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2.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 3(Suppl 3): e190014.supl.3, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800853

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A smartphone application named AtestaDO was developed to support physicians with medical certification of the cause of death. The objective of this study is to evaluate the acceptability of the app. METHODS: Physicians were invited to attend meetings on the proper certification of cause of death, and to evaluate the application in a national workshop in Natal (first stage) and in two large hospitals in Belo Horizonte (second and third stages). RESULTS: In Natal, 82% of 38 physicians had more than 20 years of experience and in Belo Horizonte, more than 67% of 58 physicians had less than 5 years of experience. The sections "Application interface", "How to certify the causes of death", "Practice with exercises" and "Other information for physicians" were positively evaluated by more than 50% of physicians in Belo Horizonte. In Natal, all sections were positively evaluated by at least 80% of participants. More than 70% of the participants in both Natal and the second stage of Belo Horizonte indicated they would possibly use AtestaDO to guide filling of a death certificate. The probability of using AtestaDO to teach classes on filling death certificates was 83.3% for Natal's physicians but less than 60% in Belo Horizonte. In the three stages, most physicians would recommend using the application to other colleagues. CONCLUSION: The evaluation of AtestaDO showed good acceptability. We expect that the use of this tool enables improvements in medical certification of causes of death.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Atestado de Óbito , Médicos/normas , Smartphone/normas , Software/normas , Brasil , Humanos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 12(21): 801-805, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sonographic estimation of birth weight may differ among evaluators due to its operator-dependent nature. OBJECTIVES: To compare the accuracy of estimation of fetal birth weight by sonography between ultrasound-certified physicians and registered diagnostic medical technicians. METHODS: The authors reviewed ultrasound examinations that had been performed by either technicians or ultrasound-certified obstetricians between 2010 and 2017, and within 2 days of delivery. Inclusion criteria were: singleton viable pregnancy, details of four ultrasound measurements (abdominal circumference, bi-parietal diameter, head circumference, and femur length), and known birth weight. The estimated fetal weight (EFW) was calculated according to the Hadlock formula, incorporating the four ultrasound measurements. The mean percentage error (MPE) was calculated by the formula: (EFW-birth weight) x100 / birth weight. RESULTS: Technicians performed 9741examinations and physicians performed 352 examinations. The proportion of macrosomic neonates was similar in both groups. Technicians were more accurate than physicians in terms of the MPE, absolute MPE, proportion of estimates that fell within ± 10% of birth weight, and Euclidean distance (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). They were also more accurate in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the receiver operating curve. Furthermore, for fetuses weighing more than 4000 grams the technicians had a lower total false prediction rate. CONCLUSIONS: Medical technicians in our institute performed better than physicians in estimating fetal weight. Further studies are warranted to confirm our findings and better delineate the role of repeat physician's examination after an initial estimation by an experienced technician.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Cefalometria/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Adulto , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/diagnóstico , Peso Fetal , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Médicos/normas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/normas
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e18491, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861034

RESUMO

To describe how patient characteristics influence physician decision-making about glycemic goals for Type 2 diabetes.2016 survey of 357 US physicians. The survey included two vignettes, representing a healthy patient and an unhealthy patient, adapted from a past survey of international experts and a factorial design vignette that varied age, heart disease history, and hypoglycemia history. Survey results were weighted to provide national estimates.Over half (57.6%) of physicians recommended a goal HbA1c <7.0% for most of their patients. For the healthy patient vignette, physicians recommended a goal similar to that of international experts (<6.66% (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 6.61-6.71%) vs <6.5% (Interquartile range (IQR), 6.5-6.8%)). For the unhealthy patient, physicians recommended a lower goal than international experts (<7.38% (CI, 7.30-7.46) vs <8.0% (IQR, 7.5-8.0%)). In the factorial vignette, physicians varied HbA1c goals by 0.35%, 0.06%, and 0.28% based on age, heart disease history, and hypoglycemia risk, respectively. The goal HbA1c range between the 55-year-old with no heart disease or hypoglycemic events and the 75-year-old with heart disease and hypoglycemic events was 0.65%.Despite guidelines that recommend HbA1c goals ranging from <6.5% to <8.5%, US physicians seem to be anchored on HbA1c goals around <7.0%.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Médicos/normas , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Humanos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 94(11): 2272-2276, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685153

