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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134055, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499349

RESUMO

An improved understanding of how tree species will respond to warmer conditions and longer droughts requires comparing their responses across different environmental settings and considering a multi-proxy approach. We used several traits (tree-ring width, formation of intra-annual density fluctuations - IADFs, wood anatomy, Δ13C and δ18O records) to retrospectively quantify these responses in three conifers inhabiting drought-prone areas in northwestern Mexico. A fir species (Abies durangensis) was studied in a higher altitude and slightly rainier site and two pine species were sampled in a nearby, lower drier site (Pinus engelmannii, Pinus cembroides). Tree-ring-width indices (TRWi) of the studied species showed a very similar year-to-year variability likely indicating a common climatic signal. Wood anatomy analyses done over 3.5 million measured cells, showed that P. cembroides lumen area was much smaller than in the other two species and it remained constant along all the studied period (over 64 years). Instead, cell wall thickness was widest in P. engelmannii and this species presented the highest amount of intra-annual density fluctuations. Climate and wood anatomy correlations pointed out that lumen area was positively affected by winter precipitation for all studied species, while cell-wall thickness was negatively affected by this season's precipitation in all species but P. cembroides. Stable isotope analysis showed significantly lower values of Δ13C for P. cembroides and no significant δ18O differences between the three species, although they shared a common decreasing trend. With very distinct wood anatomical traits (smaller cells, compact morphology), P. cembroides stood out as the better adapted species in its current environment and could be less affected by future drier climate. P. engelmannii and A. durangensis showed high plasticity at wood anatomical level, allowing them to promptly respond to seasonal water availability but likely gives few advantages on future climate scenarios with longer and frequent drought spells.


Assuntos
Secas , Traqueófitas/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , México , Traqueófitas/anatomia & histologia , Madeira/química
2.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 137(2): 125-130, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854330

RESUMO

Francisellosis is a disease caused by different species of the bacterial genus Francisella and has been diagnosed in a wide variety of animals, including fish. Francisellosis in fish is characterized by the development of non-specific clinical signs as well as the presence of numerous granulomas in several organs (mainly spleen and kidney). Ten neon jewel cichlids Hemichromis bimaculatus were submitted for diagnosis from a farm located in Morelos, Mexico. Gross examination, wet preparations, cytology, histopathology and PCR were performed. Affected fish showed lethargy, erratic swimming, imbalance and gasping. At the post mortem examination, multiple granulomas were observed in the kidney and spleen. Microscopically, granulomatous inflammation was observed in several organs. Species-specific PCR assay using DNA from the affected tissues of H. bimaculatus as a template demonstrated the presence of F. noatunensis subsp. orientalis (Fno) by amplifying a hypothetical protein gene of the Fno species. The end diagnosis of francisellosis is important for Mexican ornamental aquaculture, since it is necessary to implement measures for treatment, prevention, control and diagnosis. This is the first report of francisellosis in the neon jewel cichlid.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Doenças dos Peixes , Francisella , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , México
3.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 725-735, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047528

RESUMO

O Exército Zapatista de Liberação Nacional (EZLN) e suas bases de apoio são formados predominantemente por indígenas que vivem na região de Chiapas, no México. O movimento constrói uma profunda experiência de autonomia, o que passa por diferentes dimensões da vida coletiva. Neste artigo, pretendemos, a partir de um trabalho de campo realizado na região, nos focar na saúde autônoma. A concepção de saúde está estritamente relacionada com a noção de terra, já que para ter saúde é preciso pertencer a um cosmos, permeado pelo respeito recíproco entre os mais diferentes seres, em uma luta constante para engrandecer o ch'ulel (espírito) e, com isso, caminhar rumo ao lekil kuxlejal (Bem Viver). Para colocar em prática esses princípios, o cuidado em saúde é protagonizado pelos promotores autônomos de saúde e pelas assembleias comunitárias.


