profession while in residence at NIH, and subsequently through a variety of university, industry, and government research appointments, as graduates. Thus, the CBSTP represents an inter-institutional opportunity that not only addresses critical needs for veterinarian-scientists in the biomedical workforce, but also simultaneously exposes national policy makers to veterinarian-scientists' specialized training, leading to more effective realization of One Health goals to benefit human and animal health.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Educação em Veterinária , Saúde Única , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Objetivos , Humanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Estados Unidos
3.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(4): 408-413, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151118

RESUMO

Worldwide growth in global mobility has transformed the way we communicate, trade, and approach global issues. The rise of global migration and distribution comes with a higher probability of transmitted disease, human-wildlife conflict, and food safety issues. No longer viewed as isolated incidents, the occurrence of global health threats in one part of the globe is now a concern throughout the world. Our society needs globally conscious veterinarians who are dedicated to affecting world change through the improvement of animal and human health; veterinarians who are prepared to collaborate, exchange, and engage with the world around them. Higher education institutions for veterinary medicine have the responsibility to prepare their students to become agents of change within society and rewrite the narrative on global health. This article highlights the intentional approach that Purdue University College of Veterinary Medicine took to address the need for more globally conscious veterinarians. The article provides examples of administrative structures, funding sources, global engagement opportunities, methods to increase student awareness of opportunities, and student support. Finally, we describe the impact of this approach in increasing student participation in global engagement.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Humanos , Estudantes , Estados Unidos , Universidades
4.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(s1): 39-47, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074076

RESUMO

Veterinary education establishments (VEEs) and veterinary statutory bodies (VSBs) play key roles in ensuring the effectiveness of veterinary professionals and delivery of competent national veterinary services (VS). Recognizing the need to address the quality of veterinary education and the role of VSBs for its member countries/territories (Members), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has organized conferences, workshops, and ad hoc groups leading to the development of recommendations and guidelines and the introduction of active programmers on veterinary education. In Asia and the Pacific region, veterinary education and practice as well as regulatory approach among Members vary considerably, and limited information is currently available publicly. In 2018, the OIE organized a workshop for VEEs and VSBs in Asia and the Pacific region, for which participants completed a questionnaire regarding each country's situation relating to veterinary education, regulations, and professionals. The questionnaire results showed that most Members and Observers (Members/Observers) in Asia had at least one VEE and that the OIE guidelines for VEEs are widely used. Similarly, most Members/Observers in Asia had a VSB or equivalent authority that oversees the quality and competence of veterinarians. Some challenges were also revealed, including variations in the roles, responsibilities, and level of autonomy of VSBs and weak collaboration/coordination among the key in-country/territory stakeholders of veterinary education. The OIE offers Members recommendations and guidelines as well as several programs and activities aiming to strengthen the VS, VEEs, and VSBs, including the evaluation of veterinary services' performance, the VEE and VSB twinning projects, and conferences and workshops.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Ásia , Saúde Global , Humanos
5.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(s1): 20-29, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074078

RESUMO

The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) provides the requirements needed for graduating veterinary professionals to be competent in the delivery of animal health services. However, significant differences in veterinary curricula across countries-attributable to differing animal health priorities and predominant types of veterinary practice-provide a challenge for veterinary schools to address these competencies adequately. As part of the OIE's veterinary education establishment Twinning Project activities, the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (CVMBS) of Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) in Tanzania undertook a curriculum mapping and gap analysis to assess the extent to which the veterinary curriculum addresses OIE's 'Day 1 Competencies' for graduating veterinarians. Results of the analysis indicated that all the OIE's Day 1 Competencies (general, specific, and advanced) are addressed to some degree by the courses present in the curriculum. However, gaps in the depth and breadth of instruction were found for a number of competencies in all three categories. These findings indicate a need for addressing the gaps in the next curriculum review. This will allow the development of a stronger curriculum that will efficiently meet the national and international animal health requirements.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Currículo , Saúde Global , Humanos , Tanzânia
6.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(s1): 8-19, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074082

