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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049836, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Carlos Slim Foundation implemented the Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO), a screening strategy for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Mexico as part of CASALUD, a portfolio of digital health services focusing on healthcare delivery and prevention/management of NCDs. We investigated the disease profile of the screened population and evaluated MIDO's contribution to the continuum of care of the main NCDs. DESIGN: Using data from MIDO and the chronic diseases information system, we quantified the proportion of the population screened and diagnosed with NCDs, and measured care linkage/retention and level of control achieved. We analysed comorbidity patterns and estimated prevalence of predisease stages. Finally, we estimated characteristics associated with unawareness and control of NCDs, and examined efficacy of the CASALUD model in improving NCD control. SETTING: Public primary health centres in 27/32 Mexican states. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged ≥20 years lacking healthcare access. RESULTS: From 2014 to 2018, 743 000 individuals were screened using MIDO. A predisease or disease condition was detected in ≥70% of the population who were unaware of their NCD status. The screening identified 38 417 new cases of type 2 diabetes, 53 133 new cases of hypertension and 208 627 individuals with obesity. Dyslipidaemia was found in 77.3% of individuals with available blood samples. Comorbidities were highly prevalent, especially in people with obesity. Only 5.47% (n=17 774) of individuals were linked with their corresponding primary health centre. Factors associated with unawareness of and uncontrolled NCDs were sex, age, and social determinants, for example, rural/urban environment, access to healthcare service, and education level. Patients with type 2 diabetes treated at clinics under the CASALUD model were more likely to achieve disease control (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.61). CONCLUSION: Patient-centred screening strategies such as MIDO are urgently needed to improve screening, access, retention and control for patients with NCDs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , México/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 617468, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490173

RESUMO

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become a major issue in Mexico, reporting almost 100,000 attributable deaths in 2016. Low-income Mexican citizens who face various issues associated with T2DM, including the lack of access to self-management services, are particularly affected by the condition. Health centers have been designated to serve T2DM patients by providing resources on chronic disease prevention. Meta Salud Diabetes (MSD) is a self-management intervention developed to address cardiovascular complications and other health issues within the T2DM population, which have been proven effective and useful for health centers. The intervention was designed for T2DM support groups-grupos de ayuda mutua (GAMs) located within health centers. Methods: From February to June 2019, a binational research team conducted a test scale-up study in Northwest Sonora under the Ministry of Health utilizing the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Framework for scaling up health interventions. Investigators worked in collaboration and trained 19 stakeholders from a regional health system identified from various ecological levels on MSD and implementation process. Results: All five GAMs within the regional health system received and completed the intervention. In total, 72 participants were enrolled with behavioral and biological [HbA1c, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI)] measures taken at baseline. Post-intervention measurements were taken from 72% of participants who completed the intervention. Statistical analysis demonstrated improved behavioral and biological measures when comparing baseline to post-intervention, specifically statistically significant improvements in HbA1c and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Implementation fidelity (IF) measures indicated extensive adherence to the intervention curriculum, and moderators specifically demonstrated influences on implementation. Stakeholders from various ecological levels provided support to those facilitating the MSD intervention by allotting time and resources to properly prepare for sessions. An implementation coordinator from the regional health office assisted MSD facilitators by resolving barriers to implementation and worked toward federal accreditation for GAMs to receive additional funding. Conclusion: Results provide evidence for using regional health systems as a scalable unit when implementing chronic disease self-management interventions state- and nationwide. This study will help inform future efforts to scale up the health intervention in various states throughout Mexico. Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02804698?term=NCT02804698&draw=2&rank=1, identifier: NCT02804698.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Autogestão , Doença Crônica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , México/epidemiologia
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470746

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted health systems around the world. The objectives of this study are to estimate the overall effect of the pandemic on essential health service use and outcomes in Mexico, describe observed and predicted trends in services over 24 months, and to estimate the number of visits lost through December 2020. METHODS: We used health information system data for January 2019 to December 2020 from the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), which provides health services for more than half of Mexico's population-65 million people. Our analysis includes nine indicators of service use and three outcome indicators for reproductive, maternal and child health and non-communicable disease services. We used an interrupted time series design and linear generalised estimating equation models to estimate the change in service use and outcomes from April to December 2020. Estimates were expressed using average marginal effects on the risk ratio scale. RESULTS: The study found that across nine health services, an estimated 8.74 million patient visits were lost in Mexico. This included a decline of over two thirds for breast and cervical cancer screenings (79% and 68%, respectively), over half for sick child visits and female contraceptive services, approximately one-third for childhood vaccinations, diabetes, hypertension and antenatal care consultations, and a decline of 10% for deliveries performed at IMSS. In terms of patient outcomes, the proportion of patients with diabetes and hypertension with controlled conditions declined by 22% and 17%, respectively. Caesarean section rate did not change. CONCLUSION: Significant disruptions in health services show that the pandemic has strained the resilience of the Mexican health system and calls for urgent efforts to resume essential services and plan for catching up on missed preventive care even as the COVID-19 crisis continues in Mexico.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Cesárea , Criança , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 686700, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485216

