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1.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119089

RESUMO

La revisión teórica aborda la educación física virtual establecida en México a partir delconfinamiento social por COVID-19, basada en el problema, ya existente en México, de sedentarismo y obesidad infantil en niños de educación primaria, en quienes, derivado del confinamiento social, se estima un aumento de masa cor-poral, lo que conlleva mayores riesgos de salud. Al analizar la bibliografía reciente, que relaciona al COVID-19 con la educación física y la actividad física, se identificala oportunidad del profesorado de educación física, de conducir esquemas virtuales en los contenidos del programa educativo para, de esta manera, coadyuvar en la disminución del sedentarismo en estudiantes de primaria, teniendo como prioridad la alfabetización física.(AU)


The theoretical review addresses the virtual physical education established in Mexico based on social con-finement by COVID-19, based on the problem, already existing in Mexico, of sedentary lifestyle and childhood obesity in primary school children, in whom, derived from social confinement, an increase in body mass is estimated, which carries greater health risks. When analyzing the recent bibliography, which relates COVID-19 with physical education and physical activity, the opportunity for physical education teachers to conduct virtual schemes in the contents of the educational program is identified, in this way, to contribute to the decreasein sedentary lifestyle in primary school students, prioritizing physical literacy.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Física e Treinamento/métodos , Isolamento Social , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância/métodos , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Comportamento Sedentário , México/epidemiologia
2.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 149-166, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191351

RESUMO

Se presenta una reflexión de la valía e importancia de los talleres de filosofía, inscritos en el Proyecto Boecio, que se han llevado a cabo en el Reclusorio Femenil de Santa Martha Acatitla y Reclusorio Varonil Oriente, ambos en Ciudad de México. Se mencionarán los contenidos y aprendizajes de dichos talleres, los cuales han sido significativos para las personas privadas de su libertad, para sobrellevar su proceso judicial, y el sobrevivir su "encierro", así como también, la manera en que sus familiares y amistades han sido beneficiados con dichos aprendizajes de sus seres queridos en reclusión, al brindarles herramientas para sobrellevar el estar "encerrados en casa" por la cuarentena de la COVID-19


This is a reflection about the value and importance of the philosophy workshops, registered in the Boethius Project, which have been carried out at the Santa Martha Acatitla's Womens Prison and East Men's Prison both of them in Mexico City. The contents and learning from these workshops will be mentioned, which have been signicant for the people in prison, to survive their judicial process and "confinement", as well as the way in which their family and friends have been benefitied with these learnings from their loved ones in jail, by providing then with tools to support "Stay in home" by the COVID-19 quarantine


Es presenta una reflexió de la importància dels tallers de filosofia, inscrits en el Projecte Boeci, que s'han dut a terme en el Reclusorio Femenil de Santa Martha Acatitla y Reclusorio Varonil Oriente, tots dos a Ciutat de Mèxic. Es parlarà dels continguts I aprenentatges d'aquests tallers, els quals han estat significatius per a les persones privades de la seva llibertat, per suportar el seu procés judicial, I sobreviure el seu "tancament", així com també, la manera en què els seus familiars I amistats s'han beneficiat d'aquests aprenentatges dels seus éssers estimats en reclusió, en poder brindar-los eines per a suportar l'estar "tancats a casa" per la quarantena de la COVID-19


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Prisões/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Bioética , México
3.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 239-253, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191356

RESUMO

Las carencias sociales de México empeorarán por la pandemia SARS-COV2. A saber, el acceso a la salud, derechos laborales básicos, y la infructuosa respuesta del gobierno para erradicar la violencia machista contra las mujeres. El desinterés histórico para fomentar una cultura del apoyo mutuo y el autocuidado ha provocado que gran parte de la ciudadanía se haya desconectado de sus derechos sociales y sanitarios. Así, no se sigue una indicación -quédate en casa- por desigualdades estructurales. Propongo que la libertad efectiva puede conseguirse mediante la aprobación de la renta básica universal desde una perspectiva feminista. Concluyo que las secuelas de la pandemia, que definirán la vida cotidiana, ameritan la aprobación de esta medida. Igualmente, las mujeres como clase sexual requieren protección desde una perspectiva feminista