The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN, in Spanish) and its bases are formed predominantly by indigenous languages living in the region of Chiapas, Mexico. The movement builds a profound experience of autonomy, which goes through different dimensions of collective life. In this article, we intend, from a fieldwork carried out in the region, to focus on autonomous health. The conception of health is closely related to the notion of land, since in order to have health it is necessary to belong to a cosmos, permeated by mutual respect between the most different beings, in a constant struggle to ennoble the ch'ulel (spirit) and thus to walk to the lekil kuxlejal (Good Living). To put these principles into practice, healthcare is carried out by autonomous health promoters and communal assemblies.


El Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN) y sus bases de apoyo son formados predominantemente por indígenas que viven en la región de Chiapas, México. El movimiento construye una experiencia profunda de autonomía, que atraviesa diferentes dimensiones de la vida colectiva. En este artículo, nos proponemos, a partir de un trabajo de campo realizado en la región, enfocar la salud autónoma. La concepción de salud guarda una estrecha relación con la noción de tierra, ya que para tener salud es necesario pertenecer a un cosmos, impregnado por el respeto mutuo entre los seres más diferentes, en una lucha constante para engrandecer el ch'ulel (espíritu) y, de este modo, caminar hasta el lekil kuxlejal (Buen Vivir, también llamado Vivir Bien). Para poner en práctica estos principios, la asistencia en salud se lleva a cabo por los promotores autónomos de salud y por las asambleas comunitarias.


Assuntos
Humanos , Colonialismo , Capitalismo , População Indígena , Antropologia Médica , Antropologia Cultural , Organização Comunitária , Racismo , Direitos dos Povos Indígenas , Cultura Indígena , Promoção da Saúde , México
4.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 768-783, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047541

RESUMO

Este artículo analiza el proceso alimentario y la alimentación infantil, concretamente la lactancia materna y ablactación, como vías para estudiar las desigualdades de género. El estudio se realizó entre familias zoques de un municipio con alta prevalencia de desnutrición infantil en el sureste de México. Se empleó el método etnográfico y las técnicas de la entrevista en profundidad y la observación participante para recuperar el punto de vista de los padres y las madres de 14 niños zoques. Los resultados demuestran que la desigualdad en el acceso a los alimentos que sufren las mujeres y las niñas y niños por razones económicas, culturales y de género, afecta su estado nutricional y tendrá repercusiones a largo plazo, por lo que es urgente crear programas o iniciativas con perspectiva de género que posibiliten que la sociedad zoque reconozca los derechos de las mujeres y éstas mejoren su estatus.


Este artigo analisa o processo alimentar e a nutrição infantil, especificamente amamentação e ablação, como formas de estudar as desigualdades de gênero. O estudo foi realizado entre famílias zoque em um município com alta prevalência de desnutrição infantil no sudeste do México. O método etnográfico e as técnicas da entrevista em profundidade e da observação participante foram utilizadas para recuperar o ponto de vista dos pais e mães de 14 crianças zoqueis. Os resultados mostram que a desigualdade no acesso à alimentação sofrida por mulheres, meninas e meninos por razões econômicas, culturais e de gênero afeta o estado nutricional e terá repercussões a longo prazo, por isso é urgente elaborar programas ou iniciativas com uma perspectiva de gênero que permite que a sociedade zoque reconheça os direitos das mulheres e melhore seu status.


This paper analyzes the food process and infant nutrition, specifically breastfeeding and ablactation, as ways to study gender inequalities. The study was conducted among zoque families in a municipality with a high prevalence of child malnutrition in southeastern Mexico. The ethnographic method and the techniques of the in-depth interview and the participant observation were used to recover the point of view of the fathers and mothers of 14 zoque children. The results show that inequality in access to food suffered by women and girls and boys for economic, cultural and gender reasons, affects their nutritional status and will have long-term repercussions, so it is urgent to design programs or initiatives with a gender perspective that allows zoque society to recognize women's rights and improve their status.