RESUMO

Mexico is one of the countries most affected by the COVID-19 disease. Although there is vast information on the disease, there still are unknown data on the societal and economic cost of the pandemic. To estimate this impact, the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) can be a useful tool. Objective: To assess the DALYs due to COVID-19 in Mexico. Methods: We used the data released by the Mexican Ministry of Health to estimate the DALYs by the sum of the years of life lived with disability (YLDs) and the years of life lost (YLLs). Results: A total of 1,152,885 confirmed cases and 324,570 suspected cases of COVID-19 have been registered. Half of the cases were men, with a median age of 43.4 ± 16.9 years. About 8.3% died. A total of 39,202 YLDs were attributable to COVID-19. The total YLLs caused by COVID-19 were 2,126,222. A total of 2,165,424.5 DALYs for COVID-19 were estimated. The total DALYs were the highest in people between 50 and 59 years. The DALYs for each COVID-19 case were the highest in individuals between 60 and 79 years. Conclusion: The DALYs generated by the COVID-19 represent a more significant disease burden than that reported for other causes, such as the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Although it impacts all age groups in terms of disability, the most affected group are people over 50 years of age, whose risk of death is higher.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 709410, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497792

RESUMO

People can increase their use of psychoactive substances in response to stressful situations as a maladaptive mechanism for reducing negative affective states. It is therefore necessary to examine changes in the use of such substances and their relationship to mental health in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: Evaluate the relationship between psychoactive substances and stress, emotional state, and symptomatology during the COVID-19 lockdown in Mexico. Method: A national survey was conducted, using the free Google Forms platform, of residents of Mexico aged 18 and older. The survey was disseminated through social media. Results: The sample comprised 4,122 individuals, mostly women (71.8%), with an age range of 18-81 years (M = 37.08, SD = 12.689), of which 46.8% were single, and 42.9% married. In general, there was a reduction in substance use during the first 2 months of the quarantine; the most commonly used substances were alcohol, tobacco, and tranquilizers. Respondents who described having greater use than before the pandemic presented greater stress, depressive symptomatology, and perceived threat than those who did not use substances. Conclusions: Respondents who did not use substances reported lower levels of stress, depressive symptomatology, impact of the coronavirus pandemic, and perception of its threat. Women reported greater stress, depressive symptomatology, and emotional intensity than men.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Elife ; 102021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499030

RESUMO

Analysis of viral DNA from human remains suggests that the transatlantic slave trade may have introduced new pathogens that contributed to the devastating disease outbreaks in colonial Mexico.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , América/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046957, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385244

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: People who inject drugs (PWID) play an integral role in facilitating the entry of others into injection drug use (IDU). We sought to assess factors influencing PWID in providing IDU initiation assistance across three distinct North American settings and to generate pooled measures of risk. DESIGN: We employed data from three PWID cohort studies participating in PReventing Injecting by Modifying Existing Responses (PRIMER), for this cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: Tijuana, Mexico; San Diego, USA; Vancouver, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2944 participants were included in this study (Tijuana: n=766, San Diego: n=353, Vancouver: n=1825). MEASUREMENTS: The outcome was defined as recently (ie, past 6 months) assisting in an IDU initiation event. Independent variables of interest were identified from previous PRIMER analyses. Site-specific multiple modified Poisson regressions were fit. Pooled relative risks (pRR) were calculated and heterogeneity across sites was assessed via linear random effects models. RESULTS: Evidence across all three sites indicated that having a history of providing IDU initiation assistance (pRR: 4.83, 95% CI: 3.49 to 6.66) and recently being stopped by law enforcement (pRR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.07) were associated with a higher risk of providing assistance with IDU initiation; while recent opioid agonist treatment (OAT) enrolment (pRR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43 to 0.96) and no recent IDU (pRR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.64) were associated with a lower risk. We identified substantial differences across site in the association of age (I2: 52%), recent housing insecurity (I2: 39%) and recent non-injection heroin use (I2: 78%). CONCLUSION: We identified common and site-specific factors related to PWID's risk of assisting in IDU initiation events. Individuals reporting a history of assisting IDU initiations, being recently stopped by law enforcement, and recently injecting methamphetamine/speedball were more likely to have recently assisted an IDU initiation. Whereas those who reported not recently engaging in IDU and those recently enrolled in OAT were less likely to have done so. Interventions and harm reduction strategies aimed at reducing the harms of IDU should incorporate context-specific approaches to reduce the initiation of IDU.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia
9.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 59(3): 179-180, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34357720

RESUMO

After 78 years of having been founded, the Mexican Institute of Social Security has undergone several changes in its structure and dimension, secondary to both population growth and epidemiological and social transitions, in such a way that its growth has been exponential. The institute safeguards the welfare of its beneficiaries through medical, economic and social benefits. Currently, it provides health coverage to more than 60% of the Mexican population through the physical infrastructure and workforce of its 440 000 employees.


