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3.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 170(11-12): 320-324, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809077

RESUMO

Born as orthodox catholic in 1700 in Leyden, Gerard van Swieten was orphaned as a child in 1712. He studied medicine under Herman Boerhaave in Leyden from 1720, recording the lectures of his mentor and publishing them after his death. Following his graduation in 1715, van Swieten practiced medicine and pharmacy in Leyden, giving private lectures to students in both fields. Van Swieten became known as a brilliant doctor, and it was expected that he might succeed to Boerhaave's position after his death in 1738; however, his catholic faith was an obstacle for the protestant State University. These very beliefs, however, contributed to his instatement as the personal physician of the Austrian Empress Maria Theresia (1717-1780) in October 1744. In the summer of 1745 he was appointed physician to Maria Theresa in Vienna by Franz I. and at the same time appointed prefect of the court library. In addition to taking care of the library, other tasks he received from Maria Theresia included reformation of the medical faculty, improving the quality of Vienna's clinics and promoting healthcare in the empire. Van Swieten is seen as one of the founders of the so-called First Wiener Medical School (Erste Wiener Medizinische Schule) in 1745, and was at the founding of the first modern clinic in 1754. Van Swieten died June 18, 1772.


Assuntos
Medicina , Médicos , Áustria , Criança , Docentes de Medicina , História do Século XVIII , Humanos , Médicos/história , Faculdades de Medicina
5.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 15-26, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638597

RESUMO

The heritage of Slovenian house names and surnames reflects, among others, the former medicine and pharmaceutical occupations, midwifery, and folk medicine practices, and besides that, also health status and illnesses of people. Surnames, which are especially strongly intertwined with family, local and social history, are closely related to folk medicine and magic. Unlike house names (vulgo), which are the usual nicknames for physical and mental characteristics and abilities, surnames denote medical occupations and medicinal folk practice as such. According to the most recent data (as of January 1, 2020) of The Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, at least 40 surnames reminiscent former medical or pharmaceutical professions. These newly discovered digital data in open access are precious for the history of medicine because they allow comparing surnames geographically, by frequency, and through the time.


Assuntos
História da Medicina , História da Farmácia , Nomes , Médicos/história , Animais , Educação Médica/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional/história , Eslovênia
6.
Acta Med Hist Adriat ; 18(1): 3149-164, 2020 06.
Artigo em Servo-Croata (Latino) | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638605

RESUMO

Medicine and physicians in Dubrovnik during the last two centuries, i.e. in the period after the dissolution of the Republic of Dubrovnik by Napoleon's Army, have attracted less interest among medical historians. In this paper, the lives and medical careers of two physicians from Dubrovnik, father and son, Baldo and Ante Bibica, have been reconstructed from the end of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century by searching through the contemporary medical journals and newspapers as well as private archives of the members of family Bibica. Baldo Bibica graduated medicine in Vienna and spent the whole professional life as a municipal physician, at first, in the places in the vicinity of Dubrovnik and from 1903 in Gruz. Ante Bibica studied medicine in Graz and in Zagreb to become the first person from Dubrovnik promoted at the School of Medicine, Zagreb University. He specialized in dermatovenereology in Vienna and worked, as a specialist, in Dubrovnik. They both were active in the professional medical societies (at local and national levels) and were influential in the social life in Dubrovnik.


Assuntos
Médicos/história , Áustria-Hungria , Croácia , Dermatologia/história , Medicina Geral/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Sociedades Médicas/história , Venereologia/história
9.
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 133(2): 17-28, jun. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119928

RESUMO

Se hace una reseña histórica de la fundación de la Asociación Médica Franco-Argentina. Se mencionan sus propósitos fundacionales, sus protagonistas y su contexto social.


A historical review of the foundation of the Franco-Argentine Medical Association is made. Its foundational purposes, their protagonists and the social context are mentioned.