Many of the social deprivations of Mexico will be worsened due to SARS-COV2 pandemic. Namely, the insufficient access to public health, lack of labor rights, and the unsuccessful government's response to eradicate male violence against women. The historical unconcern in promoting a culture rooted in mutual aid and self-care has provoked many citizens are disconnected from their social and health rights. Thus, people's inability to carry through one direction -stay home- is unfulfilled, in part, due to structural inequalities. I affirm that effective liberty could be obtained by approving a Universal Basic Income from a feminist perspective. I conclude that the aftermath of COVID-19, which will define everyday life for a while, require the endorsement of such measure. Likewise, women as a class deserve protection from a feminist critical framework


Les mancances socials de Mèxic empitjoraran per la pandèmia SARS-COV-2. A saber, l'accés a la salut, els drets laborals bàsics I la infructuosa resposta de govern per eradicar la violència masclista contra les dones. El desinterès històric per fomentar una cultura de suport mutu I l'autocura ha provocat que gran part de la ciutadania s'hagi desconnectat dels seus drets socials I sanitaris. Així, no se segueix una indicació -queda't a casa- per desigualtats estructurals. Proposo que la llibertat efectiva pot aconseguir-se mitjançant l'aprovació de la renda bàsica universal des d'una perspectiva feminista. Concloc que les seqüeles de la pandèmia, que definiran la vida quotidiana, mereixen l'aprovació d'aquesta mesura. Igualment, les dones com a classe sexual requereixen protecció des d'una perspectiva feminista


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Renda per Capita , Apoio Social , Incerteza , Política Pública , Política de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , México/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053788

RESUMO

Early information on public health behaviors adopted to prevent the spread of coronavirus (COVID-19) may be useful in controlling the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. The objective of this study was to assess the role of income level (IL) and the perception of older adults, regarding COVID-19 susceptibility and severity, on adopting stay-at-home preventive behavior during the first week of the outbreak in Mexico. Participants in this cross-sectional study were urban community dwellers, aged ≥ 65 years from Mexico City. A total of 380 interviews were conducted over the phone. The mean respondent age was 72.9 years, and 76.1% were women. Over half (54.2%) of the participants perceived their susceptibility to COVID-19 as very low or low. Similarly, 33.4% perceived COVID-19 severity as being very low or low, and 57.6% had decided to stay at home: this behavior was associated with IL (ß = 1.05, p < 0.001), and its total effect was partially mediated (15.1%) by perceived severity. Educational attainment was also associated with staying at home (ß = 0.10, p = 0.018) and its total effect was partially mediated (15.0%) by perceived susceptibility. Interventions aimed at low income and less educated older adults should be developed to improve preventive behaviors in this vulnerable group during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Idoso , Cidades/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
5.
Zootaxa ; 4819(3): zootaxa.4819.3.7, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056096

RESUMO

Pantomorus albosignatus Boheman, 1840 (Entiminae: Naupactini), type species of the genus Pantomorus Schoenherr, 1840, is broadly distributed in Mexico, from Oaxaca and Veracruz to Chihuahua and Coahuila, and is probably related to P. parvulus Sharp 1891 (México: Oaxaca and Veracruz), P. andersoni sp. nov. (México: Guerrero), and P. crinitus (Boheman, 1840) (southern Mexico, El Salvador and Guatemala). The four species are small (5-8 mm), apterous, usually show a characteristic maculation and erect setae on the elytra, short antennae, vestigial to absent humeri, and well-developed, squamose corbels of the metatibiae, and are here referred to as the Pantomorus albosignatus species group. Our study was based on the examination of type material and about 500 specimens from different collections, and provides a dichotomous key, descriptions or redescriptions of the species, habitus photographs, line drawings of female and male genitalia, a map of distribution, new locality records and new plant associations. We propose that Pantomorus nobilis (Boheman 1840) is a new junior subjective synonym of P. crinitus (Boheman, 1840), and we designate lectotypes for the species Pantomorus albosignatus Boheman, P. parvulus Sharp, P. crinitus (Boheman), P. nobilis (Boheman) and P. affinis Sharp, 1891 (the latter is also a junior synonym of P. crinitus). Pantomorus albosignatus usually inhabits Acacia grasslands and cactus deserts of the Mexican Plateau, at higher elevations than remaining species; P. parvulus occurs in cloud forests and tropical deciduous forests of southern Mexico; P. crinitus in open oak pine forests, cloud forests and tropical deciduous forests of southern Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador; and P. andersoni is endemic to the state of Guerrero, in Acacia-cactus woodlands.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gorgulhos , Animais , América Central , Feminino , Masculino , México
6.
Zootaxa ; 4822(1): zootaxa.4822.1.11, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056308