Assuntos
Humanos , Aleitamento Materno , Alimentação , Nutrição da Criança , México , Mulheres , Produção de Alimentos , Criança , Processo Saúde-Doença , Populações Vulneráveis , Agricultura , Antropologia Médica , Antropologia Cultural
5.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03464, Jan.-Dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1020376

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo Explorar la construcción social que sobre violencia obstétrica han elaborado mujeres Tének y Náhuatl de México. Método Estudio cualitativo-sociocrítico, mediante gupos focales se profundizó en las experiencias de parto de quienes vivieron un parto en el periodo 2015-2016. Resultados Participaron 57 mujeres. Mediante análisis de discurso se identificó que las participantes no poseen suficiente información sobre violencia obstétrica y/o derechos sexuales y reproductivos, lo que las imposibilita para asociar sus experiencias negativas al término legal "violencia obstétrica". Sus discursos corresponden en su mayoría a lo que desde el marco legal se ha denominado "violencia obstétrica", sin embargo, experiencias como el ayuno prolongado o el uso de tecnologías para la invasión de su intimidad fueron narradas como algo que conciben violento y que no se ha incorporado dentro del término legal. Conclusión Múltiples acciones que atentan contra los derechos humanos de las mujeres tienen lugar dentro de las salas de parto, la mayor parte no son identificadas por las usuarias, puesto que no han construido socialmente la imagen de la violencia obstétrica, ello no las hace menos susceptibles sin embargo, a sentirse agredidas y denigradas en sus partos.


RESUMO Objetivo Explorar a construção social que as mulheres Tének e Náhuatl do México elaboraram sobre a violência obstétrica. Método Estudo qualitativo-sociocrítico; por meio de grupos focais, houve um aprofundamento nas experiências de parto daquelas que passaram por um parto no período de 2015 a 2016. Resultados Participaram 57 mulheres. Mediante análise do discurso, foi identificado que as participantes não possuem informação suficiente sobre violência obstétrica e/ou direitos sexuais e reprodutivos, o que as impossibilita de associar suas experiências negativas ao termo legal "violência obstétrica". Seus discursos correspondem na sua maioria ao que, a partir do marco legal, foi denominado "violência obstétrica"; entretanto, experiências como jejum prolongado ou uso de tecnologias para a invasão da sua intimidade foram narradas como algo que concebem ser violento e que não foi incorporado ao termo legal. Conclusão Múltiplas ações que atentam contra os direitos humanos das mulheres têm lugar dentro das salas de parto, a maior parte não é identificada pelas usuárias, visto que não construíram socialmente a imagem da violência obstétrica, mas isso não as faz menos suscetíveis de sentir-se agredidas e denegridas nos seus partos.


ABSTRACT Objective To explore the social construction of obstetric violence developed by Tenek and Nahuatl women in Mexico. Method Qualitative, socio-critical study conducted through focal groups in which were deepened the childbirth experiences lived in the period 2015-2016. Results Participation of 57 women. Through discourse analysis, it was identified that participants do not have enough information about obstetric violence and/or sexual and reproductive rights. This makes the association of their negative experiences with the legal term "obstetric violence" impossible. Most of their speeches correspond to the legal denomination of "obstetric violence". Experiences like prolonged fasting or the use of technologies for invading their privacy were narrated like situations they perceive as violent, but have not been incorporated within the legal term. Conclusion Multiple actions against women's human rights take place within delivery rooms. Most remain unidentified by users, since they have not socially constructed the image of obstetric violence. However, that fact does not make them less susceptible to feel attacked and denigrated during their childbirth experiences.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salas de Parto , Parto , População Indígena , Violência contra a Mulher , México , Grupos Focais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Enfermagem Obstétrica
6.
Zootaxa ; 4643(1): zootaxa.4643.1.1, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712452