RESUMO

The University of Gondar College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences (UoG-CVMASc) and the Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine (OSU-CVM) developed an objective methodology to assess the curriculum of veterinary institutions and implement changes to create a curriculum that is harmonized with OIE standards while also covering the needs and realities of Gondar and Ethiopia. The process, developed under the sponsorship of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Veterinary Education Twinning Programme, is outlined in this article with the hope that it can be applied by other countries wishing to improve national veterinary services (VS) through the improvement of their academic programs. The plan created by the UoG-OSU Twinning team consisted of an in-depth curriculum assessment and development process, which entailed three consecutive stages. Stage 1 (Curriculum Assessment) included the design and development of an Evaluation Tool for OIE Day 1 Graduating Veterinarian Competencies in recent graduates, and the mapping and evaluation of the current UoG-CVMASc curriculum based on the OIE Veterinary Education Core Curriculum. Stage 2 (Curriculum Development) consisted of the identification and prioritization of possible solutions to address identified curriculum gaps as well as the development of an action plan to revise and update the curriculum. Finally, Stage 3 (Curriculum Implementation) focused on the process to launch the new curriculum. In September 2017, 53 first-year students started the professional program at the UoG-CVMASc as the first cohort to be accepted into the newly developed OIE Harmonized Curriculum, the first of its kind in Africa.


Assuntos
Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Animais , Currículo , Etiópia , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina Veterinária
7.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 615-623, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046915

RESUMO

National Veterinary Services (NVS) are increasingly called upon to respond to a wide range of disasters. The health, safety and wellness of Veterinary Services personnel are essential to maintaining a capable workforce and sustaining operational and organisational effectiveness. Disasters can generate hazards with potential impacts on health, including physical trauma, environmental exposure and psychological stress. Maintaining health, safety and wellness in the workforce requires leadership and training. Individuals and teams must be well equipped and well practised to address hazards and their mitigation, to prevent injury. Of particular concern for veterinarians are the behavioural health aspects of disasters. This issue has not received the attention required considering the scale and scope of the problem which, according to a recent survey, affects up to 50% of veterinary disaster responders. The symptoms cited in this survey range from anxiety to suicidal thoughts. Accordingly, more and better resources, including protective equipment, guidelines and training, must be developed to strengthen the capabilities of NVS to respond to disasters.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 599-613, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046916

RESUMO

Statistics show that disasters have expanded in scope and scale, with impacts on both humans and animals. As animals are valued not only for their economic value, but also for their companionship, people sometimes risk their lives to protect them, and emergency responders are expected to safeguard their welfare during emergencies. This paper discusses experiences from different regions of the world in animal disaster risk reduction and management in terms of legislation, funding streams, planning, capacity development, and communications. It is widely recognised that human, animal and environmental well-being are interconnected; therefore, as this is the case, and as veterinarians are at the forefront in ensuring animal welfare, they should be involved throughout the disaster management cycle. While animals and their welfare should always be considered in national disaster management plans, sub-regional authorities must be empowered to integrate animal welfare principles when responding to emergencies and implementing risk reduction programmes. Capacity development is key for Veterinary Services personnel who work in the fields of disaster management and risk reduction. Training tools and curricula developed by different organisations are available to foster skills such as incident coordination, risk communication, or response planning using tools such as the Livestock Emergency Guidelines and Standards (LEGS). Intergovernmental organisations also play a significant role in setting the standards and frameworks within which professionals operate.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Médicos Veterinários , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238371, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the most important preventive measure for protection against infectious diseases in humans and companion animals. Nevertheless, scepticism about the safety and importance of vaccines is increasing in human and in veterinary medicine. Although owner attitudes towards vaccination have been investigated in cats, there are no similar studies in dogs. The goals of this study were therefore to investigate the vaccination status of dogs in Germany, to determine owner compliance with vaccination and to identify factors that play a role in owners' decisions to have their dogs vaccinated. METHODS: Data were collected from August 2018 to February 2019 using an online survey targeting dog owners in Germany. A total of 3,881 questionnaires were evaluated, and factors associated with the vaccination status of dogs were determined by a linear logistic regression model using Akaike information criterion. Cohen's kappa statistic was used to evaluate agreement between questionnaire and 340 vaccination passports submitted voluntarily by owners. RESULTS: A total of 46.8% (n = 1,818/3,881) of dogs were vaccinated with core vaccines according to current guidelines with the lowest vaccination rate for leptospirosis (50.1%; n = 1,941/3,874). Dog's age (16 weeks to 15 months) (odds ratio (OR): 3.08; 95% CI: 2.05-4.68), type (working dog) (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.22-3.53) and travelling abroad within previous 36 months (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.12-2.96) had the strongest 'positive' association with the vaccination status. Recommendation from a veterinarian not to vaccinate against leptospirosis had the strongest 'negative' association (OR: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04-0.18). CONCLUSION: The study revealed a need for improvement in vaccination compliance because of inadequate vaccination coverage, especially for leptospirosis, in dogs. Factors influencing owner compliance were numerous. Vaccination recommendations made by the veterinarian had a strong association with the vaccination status and should be used to increase canine vaccination rates.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Atitude , Cães , Alemanha , Humanos , Leptospirose/imunologia , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237991, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853290