RESUMO

The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors requires authors to disclose all financial conflicts of interest (COI) that can be perceived as influencing the related trials. Undisclosed financial COI may influence the perception of the authors' scientific impartiality and erode the public trust in the reported results. Data regarding completeness of COI disclosure in high-impact-factor general medicine journals are limited. We compared payments disclosed by US-based physicians who were first or last authors of clinical drug trials published between August 2016 and August 2018 in the New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, and Lancet, to payments reported by industry to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Open Payments Database. Of 247 included authors, 198 (80%) have not disclosed some or all received payments. The median undisclosed sum was $8409 (US Dollars) (interquartile range [IQR] $123 to $44,890). Most authors (n=170, 69%) have received more than $10,000 per year (median $120,403, IQR $58,905 to $242,014). The median undisclosed sum for these authors was $26,530 (IQR $7462 to $71,562). Median undisclosed sums for authors of papers from studies performed with and without industry funding were $20,899 (IQR $4191 to $59,883) and $149 (IQR $0 to $3276), respectively. In 10 (8%) of 125 industry-funded trials, the first or last author had not disclosed personal payments from the study sponsor (median $9741, IQR $4508 to $101,484). These findings could raise concerns about the authors' equipoise toward the trial results and influence the public perception of the credibility of reported data. Health care professionals, reviewers, and journal editors should demand more transparent reporting of financial COI.


Assuntos
Autoria/normas , Compensação e Reparação/ética , Conflito de Interesses/economia , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/normas , Médicos/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Políticas Editoriais , Humanos , Médicos/economia , Médicos/normas
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 844, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Precision medicine is set to deliver a rich new data set of genomic information. However, the number of certified specialists in the United States is small, with only 4244 genetic counselors and 1302 clinical geneticists. We conducted a national survey of 264 medical professionals to evaluate how they interpret genetic test results, determine their confidence and self-efficacy of interpreting genetic test results with patients, and capture their opinions and experiences with direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GT). METHODS: Participants were grouped into two categories, genetic specialists (genetic counselors and clinical geneticists) and medical providers (primary care, internists, physicians assistants, advanced nurse practitioners, etc.). The survey (full instrument can be found in the Additional file 1) presented three genetic test report scenarios for interpretation: a genetic risk for diabetes, genomic sequencing for symptoms report implicating a potential HMN7B: distal hereditary motor neuropathy VIIB diagnosis, and a statin-induced myopathy risk. Participants were also asked about their opinions on DTC-GT results and rank their own perceived level of preparedness to review genetic test results with patients. RESULTS: The rates of correctly interpreting results were relatively high (74.4% for the providers compared to the specialist's 83.4%) and age, prior genetic test consultation experience, and level of trust assigned to the reports were associated with higher correct interpretation rates. The self-selected efficacy and the level of preparedness to consult on a patient's genetic results were higher for the specialists than the provider group. CONCLUSION: Specialists remain the best group to assist patients with DTC-GT, however, primary care providers may still provide accurate interpretation of test results when specialists are unavailable.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica/normas , Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor/normas , Genética/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Conselheiros/normas , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/normas , Genômica/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 89, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Making ethically sound treatment limitations in prehospital care is a complex topic. Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) physicians were surveyed on their experiences with limitations of care orders in the prehospital setting, including situations where they are dispatched to healthcare facilities or nursing homes. METHODS: A nationwide multicentre study was conducted among all HEMS physicians in Finland in 2017 using a questionnaire with closed five-point Likert-scale questions and open questions. The Ethics Committee of the Tampere University Hospital approved the study protocol (R15048). RESULTS: Fifty-nine (88%) physicians responded. Their median age was 43 (IQR 38-47) and median medical working experience was 15 (IQR 10-20) years. All respondents made limitation of care orders and 39% made them often. Three fourths (75%) of the physicians were often dispatched to healthcare facilities and nursing homes and the majority (93%) regularly met patients who should have already had a valid limitation of care order. Every other physician (49%) had sometimes decided not to implement a medically justifiable limitation of care order because they wanted to avoid conflicts with the patient and/or the next of kin and/or other healthcare staff. Limitation of care order practices varied between the respondents, but neither age nor working experience explained these differences in answers. Most physicians (85%) stated that limitations of care orders are part of their work and 81% did not find them especially burdensome. The most challenging patient groups for treatment limitations were the under-aged patients, the severely disabled patients and the patients in healthcare facilities or residing in nursing homes. CONCLUSION: Making limitation of care orders is an important but often invisible part of a HEMS physician's work. HEMS physicians expressed that patients in long-term care were often without limitations of care orders in situations where an order would have been ethically in accordance with the patient's best interests.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Aeronaves , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Médicos/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
J Leg Med ; 39(3): 229-233, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626576