RESUMO

The Neotropical genus Ormiophasia Townsend, 1919 is revised. Of the nine nominal species included in the genus prior to this revision, eight are interpreted as valid, with one new synonymy: Ormiophasia travassosi Tavares, 1964 = Ormiophasia inflata (Séguy, 1927b), syn. nov. Eight new species are described: Ormiophasia guimaraesi sp. nov., Ormiophasia seguyi sp. nov., Ormiophasia crassivena sp. nov., Ormiophasia manguinhos sp. nov., Ormiophasia tavaresi sp. nov., Ormiophasia chapulini sp. nov., Ormiophasia buoculus sp. nov. and Ormiophasia townsendi sp. nov. The distribution of Ormiophasia is extended from northern Argentina to Southeast Mexico. A key to species and detailed descriptions, and illustrations, of adults of both sexes and male terminalia, are provided.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Argentina , Feminino , Masculino , México
7.
Zootaxa ; 4638(4): zootaxa.4638.4.2, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712457

RESUMO

Anicius Chamberlin, 1925 is a monotypic genus and only the male of A. dolius Chamberlin, 1925 has been described. Herein the genus is revised and the female of the type species is described for the first time; new distribution records are also provided for this species. Five new species from Mexico are described based on males and females: Anicius chiapanecus sp. nov., Anicius cielito sp. nov., Anicius faunus sp. nov., Anicius grisae sp. nov., and Anicius maddisoni sp. nov. A key for identification of males and females is given, as well as a map with distribution records of the six species.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , México
8.
Zootaxa ; 4638(4): zootaxa.4638.4.3, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712458

RESUMO

Podocotyle pearsei Manter, 1934 is documented from the intestine of Vaillant's grenadier, Bathygadus melanobranchus Vaillant (Macrouridae: Bathygadinae), collected from the northeastern and western Gulf of Mexico from 783-841 m depth. The finding of P. pearsei in B. melanobranchus represents the first originally published report of this genus from this host and the fifth documented host species for P. pearsei. We report three unidentified species of Podocotyle, represented by one individual each, from the intestine of the western Atlantic grenadier, Nezumia atlantica (Parr) (Macrouridae: Macrourinae), and from Bathygadus favosus Goode Bean (Macrouridae: Bathygadinae) found at 637 m, 710 m and 1,143 m depths in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico off Florida and from the Caribbean Sea off Colombia. We provide a checklist of the parasites known from the three macrourid species relevant to this study, comment on the biogeography of the five species of Podocotyle now known from the deep sea and discuss the low host specificity observed across this genus. The high number of fish hosts for Podocotyle (i.e. type hosts include at least 22 piscine families) encompassing a wide phylogenetic diversity and diet makes it unlikely that members of a single genus could evolve such a broad array of life histories (i.e. utilize dissimilar intermediate hosts), and we predict in the future that Podocotyle will be taxonomically divided up. Morphological and especially molecular work is needed for Podocotyle as well as for other digenean genera known to inhabit the deep sea. Podocotyle sp. 1 2 represent the first originally published reports of this genus from N. atlantica while Podocotyle sp. 3 represents the first report of this genus from B. favosus. Podocotyle koshari Nagaty, 1973 is declared a species inquirenda, and a dichotomous key to the 27 species of Podocotyle we recognize is provided.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Infecções por Trematódeos , Animais , Região do Caribe , Colômbia , Florida , Golfo do México , México , Filogenia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4638(2): zootaxa.4638.2.7, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712479