RESUMO

Contextual and individual risk factors of veterinarians' professional quality of life are being debated. Research suggests that attachment styles are relevant predictors of professional quality of life; however, their role in work-related well-being of veterinarians is yet to be ascertained. In the present study, self-report measures on exposure to animal suffering, adult attachment styles, and professional quality of life were administered to 1,445 Italian veterinarians (70% females) aged 24 to 74 years old; sociodemographic information and information on workload were also collected. Female gender, higher levels of ordinary workload, on-call hours per week, exposure to animal suffering, together with fearful and preoccupied attachment styles were significantly associated with lower levels of veterinarians' quality of life. This suggests that work-related factors may combine with individual psychological features in promoting or disadvantaging the professional quality of life of veterinarians. Implications of these findings for promoting veterinarians' quality of life and directions for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Qualidade de Vida , Estresse Psicológico , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Vet Rec ; 187(4): 140-141, 2020 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826370

RESUMO

In this article exploring some of the key recommendations from the RCVS Legislation Working Party (LWP), RCVS registrar and director of legal services Eleanor Ferguson discusses disciplinary reform.


Assuntos
Técnicos em Manejo de Animais/legislação & jurisprudência , Legislação Veterinária/organização & administração , Má Conduta Profissional/legislação & jurisprudência , Sociedades Veterinárias , Médicos Veterinários/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Reino Unido
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235866, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As an important public health concern, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is related to lack of knowledge among healthcare professionals. Since the Global Action Plan on AMR highlights the importance of training all healthcare professionals, it is essential to focus our attention on the education related to judicious antimicrobial use. The current study was the first attempt in southeastern Europe to quantify the knowledge about antimicrobial usage and biosecurity measure among veterinary students. METHODS: This questionnaire-based study was performed between April and May of 2019 on 213 veterinary students of the University of Novi Sad, Serbia and the University of Zagreb, Croatia. RESULTS: Veterinary students appeared to be little aware of antimicrobial use in veterinary medicine contribution to overall AMR since only 56.8% have chosen strong contribution as the answer. Of the students surveyed, only 22.1%/35.7% of them strongly agreed/agreed that the amount of teaching time for pharmacology was about right. Students who denied having good knowledge of the pharmacology of antimicrobials showed higher knowledge about systemic use of antimicrobials in different clinical scenarios (p = 0.002). High importance of some antimicrobials for human medicine was not recognized by surveyed students. Only 8.5% of them identified gentamicin correctly, as first-line therapy. Students expected to graduate later were more likely to identify the importance of rating antimicrobials correctly than those who thought they would graduate earlier (p = 0.002). More than half of students gave correct answer at scenario regarding a dog with recurrent pyoderma by choosing culture and susceptibility (C & S) testing. Our students who think they will graduate sooner have higher knowledge level on C & S testing sample submission for range of clinical scenarios (p = 0.004). Moreover, appropriate use of PPE (personal protective equipment) procedure and biosecurity measure were reported for two thirds of our students in case of only for two clinical scenarios. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that among veterinary students from Croatia and Serbia improved undergraduate education is needed on the AMR with emphasis on antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and appropriate biosecurity.


Assuntos
Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Educação em Veterinária , Adulto , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/métodos , Croácia , Educação em Veterinária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sérvia , Estudantes , Médicos Veterinários , Drogas Veterinárias/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(7): E36-E161, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715504