Assuntos
História do Século XX , Médicos/história , Sociedades Médicas/história , Comunicação e Divulgação Científica , Argentina , França , História da Medicina , Cooperação Internacional
10.
NTM ; 28(2): 235-252, 2020 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-395651

RESUMO

This paper is part of Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The figure of the plague doctor with the beak mask has become the symbol of the plague par excellence. It's little wonder that the plague mask in the collection of the German Museum of the History of Medicine in Ingolstadt (Bavaria) is one of the museum's most popular objects and motifs. This forum paper investigates the figure of the plague doctor on several levels: first, it analyses contemporary textual and image sources in regard to protective clothing used in times of plague and the respective role of the beak-like part of the mask. Then it takes a close look at the Ingolstadt specimen. By examining the mask's materiality and fabrication, questions of its authenticity and practicability are raised. Finally, the Ingolstadt mask is compared with the specimen at the German Historical Museum in Berlin.The conclusion: the beak mask is not mentioned before the mid-seventeenth century, and then only in Italy and Southern France. There is no proof at all of its use during plague outbreaks in Middle Europe. And the specimens in Ingolstadt and Berlin? Both masks present details which suggest that they were not used as protective clothing at all. We do not know, however, if they were produced as replicas for historic reasons or as fakes for the modern art market.


Assuntos
Epidemias/história , Médicos/história , Peste/história , Roupa de Proteção/história , Infecções por Coronavirus , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Medieval , Humanos , Ilustração Médica/história , Museus , Pandemias , Peste/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral
11.
NTM ; 28(2): 235-252, 2020 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-361206

RESUMO

This paper is part of Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The figure of the plague doctor with the beak mask has become the symbol of the plague par excellence. It's little wonder that the plague mask in the collection of the German Museum of the History of Medicine in Ingolstadt (Bavaria) is one of the museum's most popular objects and motifs. This forum paper investigates the figure of the plague doctor on several levels: first, it analyses contemporary textual and image sources in regard to protective clothing used in times of plague and the respective role of the beak-like part of the mask. Then it takes a close look at the Ingolstadt specimen. By examining the mask's materiality and fabrication, questions of its authenticity and practicability are raised. Finally, the Ingolstadt mask is compared with the specimen at the German Historical Museum in Berlin.The conclusion: the beak mask is not mentioned before the mid-seventeenth century, and then only in Italy and Southern France. There is no proof at all of its use during plague outbreaks in Middle Europe. And the specimens in Ingolstadt and Berlin? Both masks present details which suggest that they were not used as protective clothing at all. We do not know, however, if they were produced as replicas for historic reasons or as fakes for the modern art market.


Assuntos
Epidemias/história , Médicos/história , Peste/história , Roupa de Proteção/história , Infecções por Coronavirus , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Medieval , Humanos , Ilustração Médica/história , Museus , Pandemias , Peste/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral
15.
NTM ; 28(2): 235-252, 2020 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451562

RESUMO

This paper is part of Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The figure of the plague doctor with the beak mask has become the symbol of the plague par excellence. It's little wonder that the plague mask in the collection of the German Museum of the History of Medicine in Ingolstadt (Bavaria) is one of the museum's most popular objects and motifs. This forum paper investigates the figure of the plague doctor on several levels: first, it analyses contemporary textual and image sources in regard to protective clothing used in times of plague and the respective role of the beak-like part of the mask. Then it takes a close look at the Ingolstadt specimen. By examining the mask's materiality and fabrication, questions of its authenticity and practicability are raised. Finally, the Ingolstadt mask is compared with the specimen at the German Historical Museum in Berlin.The conclusion: the beak mask is not mentioned before the mid-seventeenth century, and then only in Italy and Southern France. There is no proof at all of its use during plague outbreaks in Middle Europe. And the specimens in Ingolstadt and Berlin? Both masks present details which suggest that they were not used as protective clothing at all. We do not know, however, if they were produced as replicas for historic reasons or as fakes for the modern art market.