RESUMO

Mexico contains a large number of amphibian and reptile species, and the states in the southeastern part of the country are the richest and most diverse. Although the study of species richness within Mexico's individual states has been increasing over the last two decades, herpetofaunal species lists for several states in the central region are incomplete. Herein, we provide a list of the herpetofauna of the state of Querétaro, a state that remains relatively unexplored. We also indicate the conservation status of the component species in the state, based on the national and international categorizations, as well as their Environmental Vulnerability Scores (EVS). Based on a review of literature and specimens in scientific collections, our results show that the herpetofauna of Querétaro currently is composed of 138 species, of which 34 are amphibians (27 anurans and seven caudates) and 104 are reptiles (three turtles, 34 lizards, and 67 snakes). The number of Mexican endemic species occurring in the state consists of 19 amphibians and 50 reptiles, representing 55.9% and 48.1%, respectively, of the total numbers in these groups. A total of 61 species (13 species of amphibians and 48 of reptiles) are listed in NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, within the categories of Special Protection (Pr) and Threatened (A). According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN 2019), 34 species of amphibians (100% of species) and 87 species of reptiles (83.65% of a total of 104) have been placed within a risk category, i.e., except for the DD and NE categories. The EVS results show that nine species of amphibians have high environmental vulnerability, 11 species medium vulnerability, and 14 low vulnerability, whereas among the reptiles, 22 species have high vulnerability, 43 medium vulnerability, and 37 species low vulnerability. The herpetofauna of Querétaro illustrates a high level of species richness, which is typical of central Mexico, as well as diverse groupings associated with the arid, temperate, and tropical environments found in the state. These types of studies are necessary for increasing our knowledge of the herpetofauna in the various states of Mexico, as well as for evaluating the conservation status and implementing management plans for species in both herpetofaunal groups.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Lagartos , Serpentes , Tartarugas , Anfíbios , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , México , Répteis
10.
Zootaxa ; 4634(1): zootaxa.4634.1.1, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712493

RESUMO

A synopsis of the 13 species of Phyllogomphoides Belle, 1970 known to occur within Mexico is presented. Taxonomic keys for males are based primarily on morphology of anterior and posterior hamules, caudal appendages and of the vulvar lamina in females and includes full descriptions for each species accompanied by high-resolution photographs, drawings, comparative diagnostic notes, natural history and distribution maps. Females of P. danieli González Novelo, 1990 and P. nayaritensis Belle, 1987 are described for the first time. Moreover, new records for P. albrighti (Needham, 1950) for the states of Guerrero; P. danieli González Novelo, 1990 for Colima, Guerrero and San Luis Potosí; P. duodentatus Donnelly, 1979 for Oaxaca; P. luisi González Novelo, 1990 for Nayarit, and P. pugnifer Donnelly, 1979 for San Luis Potosí, are also provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Odonatos , Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , México
11.
Zootaxa ; 4580(1): zootaxa.4580.1.1, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715704

RESUMO

Data from the literature and from specimens preserved at the Colección Nacional de Insectos (CNIN) Instituto de Biología, UNAM were used to compile a checklist of the fauna of Coleoptera of the state of Morelos, México. A sum of 70 families, 167 subfamilies, 361 tribes, 1,022 genera, and 2,606 species are recorded; from this 24 species are new records for Morelos. The State of Morelos ranks fourth in Coleoptera species richness for Mexico, following Veracruz (3,176 spp.), Oaxaca (2,148 spp.) and Chiapas (1,734 spp.). The checklist presented here provides a summary that can serve as a basis for future progress in the knowledge of Mexican Coleoptera.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , México
12.
Zootaxa ; 4576(1): zootaxa.4576.1.7, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715778

RESUMO

Description of the pupa and redescriptions of the larva, female, male and male genitalia of Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) moctezuma (Dyar Knab) are presented based on specimens from Mexico, providing information that helps to distinguish this species from other species within the subgenus Lynchiella. Additionally, we report the first finding of Tx. (Lyn.) grandiosus (Williston) in the state of Veracruz, Mexico.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais , Feminino , Larva , Masculino , México , Pupa
13.
Zootaxa ; 4567(2): zootaxa.4567.2.3, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715896