RESUMO

The genus Cephalocyclus Dellacasa, Gordon Dellacasa, 1998 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae: Aphodiini) was created for 10 species distributed in southern United States of America and Mesoamerica. Subsequently, 14 species were described or added to this genus (Dellacasa et al. 2000, 2007, 2011, 2013; Deloya Ibáñez-Bernal 2000; Minor et al. 2015). A.A.-J. collected a large series of specimens from Oaxaca (Mexico) belonging to a new species of Cephalocyclus described here. The specimens of this new species came from "El Cerro del Aguila" in the Mixteca Region, between 2800-3250 m. All specimens were collected with pitfall traps baited with human excrement.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , México
7.
Zootaxa ; 4766(1): zootaxa.4766.1.8, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056610

RESUMO

Three new species of Acanthobothrium Blanchard, 1848 (Onchoproteocephalidea: Onchobothriidae) are described from Pacific coastal waters of Mexico. Based on four criteria for categorization of species of Acanthobothrium, the three new species belong to Category 2 species, characterized by their total length (< 15 mm), number of proglottids (< 50) and testes (<80), and with asymmetrical ovary. Acanthobothrium ppdeleoni n. sp. from diamond stingray Hypanus dipterurus (Jordan Gilbert) is differentiated from congeners by a combination of characters including total length of the whole worms, size of the scolex and bothridia, length of the bases of the hooks and abaxial prongs, and the size of the cirrus sacs in mature proglottids. Acanthobothrium hypanus n. sp. and A. sinaloaensis n. sp. are described from longtail stingray Hypanus longus (Garman). Acanthobothrium hypanus n. sp. is differentiated by a combination of characters including size of the scolex and bothridia, diameter of the accessory sucker, length of the abaxial prongs, size of the cirrus sacs and testes in mature proglottids. Acanthobothrium sinaloaensis n. sp. is differentiated by a combination of characters including size of the scolex and bothridia, diameter of the accessory sucker, size of the cirrus sacs in mature proglottids, number of immature proglottids, number of testes, the length of the lobes of the ovary and the absence of velum between medial margin of bothridia. Thirteen species of Acanthobothrium have been reported previously from elasmobranchs from the Pacific coast of Mexico. In the present study, the number of species is elevated to 16.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Doenças dos Peixes , Rajidae , Animais , Feminino , México
8.
Zootaxa ; 4763(3): zootaxa.4763.3.1, 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056852

RESUMO

The skink genus Marisora ranges from Mexico to northern South America and occurs on some islands in the Caribbean Sea. We conducted a revision of the genus Marisora from Mexico and Central America, using new morphological and molecular data, and find support for the five previously described species (Marisora alliacea, M.aurulae, M. brachypoda, M. magnacornae, and M. roatanae) and describe four new species: Marisora lineola sp. nov., M. aquilonaria sp. nov., M. syntoma sp. nov., and M. urtica sp. nov. We show that two species previously known only from Central American islands, M. magnacornae and M. roatanae, also occur on the adjacent mainland and that two species recently placed in Alinea belong to this evolutionary clade: Marisora berengerae n. comb. and Marisora pergravis n. comb. Together with M. falconensis and M. unimarginata, these 13 species of Marisora arose mostly in the Pliocene and are largely allopatric but are sympatric and nearly sympatric at several locations in Central America where they maintain their morphological and genetic distinctiveness.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , América Central , México
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 710, 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070261

RESUMO

The measurement of physicochemical variables to infer water quality is important since they help determine the distribution and abundance of aquatic organisms or pollution-related problems. Recently, the development of low-cost probes is a suitable alternative for continuous monitoring of these variables rather than the use of expensive instruments. In this work, a low-cost multiparameter probe (LCMP) has been developed to monitor water quality in an estuary located in Northwestern Mexico during a 3-month period. The LCMP integrates different sensors to an Arduino Nano microcontroller allowing to measure electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, water temperature, and tide level. Data files were stored in a data logger system consisting of a secure digital (SD) card module and a real-time clock module coupled to the Arduino microcontroller. To ensure continuous operation, the system was powered by four 3.7 V, 10,000 mAh rechargeable LiPo batteries. All LCMP components were encapsulated in a polyvinyl chloride pipe. The results show that the LCMP had a good agreement with a commercial-grade multiparameter probe and was able to monitor continuously in hourly time steps. Finally, the LCMP proved to be an alternative for the establishment of coastal observatories, which has been deficient due to limited funding.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Qualidade da Água , México , Salinidade , Água
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 712, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070268