Assuntos
Epidemias/história , Médicos/história , Peste/história , Roupa de Proteção/história , Infecções por Coronavirus , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Medieval , Humanos , Ilustração Médica/história , Museus , Pandemias , Peste/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral
16.
Ambix ; 67(2): 107-134, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285758

RESUMO

The article explores the use of minerals and the nature of chemical methods employed in Lima in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. It does so through examining the availability of mineral resources, including pre-European knowledge of their use, through surveying the books and equipment used by physicians and apothecaries, and finally by examining prescriptions for medicines that were used to treat patients. It concludes that minerals were probably more commonly employed in medicines in Lima than in Spain but suggests that their preparation and use at this time drew on Spain's alchemical tradition rather than on writings by Paracelsus and his followers. It argues that this did not reflect the effectiveness of censorship by the Inquisition.


Assuntos
Alquimia , Minerais/história , Médicos/história , Prescrições/história , Colonialismo , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , Humanos , Minerais/química , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Peru , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha
19.
Med Hist ; 64(2): 173-194, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284633

RESUMO

This article examines female sterilisation practices in early twentieth-century Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It argues that the medical profession, particularly obstetricians and psychiatrists, used debates over the issue to solidify its moral and political standing during two political moments of Brazilian history: when the Brazilian government separated church and state in the 1890s and when Getúlio Vargas's authoritarian regime of the late 1930s renewed alliances with the Catholic church. Shifting notions of gender, race, and heredity further shaped these debates. In the late nineteenth century, a unified medical profession believed that female sterilisation caused psychiatric degeneration in women. By the 1930s, however, the arrival of eugenics caused a divergence amongst physicians. Psychiatrists began supporting eugenic sterilisation to prevent degeneration - both psychiatric and racial. Obstetricians, while arguing that sterilisation no longer caused mental disturbances in women, rejected it as a eugenic practice in regard to race. For obstetricians, the separation of sex from motherhood was more dangerous than any racial 'impurities', both phenotypical and psychiatric. At the same time, a revitalised Brazilian Catholic church rejected eugenics and sterilisation point blank, and its renewed ties with the Vargas regime blocked the medical implementation of any eugenic sterilisation laws. Brazilian women, nonetheless, continued to access the procedure, regardless of the surrounding legal and medical proscriptions.


Assuntos
Catolicismo/história , Eugenia (Ciência)/história , Obstetrícia/história , Médicos/história , Religião e Medicina , Esterilização Reprodutiva/história , Brasil , Eugenia (Ciência)/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Transtornos Mentais/história , Papel do Médico/história , Médicos/ética , Sistemas Políticos/história , Psiquiatria/história , Caracteres Sexuais , Esterilização Reprodutiva/ética , Esterilização Reprodutiva/legislação & jurisprudência , Esterilização Reprodutiva/psicologia
20.
Ambix ; 67(1): 30-46, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118521

RESUMO

The basilisk of the pseudo-Paracelsian De natura rerum is the evil twin of the homunculus. Created from menstrual blood by artificial ectogenesis in an alchemical laboratory, the basilisk embodies the poisonous character traditionally ascribed to catamenial women, but magnified and concentrated by its mode of generation to the degree that it can kill by its glance alone. How does this remarkable thought experiment relate to other instances of the basilisk in the genuine and pseudonymous corpus of Paracelsus? The present paper outlines two primary uses which emerge repeatedly: first, in works other than De natura rerum, the basilisk is used by Paracelsus and his imitators as a means of explaining action at a distance, especially in the case of plague. Relying on a medieval association between the basilisk's deadly gaze and the putative ability of menstruating women to damage mirrors, the genuine Paracelsus links contagious disease to the deleterious action of the female imagination. Second, because the basilisk was traditionally held to be the product of an unnatural birth, being born from an egg laid by a rooster and incubated by a toad, the Paracelsian corpus frequently invokes the monster as a model for unnatural generation in general.


Assuntos
Filosofia Médica/história , Médicos/história , História do Século XVI
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