RESUMO

Lapses in professionalism are a common cause of disciplinary action against physicians by U.S. medical boards. However, the exact definition of "professionalism" is unclear, making it likely that a physician will not train or practice under the same framing of professionalism and so may fail to develop certain skills. The goal of this study was to identify and compare the professionalism framings of medical boards. The medical board web pages for all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and four territories were examined in June 2017 for use of the word "professionalism" or "professional" in their application, rules, or laws, which was then coded as a best fit to one of six core framings of professionalism. Of the 55 states and territories, integrity was the most common professionalism framing (40.0%), followed by excellence (23.6%), behavior (12.7%), mixed (9.1%), unclear (9.1%), and absent (5.5%). Although integrity was the most common framing, diversity exists among medical boards, which could lead to board misunderstandings of incidents labeled as professionalism violations and ineffective remediation of offenses. In order to best communicate the nature of the offense and thus best facilitate remediation, the incident should be called by its true name rather than the all-encompassing term "professionalism."


Assuntos
Papel do Médico , Médicos/normas , Prática Profissional/normas , Profissionalismo/normas , Conselho Diretor/legislação & jurisprudência , Conselho Diretor/normas , Humanos , Má Conduta Profissional , Profissionalismo/tendências , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/legislação & jurisprudência , Conselhos de Especialidade Profissional/normas , Estados Unidos
12.
Urologe A ; 58(10): 1156-1164, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501984

RESUMO

The aim of quality management in medicine must be to increase the safety of treatment, to optimize the treatment results, but also to confirm economic justifiability. Participation in multiagency quality assurance measures should create the possibility to assess the quality of the services offered compared with other service providers and to recognize and correct corresponding deficits. Comparative examinations and assessments should serve to improve the quality of the results. The benefits of quality management as an important approach to promoting patient safety should be made known to all stakeholders. Patient-oriented process optimization and patient satisfaction are the focus. Furthermore, quality management should help increase the satisfaction of everyone involved in the process.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Legislação Médica , Médicos/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Legal
13.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503322

RESUMO

According to the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, about 3200 people a year die due to accidents. Around 900 of these are classified as "Accidental exposure to other and unspecified factors". A more precise classification with the board has not been recorded in these cases due to incomplete death certificates. This study examined the death certificates for this group in 2016 and compared it to patient records. This study showed that most cases of incomplete classification are in instances of elderly persons who sustained a fall and subsequently died due to complications of the resulting injury. The doctor has in most cases not perceived the death as accidental.This study showed that there is a lack of knowledge among doctors in how to accurately complete a death certificate.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Coleta de Dados/normas , Atestado de Óbito , Documentação/normas , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Competência Clínica/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos/normas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/normas , Distribuição por Sexo , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Schmerz ; 33(5): 466-470, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478143