RESUMO

A major public health concern in Mexico is the natural contamination of groundwater with fluoride and arsenic. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the magnitude of human health risk after determining fluoride and arsenic concentrations in groundwater samples (n = 50) from the Metropolitan area of the city of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Fluoride levels in water were determined via a potentiometric method using an ion-selective electrode. Arsenic concentrations in water samples were determined with an Atomic Absorption technique. Subsequently, a probabilistic health risk assessment was developed (Monte Carlo Analysis). Fluoride levels in water ranged from 0.20 to 3.50 mg/L. For arsenic, the mean level found in the assessed water samples was 15.5 ± 5.50 µg/L (range: 2.50-30.0 µg/L). In addition, when the probabilistic health risk assessment was completed, a mean HI (cumulative hazardous index) of higher than 1 was detected, indicating a high NCR (non-carcinogenic risk) for children and adults. According to the results found in this study, exposure protection campaigns are imperative in the Metropolitan area of the city of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, to successfully diminish exposure to arsenic and fluoride and, as a consequence, decrease the NCR in the population living in that region of Mexico.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Água Potável , Adulto , Arsênico/análise , Criança , Cidades , Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , México , Medição de Risco
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic compounds Mexico's pre-existing challenges: very high levels of both non-communicable diseases (NCD) and social inequity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from national reporting of SARS-CoV-2 tested individuals, we estimated odds of hospitalization, intubation, and death based on pre-existing non-communicable diseases and socioeconomic indicators. We found that obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are positively associated with the three outcomes in a synergistic manner. The municipal poverty level is also positively associated with hospitalization and death. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico's response to COVID-19 is complicated by a synergistic double challenge: raging NCDs and extreme social inequity. The response to the current pandemic must take both into account both to be effective and to ensure that the burden of COVID-19 not falls disproportionately on those who are already disadvantaged.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Intubação , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pobreza , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22442, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019428

RESUMO

Delivery methods during childbirth and their related gut microbiota profiles have important impacts on health later in life, they can contribute to the development of diseases such as obesity, whose highest prevalence rate is found among the Mexican child population. Coincidentally, Mexico has one of the highest global average annual rate increase in cesarean births (C-section). Since Mexico leads the world in childhood obesity, studying the relationship between childbirth delivery methods and gut microbiota profiles in this vulnerable population may be used to identify early risk factors for obesity in other developed and developing countries. The objective of this study is to determine the association between child delivery method and gut microbiota profiles in healthy Mexican newborns.Fecal samples of 57 term infants who participated in a randomized clinical trial in 2013 to study the safety of Agave fructans in newborns, were used in this study. DNA samples were extracted and used to characterize the microbiota composition using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The samples were further divided based on childbirth delivery method, as well as early diet. Gut microbiota profiles were determined and analyzed using cluster analysis followed by multiple correspondence analysis.An unusual high abundance of Proteobacteria was found in the gut microbiota of all Mexican infants studied, regardless of delivery method. Feces from infants born by C-section had low levels of Bacteroidetes, high levels of Firmicutes, especially Clostridium and Enterococcus, and a strikingly high ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F:B). Profiles enriched in Bacteroidetes and low F:B ratios, were strongly associated with vaginal delivery.The profile of gut microbiota associated with feces from Mexican infants born by C-section, may be added to the list of boosting factors for the worrying obesity epidemic in Mexico.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
Zootaxa ; 4773(1): zootaxa.4773.1.1, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055595

RESUMO

Identification keys for females, and for males where known, to the 39 genera and 11 subgenera of Mymaridae in America north of Mexico are given. The genera are illustrated with over 1010 photographs and/or scanning electron micrographs. The 202 currently named and valid species reported from America north of Mexico are catalogued. Reliable host records are reported for 16 genera and almost 90 species from rearings in the region. The five genera represented by more than one subgenus in the region are: Anagrus Haliday, Anaphes Haliday, Erythmelus Enock, Kalopolynema Ogloblin, and Polynema Haliday. Five other genera are represented only by unnamed and possibly undescribed species. About 1000 literature references, mainly the North American ones, are listed. Three new species are described: Callodicopus floridanus Huber, sp. n., Neostethynium americanum Huber, sp. n., and Stephanocampta xanthogaster Huber, sp. n. Cosmocomoidea marilandica (Girault), stat. rev., is placed in synonymy under C. dolichocerus (Ashmead). Platypatasson Ogloblin is given subgeneric status as Platystethynium (Platypatasson Ogloblin), stat. rev. Corrections and additions to the mymarid fauna of Mexico by Guzmán-Larralde et al. (2017) are also given.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , México , América do Norte
14.
Zootaxa ; 4816(2): zootaxa.4816.2.9, 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055709