RESUMO

Ten Bolivian species of Macrostomus Wiedemann were studied. Five species are redescribed based on type specimens           described by Bezzi. The species are included in the following species-groups: four in the M. ferrugineus species-group: M.       arcucinctus (Bezzi), M. argyrotarsis (Bezzi), M. dolichopterus (Bezzi) and M. grallatrix (Bezzi); three in the M. limbipennis species-group: M. macerrimus (Bezzi), M. montanus sp. nov. and M. rodriguezi sp. nov.; one species in the M. amazonensis species-group: M. falcatus sp. nov.; and two unplaced to species-group: M. trifidus sp. nov. and M. trilineatus sp. nov. A key to the 12 species of Macrostomus found in Bolivia, including M. limbipennis (Bezzi) and M. pictipennis (Bezzi), is presented. Macrostomus argyrotarsis (Bezzi) is also recorded for the first time from Peru. A checklist of 31 described species of Bolivian Empididae s. str. is included. Three empidid species originally described from Mexico that had previously been recorded from Bolivia, are excluded from the Bolivian fauna.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Bolívia , México , Peru
14.
Zootaxa ; 4567(2): zootaxa.4567.2.7, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715900

RESUMO

Bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) are an extremely diverse family of the angiosperms widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the Americas and West Africa. They often serve as phytotelmata, accumulating rainwater between leaves. Such water reservoirs can be inhabited by diverse organisms. But to date not much attention is paid to inventory of these organisms, with careful identification of each taxon. We found a microcrustacean Disparalona hamata (Birge, 1879) (Crustacea: Cladocera) in the bromeliad Tillandsia aguascalentensis Gardner, 1984 in Mexico. Investigated population included parthenogenetic females, gamogenetic females and males. Hereby the population apparently can pass the full life cycle under conditions of phytotelmata. Along with ecological observations, we provide additional taxonomic notes on the genus Disparalona Fryer, 1968 itself. Recently a series of morphological revisions was conducted for this genus. It was subdivided into two subgenera: Disparalona s.str. and Mixopleuroxus Hudec, 2010. But, in fact, the second taxon is a junior synonym of Leptorhynchus Daday, 1905. In this regard here we provide an updated list of taxonomic synonyms for the subgenus Leptorhynchus.


Assuntos
Bromeliaceae , Cladóceros , Tillandsia , África Ocidental , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , México
15.
Zootaxa ; 4683(4): zootaxa.4683.4.4, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715910

RESUMO

Coloration, gene-sequence data (H3, 12s, 16s), and subtle features in morphology support the description of two new species, both formerly regarded to represent accepted variants of Phimochirus holthuisi s.l. While color in life consistently separates these species from P. holthuisi s.s. and from each other, morphological distinctions are subtle and less than absolute in small specimens, being based on ventral spine counts of walking leg dactyls and relative development of the superior crest on the major chela. Molecular phylogenetic analyses clearly support the separation of sister clades, representing two new species, from P. holthuisi s.s. as well as other congeners available for analysis. Both of the new species are presently known to occur widely throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico, though one occurs more commonly in the northeastern and southeastern Gulf, and may range as far south as Suriname. The other has been taken primarily in the northwestern Gulf, and is not known from outside Gulf waters. While both of the new species appear restricted to relatively deep subtidal waters of the continental shelf, Phimochirus holthuisi s.s. is instead more commonly found in shallow nearshore tropical waters on or near coral reefs. Previous literature reports of P. holthuisi usually represent, at least in part, one or both of these two new species.


Assuntos
Anomuros , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Golfo do México , México , Filogenia , Suriname
16.
Zootaxa ; 4683(1): zootaxa.4683.1.7, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715939