RESUMO

Since the adoption of the law of March 6, 2017, any German physician can prescribe medical cannabis flowers and cannabis-based magistral and finished medicinal products. No specific indications for prescriptions are provided in the law. The statutory health insurance companies bear the costs once an application for cost coverage has been approved by the Medical Service of the Health Funds. The German associations of psychiatry (child, adolescents, and adults), neurology, palliative care, addictology, and pain medicine are watching these developments in the media, politics, and medical world with concern due to: the option to prescribe cannabis flowers despite the lack of sound evidence and against the recommendations of the German Medical Association; the lack of distinction between medical cannabis flowers and cannabis-based magistral and finished medical products; the indiscriminately positive reports on the efficacy of cannabis-based medicines for chronic pain and mental disorders; the attempts by the cannabis industry to influence physicians; the increase in potential indications by leaders of medical opinion paid by manufacturers of cannabis-based medicines. The medical associations make the following appeal to journalists: To report on the medical benefits and risks of cannabis-based medicines in a balanced manner. To physicians: to prescribe cannabis-based medicines with caution; to prefer magistral and finished medicinal products over cannabis flowers. To politicians: to consider data according to the standards of evidence-based medicine when making decisions and provide financial support for medical research into cannabis-based medicines.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Dor Crônica , Seguro Saúde , Jornalismo , Maconha Medicinal , Política , Padrões de Prática Médica , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Alemanha , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/ética , Seguro Saúde/normas , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Médicos/ética , Médicos/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/ética , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 612, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shared decision-making (SDM) is a key principle in asthma management, but continues to be poorly implemented in routine care. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of a SDM communication skills training for physicians treating patients with asthma on the SDM behaviors of physicians, and to analyze physician views on the training. METHODS: A mixed methods study with a partially mixed sequential equal status design was conducted to evaluate a 12 h SDM communication skills training for physicians treating patients with asthma. It included a short introductory talk, videotaped consultations with simulated asthma patients, video analysis in small group sessions, individual feedback, short presentations, group discussions, and practical exercises. The quantitative evaluation phase consisted of a before (t0) after (t1) comparison of SDM performance using the observer-rated OPTION5, the physician questionnaire SDM-Q-Doc, and the patient questionnaire SDM-Q-9, using dependent t-tests. The qualitative evaluation phase (t2) consisted of a content analysis of audiotaped and transcribed interviews. RESULTS: Initially, 29 physicians participated in the study, 27 physicians provided quantitative data, and 22 physicians provided qualitative data for analysis. Quantitative results showed significantly improved performance in SDM following the training (t1) when compared with performance in SDM before the training (t0) (OPTION5: t (26) = - 5.16; p < 0.001) (SDM-Q-Doc: t (26) = - 4.39; p < 0.001) (SDM-Q-9: t (26) = - 5.86; p < 0.001). The qualitative evaluation showed that most physicians experienced a change in attitude and behavior after the training, and positively appraised the training program. Physicians considered simulated patient consultations, including feedback and video analysis, beneficial and suggested the future use of real patient consultations. CONCLUSION: The SDM communication skills training for physicians treating patients with asthma has potential to improve SDM performance, but would benefit from using real patient consultations.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Competência Clínica/normas , Médicos/normas , Idoso , Comunicação , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente , Simulação de Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gravação de Fita , Gravação em Vídeo
18.
Int J Med Inform ; 130: 103936, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the access to information through digital resources is widely available for physicians, concerns are posed about the use of digital devices for information retrieval at the point of care. This use of digital devices among practicing physicians in the community setting is not well studied, particularly from the patient's perspective. AIM: The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of use of digital devices by physicians in the community setting and attitude of patients towards the usage of digital devices by the physician to retrieve information at the point of care during the clinical encounter. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This is a cross-sectional study among 385 patients who visited pharmacies to dispense a recent (2 weeks) prescription by their physician. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients who presented at a random set of pharmacies to buy medications prescribed in a recent clinical visit were approached to fill a paper-based questionnaire. Survey items included patient demographics and patients' attitude towards their physician's usage of digital devices using a Likert scale rating. RESULTS: This study shows that around one quarter of physicians use digital devices at the point of care. About 40% of patients are bothered by a physician who uses digital devices to retrieve information during the clinical encounter. Trusting the competence of physicians using digital devices at the point of care for retrieving information is positively correlated with being less bothered. Almost half (50.6%) are interested in knowing the reason behind their physician's use of the digital device. Patients tend to be less bothered when they are informed about the reason of the digital device use, as only 12.5% of those informed are bothered compared to 35.8% of those who are not (P value = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Physicians should be aware of their patients' preferences when using digital devices during the clinical encounter. Physicians' use of digital devices during the encounter may endanger the patient-doctor relationship due to the perception of the patient of the competence of the physician.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/normas , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/normas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Médico-Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 282, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major challenge in the intensive care unit (ICU). The AKIpredictor is a set of machine-learning-based prediction models for AKI using routinely collected patient information, and accessible online. In order to evaluate its clinical value, the AKIpredictor was compared to physicians' predictions. METHODS: Prospective observational study in five ICUs of a tertiary academic center. Critically ill adults without end-stage renal disease or AKI upon admission were considered for enrollment. Using structured questionnaires, physicians were asked upon admission, on the first morning, and after 24 h to predict the development of AKI stages 2 or 3 (AKI-23) during the first week of ICU stay. Discrimination, calibration, and net benefit of physicians' predictions were compared against the ones by the AKIpredictor. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-two patients were included, 30 (12%) developed AKI-23. In the cohort of patients with predictions by physicians and AKIpredictor, the performance of physicians and AKIpredictor were respectively upon ICU admission, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.80 [0.69-0.92] versus 0.75 [0.62-0.88] (n = 120, P = 0.25) with net benefit in ranges 0-26% versus 0-74%; on the first morning, AUROC 0.94 [0.89-0.98] versus 0.89 [0.82-0.97] (n = 187, P = 0.27) with main net benefit in ranges 0-10% versus 0-48%; after 24 h, AUROC 0.95 [0.89-1.00] versus 0.89 [0.79-0.99] (n = 89, P = 0.09) with main net benefit in ranges 0-67% versus 0-50%. CONCLUSIONS: The machine-learning-based AKIpredictor achieved similar discriminative performance as physicians for prediction of AKI-23, and higher net benefit overall, because physicians overestimated the risk of AKI. This suggests an added value of the systematic risk stratification by the AKIpredictor to physicians' predictions, in particular to select high-risk patients or reduce false positives in studies evaluating new and potentially harmful therapies. Due to the low event rate, future studies are needed to validate these findings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03574896 registration date: July 2nd, 2018.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Médicos/normas , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Competência Clínica/normas , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Thromb Res ; 181: 120-123, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400622

RESUMO

Disease mongering is an expression created in 1992 by a medical journalist, Lynn Payer, to qualify the "selling of sickness that widens the boundaries of treatable illness in order to expand markets for those who sell and deliver treatments". This interesting concept led us to question whether, as researchers with publication and career interests in superficial vein thrombosis, we were not shaping a benign condition into a disease. Since the publication of the CALISTO trial in 2010, anticoagulant management of superficial vein thrombosis remains debated. Issues raised, such as the cost-effectiveness of the treatment strategy, the use of a composite endpoint including death, the low event rate without mortality reduction and conflict of interest due to industrial funding. We searched Embase, Medline, Web of science, and Opengrey databases to review all aspects about disease mongering raised in the literature and created a checklist with seventeen items. We used this checklist as support for a narrative review, questioning known literature on superficial vein thrombosis. The main issues pointing towards disease mongering concerned definition and promotion; whereas management seemed rather spared. Many arguments could be counterbalanced, but researchers should pay particular attention to three major points: exaggeration of the severity of the disease and potential adverse outcomes without treatment, promotion by opinion leaders, and an openly declared, yet undoubtedly present, conflict of interest situation.


Assuntos
Médicos/normas , Pesquisadores/normas , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Lista de Checagem , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos
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