RESUMO

Morphological analysis and microscopic observations of the Porites baueri holotype and specimens of other Porites species from different sites of the Mexican Pacific, allowed confirmation that Porites baueri is subjective synonym of Porites lobata. The holotype of Porites baueri was collected in the Marías Islands in 1957, and described as a new species by Squires in 1959. Since then, this species was considered as endemic, which is due to the lack of other specimens or a review of the taxonomic characters until now. The Mexican Pacific marine fauna loses a valid reef coral species, currently at 34, but gains in taxonomic clarity by ending almost 60 years of controversy.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , México
15.
Zootaxa ; 4778(3): zootaxa.4778.3.8, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055815

RESUMO

Two new species of Megarthrus are described from cloud forests of the Mexican state of Veracruz: M. cavianae Rodríguez, Navarrete-Heredia Arriaga-Varela sp. nov., and Chiapas:  M. chiapas Cuccodoro sp. nov. They differ from the two hitherto known Mexican species M. altivagans Bernhauer, 1929, and M. alatorreorum Rodríguez Navarrete-Heredia, 2015, both from temperate forests of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt, by having synapomorphic features of the M. inaequalis-supergroup of species. This lineage includes all the Central and South American members of the genus, with the inclusion of these species, the distribution of the group is extend by more than 5 degree of latitude to the North. Within this lineage, the two new species share a very peculiar morphology of the male abdominal sternite VIII found elsewhere in the genus only in M. flavosignatus Bierig, 1940, and M. zunilensis Sharp, 1887, with which they form the M. zunilensis-group of species defined here.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Florestas , Masculino , México , Tamanho do Órgão
16.
Zootaxa ; 4853(2): zootaxa.4853.2.10, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056381

RESUMO

A new Mexican leafhopper species, Amblysellus raygozai sp. nov., is described and illustrated from western Mexico. Specimens were collected over perennial grasses. A key for all recognized species within the country is provided.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Animais , México , Poaceae
17.
Zootaxa ; 4838(4): zootaxa.4838.4.5, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056804

RESUMO

The species Melanotettix dibelonius Bruner, 1904 was previously recorded from Michoacán and Guerrero states in Mexico. This species is characterized by its tegmina, which are always shorter than head and pronotum together and sometimes shorter than the pronotum. After recent field expeditions (2015-2019) and an extensive review of museum specimens from the most important Orthoptera collections in Mexico and USA (291 specimens), we discovered a long-winged form of this species south of its previous known range, which effectively expanded its distribution range into Oaxaca state. We discuss some aspects regarding the patterns of geographic distribution and morphological variation among the long-winged and short-winged morphs. We conduct statistical analyses and observed that on average, the tegmina of long-winged individuals (both females and males) are slightly longer than twice the length of pronotum; whereas in short-winged individuals the tegmina are nearly as long or slightly longer than the length of the pronotum. Moreover, on average, females appear to have longer tegmina than males in both morphotypes. We provide photographic records of both forms live and mounted, the most comprehensive distribution map to date and a discussion of evolutionarily interesting patterns found in this species.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Masculino , México , Polimorfismo Genético
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 704, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057810

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) was measured in the muscle, liver, and gonads of Haemulopsis elongatus and Pomadasys macracanthus from Mazatlán (SE Gulf of California) to determine the relationships of the hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of fish with Hg concentrations in the corresponding tissues. Health risk to consumers was assessed by using the hazard quotient (HQ), considering the average rate of fish consumption in Mexico and Hg concentration in the edible tissue. In H. elongatus, the highest Hg levels were measured in the liver (3.748 µg g-1); in P. macracanthus, the highest Hg concentration was quantified in the muscle (0.574 µg g-1). In P. macracanthus, the HSI was negatively correlated with Hg concentration in the liver; in H. elongatus, there was also a negative relationship between Hg levels in gonads and the GSI. Mean HQ values in Haemulopsis elongatus (0.005) and Pomadasys macracanthus (0.002) were below the value (HQ ≥ 1) of concern. The significant reduction of HSI and GSI with Hg increase in the liver and gonads may suggest that Hg bioaccumulation in these fish shows adverse physiological effects. Though HQ values in both species were below the unit, i.e., the consumption of the muscle from this species does not represent a health risk, it is necessary to carry out surveys of fish consumption rates in coastal areas of Mexico to do a more precise health risk assessment associated to Hg intake.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioacumulação , California , Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/análise , México , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
J Environ Manage ; 275: 110239, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059842