RESUMO

The Mohave Rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) is a highly venomous pitviper inhabiting the arid interior deserts, grasslands, and savannas of western North America. Currently two subspecies are recognized: the Northern Mohave Rattlesnake (C. s. scutulatus) ranging from southern California to the southern Central Mexican Plateau, and the Huamantla Rattlesnake (C. s. salvini) from the region of Tlaxcala, Veracruz, and Puebla in south-central Mexico. Although recent studies have demonstrated extensive geographic variation in venom composition and cryptic genetic diversity in this species, no modern studies have focused on geographic variation in morphology. Here we analyzed a series of qualitative, meristic, and morphometric traits from 347 specimens of C. scutulatus and show that this species is phenotypically cohesive without discrete subgroups, and that morphology follows a continuous cline in primarily color pattern and meristic traits across the major axis of its expansive distribution. Interpreted in the context of previously published molecular evidence, our morphological analyses suggest that multiple episodes of isolation and secondary contact among metapopulations during the Pleistocene were sufficient to produce distinctive genetic populations, which have since experienced gene flow to produce clinal variation in phenotypes without discrete or diagnosable distinctions among these original populations. For taxonomic purposes, we recommend that C. scutulatus be retained as a single species, although it is possible that C. s. salvini, which is morphologically the most distinctive population, could represent a peripheral isolate in the initial stages of speciation.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos , Crotalus , Viperidae , Animais , California , México
17.
Zootaxa ; 4671(4): zootaxa.4671.4.6, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716034

RESUMO

Two new species of Coniopterygidae are described from Mexico: Neoconis szirakii sp. n. and Coniopteryx (Scotoconiopteryx) josephus sp. n., increasing the number of recorded species of dustywings from Mexico to 43. Descriptions and illustrations are based primarily on male genitalia. A key to the known species of Coniopterygidae from Mexico is included.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Animais , Masculino , México
18.
Zootaxa ; 4671(4): zootaxa.4671.4.7, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716035

RESUMO

A new flea species, Kohlsia misantlensis, is described from the central mountains of Veracruz, Mexico. The hosts of this new species are the Mexican deer mouse Peromyscus mexicanus (Saussure, 1860) (Mammalia: Rodentia:Muridae) and the Mexican spiny pocket mouse Heteromys sp. (Heteromyidae). This flea species is easily recognized by the great development of sternite VIII with a tuft of seven long bristles near the apex. The new species is included in a taxonomic key for the species of genus Kohlsia occurring in Mexico.


Assuntos
Sifonápteros , Animais , Mamíferos , México , Muridae , Peromyscus
19.
Zootaxa ; 4671(3): zootaxa.4671.3.5, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716044

RESUMO

Mugil setosus Gilbert 1892 was originally described by Gilbert based on specimens from Clarion Island, in the western and most remote of the Revillagigedo Islands, about 1,000 km off the western Pacific coast of Mexico. Examination of the type of material and recently collected specimens from Ecuador and Peru, resulted in the redescription provided herein. Diagnostic characters of the species were mainly: tip of the pelvic fin reaching beyond the vertical through the base of the third dorsal-fin spine, the pectoral-fin rays with ii+13-14 rays, the anterodorsal tip of second (soft) dorsal fin uniformly dark, and an external row of larger teeth, and more internally a patch of scattered smaller teeth, visible mainly in adults 150 mm SL. The expansion of geographic distribution of Mugil setosus and occurrence of Mugil curema Valenciennes 1836 in the Pacific Ocean are discussed.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Equador , Ilhas , México , Oceano Pacífico , Peru
20.
Zootaxa ; 4671(2): zootaxa.4671.2.9, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716060

RESUMO

Anagyrus callidus Triapitsyn, Andreason Perring (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), recently described from southern California, USA and Mexico, is a primary parasitoid of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). This wasp species previously was misidentified as Anagyrus kamali Moursi, which was introduced and released as such in the United States (California and Florida) and Mexico. In this paper, the origin of A. callidus is shown to be from Taiwan, based on differences in the morphology and molecular sequences of voucher specimens of an earlier colony of the misidentified A. kamali from Puerto Rico (released in August 2002 in southern Florida), and specimens that originated in southern Taiwan.


Assuntos
Hemípteros , Himenópteros , Animais , California , Florida , Hibiscus , México , Porto Rico , Taiwan
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