RESUMO

Dental, oral, and maxillofacial diseases are some of the most common problems in small animal veterinary practice. These conditions create significant pain as well as localized and potentially systemic infection. As such, the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) believes that un- and under treated oral and dental diseases pose a significant animal welfare concern. Dentistry is an area of veterinary medicine which is still widely ignored and is subject to many myths and misconceptions. Effective teaching of veterinary dentistry in the veterinary school is the key to progression in this field of veterinary medicine, and to the improvement of welfare for all our patients globally. These guidelines were developed to provide veterinarians with the information required to understand best practices for dental therapy and create realistic minimum standards of care. Using the three-tiered continuing education system of WSAVA, the guidelines make global equipment and therapeutic recommendations and highlight the anaesthetic and welfare requirements for small animal patients. This document contains information on common oral and dental pathologies, diagnostic procedures (an easily implementable and repeatable scoring system for dental health, dental radiography and radiology) and treatments (periodontal therapy, extractions). Further, there are sections on anaesthesia and pain management for dental procedures, home dental care, nutritional information, and recommendations on the role of the universities in improving veterinary dentistry. A discussion of the deleterious effects of anaesthesia free dentistry (AFD) is included, as this procedure is ineffective at best and damaging at worst. Throughout the document the negative effects of undiagnosed and/or treated dental disease on the health and well-being of our patients, and how this equates to an animal welfare issue, is discussed.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Educação em Veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Humanos , Dor/veterinária , Universidades
17.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(8): 494-503, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of the WSAVA Global Nutrition Committee's work in promoting nutrition as the fifth vital assessment and enhancing knowledge of nutrition. Further objectives were to ascertain use of existing Global Nutrition Committee assessment tools, identify potential new tools and determine which members of the veterinary health care team are responsible for carrying out nutrition assessments, planning and intervention in practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 16-question online questionnaire on the awareness, use and frequency of nutritional assessment was completed by 2740 veterinary health care team members. Statistical association was tested between the reported frequency of nutritional assessment in practice and the likely establishment of normal dietary regime, calculation of energy requirements and creation of nutritional plans. RESULTS: Most respondents (95%) currently had responsibility for providing small animal nutrition education, yet only 27% were aware of the WSAVA guidelines. Over half (64%) recognised nutritional evaluation as the fifth vital assessment. Only 4% consistently used WSAVA tools to perform a systematic nutritional assessment. Veterinarians and veterinary nurses/technicians were the most frequent source of nutritional advice in practice, with the consultation recognised as the most important contact point with clients. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Awareness of nutritional assessment is apparent, yet implementation in practice is inconsistent. These findings will help the WSAVA Global Nutrition Committee prioritise future activities to support the veterinary health care team and pet owners with nutrition-related knowledge, tools and resources.


Assuntos
Avaliação Nutricional , Médicos Veterinários , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Atitude , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
18.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 245-252, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729563

RESUMO

Establishing trust in national systems for assurance of animal health and food safety is a key step in any importing country's consideration of whether a potential trading partner can meet its appropriate level of protection. Private veterinarians, veterinary para-professionals (VPPs) and aquatic animal health professionals (AAHPs) play a crucial role in national Veterinary Services, formally or informally, and across the whole spectrum of national animal and public health activities. Private veterinarians, AAHPs or VPPs are engaged as part of the national Veterinary Services and in various forms of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in many countries worldwide. In many cases, authorised private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs enable the national Veterinary or Aquatic Animal Health Services as a whole to do more work over a wider geographical area and thus have a greater impact than publicly employed professionals working alone. The deployment of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs directly or in PPP arrangements strengthens national services and enhances their ability to deliver reliable animal health and food safety assurance. To ensure that private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs deliver to their full potential, effective and efficient systems for training, accreditation, monitoring and audit are essential. This article draws on data from published OIE Performance of Veterinary Services evaluations (from 2007 to the present) and unpublished responses to the OIE 2017 questionnaire on PPPs, to draw insights into the use and accreditation of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs globally.


Assuntos
Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Acreditação , Animais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Setor Privado , Saúde Pública
20.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e8, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is currently no scientific evidence regarding the current climatic or other epidemiological factors that could influence the occurrence of heartwater in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine whether climatic changes or other epidemiological factors influence the occurence of heartwater in South Africa. METHOD: A survey was conducted to scrutinise these factors using both veterinarians and farmers working in known areas in which heartwater had previously been confirmed to establish the value of each of these factors. Based on the observations, meaningful tendencies were noted, and conclusions drawn. RESULTS: These include changes in the spatial distribution of heartwater in many areas, with serious expansion, in some instances, of up to 150 km. In total, 48% of veterinarians and 42% of farmers reported seeing increase in the number of farms affected by heartwater. Climate change as a causative factor indicated by observations of increased average temperatures, milder frosts, less rain and shorter rainy seasons was identified by the majority of farmers but not by as many veterinarians. Respondents in both groups considered vegetation change an important factor. Increasing number of wildlife, especially antelope, was seen as a major factor by most veterinarians and also by many farmers. Both groups identified the movement of livestock and wildlife as an increasingly important factor that should be of major concern for both industries because it leads to the avoidable spread of many diseases apart from heartwater. CONCLUSION: Movement controls should be reinstated and reinforced by vigorously enforced legislation. The role of genetically determined resistance or resilience to heartwater infection in ruminants should be investigated. Breeding better adapted animals could provide part of a sustainable approach to the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hidropericárdio/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/psicologia , Doenças das Cabras/psicologia , Cabras , Hidropericárdio/psicologia , Incidência , Percepção , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/psicologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
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