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The water footprint provided a full methodology to operationalise the virtual water concept (the volume of water used along a supply chain to produce products and services). A key theme in the water footprint literature is the efficient allocation of water resources at the global scale given the feasibility of trading water intensive commodities from water rich to water poor areas: this is an economic problem of resource allocation between alternative and competing demands, albeit with a novel international component. Moreover, given that price signals indicating relative scarcity are usually either absent or distorted for water, it is also a problem that can be seen through the lens of environmental (or non-market) valuation. However, to date environmental valuation has not been used to inform the efficient use and allocation of water within and between the different locations encompassed by international supply chains. METHODS: Drawing on an agri-food supply chain framework that we propose in this paper, we begin by conceptualising the economic values that accrue to water consumption (blue and green water) and degradation (grey water) at different points along a supply chain. Based on this conceptualisation, we assess the extent to which it is possible to approximate these economic values by relying on existing secondary data on the shadow value of water in different contexts. The use of secondary data in this way is known as benefit (or value) transfer. To achieve this, 706 unit estimates of the economic value of water are collected, standardised and reviewed encompassing off-stream water applications (agriculture, industry and municipal) and in-stream ecosystem services (waste assimilation, wildlife habitat, recreation, hydrological functions and passive uses). From this, a proposed methodology for valuing virtual water is presented and illustrated using the case study of global durum wheat pasta production. RESULTS: The case study shows the total value of the virtual water used to produce one tonne of durum wheat pasta ($212). More importantly, the case study also highlights how variations in economic value between multiple locations where durum wheat is cultivated (Saskatchewan $0.10 m3, Arizona $0.08 m3 and Baja California $0.24 m3) indicate relative water scarcity and thus impact, as well as the potential for a more efficient allocation of virtual water. CONCLUSIONS: The main conclusion from this research is that when geographical disparities in the economic value of water use within a supply chain are accounted for, what was perhaps considered sustainable in volume terms, might not, in fact, represent the optimal allocation. However, future research opportunities highlight the need for additional data collection on the economic value of water in several contexts. This additional data would help the environmental valuation community to undertake a more comprehensive and robust approach to virtual water valuation. This paper is accompanied by the Data in Brief article entitled "Dataset on the in-stream and off-stream economic value of water."


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Água , Água , Arizona , Ecossistema , México
20.
Am J Bot ; 107(9): 1296-1308, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001458

RESUMO

PREMISE: Recent phylogeographic work suggests the existence of latitudinal gradients in genetic diversity in northern Mexican plants, but very few studies have examined plants of the Chihuahuan Desert. Tidestromia lanuginosa is a morphologically variable annual species whose distribution includes the Chihuahuan Desert Region. Here we undertook phylogeographic analyses of chloroplast loci in this species to test whether genetic diversity and differentiation of Mexican populations of T. lanuginosa change along a latitudinal gradient and whether diversity is higher in Coahuila, consistent with ideas of lower plant community turnover during the Pleistocene. METHODS: Haplotype network, maximum likelihood tree, and Bayesian phylogenetic haplotype were reconstructed, and genetic diversity was assessed among 26 populations. Barrier analysis was used to explore barriers to gene flow. RESULTS: Four major population groups were identified, corresponding with physiographic provinces in Mexico. Each population group displayed high levels of genetic structure, haplotype, and nucleotide diversity. Diversity was highest in southern populations across the species as a whole and among the Chihuahuan Desert populations. CONCLUSIONS: Tidestromia lanuginosa provides an important example of high phylogeographic and genetic diversity in plants of northern Mexico. Barriers to gene flow among the major population groups have most likely been due to a combination of orographic, climatic, and edaphic variables. The high genetic diversity of T. lanuginosa in southern and central Coahuila is consistent with the hypothesis of full-glacial refugia for arid-adapted plants in this area, and highlights the importance of this region as a center of diversity for the Chihuahuan Desert flora.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Teorema de Bayes , México , Filogenia
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