Assuntos
Renda , Previdência Social , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos
10.
Cir Cir ; 89(4): 435-442, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352870

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: en la actual pandemia de COVID-19, existe evidencia creciente que ha identificado el neurotropismo del virus SARS-CoV-2 y sus complicaciones neurológicas, incluida la enfermedad cerebrovascular isquémica y escasamente hemorragia cerebral (HC). OBJETIVO: describir las características clínicas, radiológicas, de laboratorio y pronósticas de los pacientes con HC asociada al SARS-CoV-2. MÉTODOS: se incluyeron pacientes consecutivos con prueba de PCR confirmatoria para infección por SARS-CoV-2 y HC. RESULTADOS: en un período de 90 días, en un centro de referencia COVID-19 en México, de 1108 pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2, se encontraron 4 pacientes (0.36%) con HC. Tenían una edad de 71(±12.2) años, 2 eran mujeres. Se encontró que dos tenían factores de riesgo cardiovascular previos. En dos casos se encontró el origen en el núcleo dentado mientras que los otros dos correspondieron al tálamo. Tres de los cuatro pacientes murieron. Postulamos que el descontrol hipertensivo, coagulopatía, trombocitopenia y la respuesta inmune inducida por el virus SARS-CoV-2 podrían desencadenar HC en un paciente con riesgo previo. CONCLUSIONES: la HC se asocia a la infección por SARS-CoV-2 con mal pronóstico cuando se presenta. Los equipos de neurocirugía deben estar preparados para el tratamiento oportuno de estos pacientes. INTRODUCTION: In the current COVID-19 pandemic, there is a growing body of evidence that has identified the neurotropism of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and its neurological complications, including cerebrovascular disease, focusing mainly in ischemic and scarcely about hemorrhagic stroke (HS). OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe clinical, radiological, laboratory tests, and prognostic characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2 associated HS. METHODS: Consecutive patients with a confirmatory PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 infection and a HS demonstrated by head CT were included in the study. RESULTS: Over a period of 90 days, in a COVID-19 reference center in Mexico, out of a total of 1108 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, it found 4 patients (0.36%) who meet criteria. They had an age of 71 (±12.2) years, 2 were women. It was found that two had prior cardiovascular risk factors. Two of the HS originated in the dentate nucleus while the other two corresponded to the thalamus. Three of the four patients died. We suggest that catastrophic uncontrolled blood pressure, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia, and immune response induced by SARS-CoV-2 could in a specific patient trigger HS. CONCLUSIONS: HS is associated to SARS-CoV-2 infection with poor prognosis when it presented. Neurosurgery teams should prepare for the timely and appropriate treatment of this patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , AVC Hemorrágico/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , AVC Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , AVC Hemorrágico/diagnóstico por imagem , Hospitais Gerais , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 656036, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368044

RESUMO

Background: The health crisis associated with the COVID-19 pandemic is causally linked to negative mental health symptoms in the same way as other diseases such as Ebola. Objective: The purpose of this paper is to describe the relationship between mental health symptoms, binge drinking, and the experience of abuse during the COVID-19 lockdown. Method: We surveyed 9,361 participants, all Mexican, with an average age of 33 years old (SD = 10.86). In this group of people, we found out that 59% were single (5,523), 71% were women (6,693). Forty-six percentage were complying with lockdown procedures (4,286), 50% were partially complying (4,682), and 4% were not complying at all (393). The invitation to participate was open from April 24th to April 30th during the second stage of the pandemic in Mexico, in 2020, characterized by voluntary complete lockdown staying at home. Thus, we used a cross-sectional online survey design to assess mental health risk factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was available on a WebApp designed by Linux®, PHP®, HTML®, CSS®, and JavaScript®. We calculated descriptive and inferential analysis to describe the mental health average distribution as a function of the lockdown, binge drinking, and experience of abuse. To calculate the reliability and validation of the subscales, we used Cronbach's Alpha and Factor Loading. We run the confirmatory factor loading analysis, and we described the relationship between each latent variable and its item factor load, obtained through structural modeling equations, derived from 179 iterations and 207 parameters (t [1,171] = 28,079.418, p < 0.001). We got a CFI of 0.947, a TLC of 0.940, an RMSEA of 0.049 (0.049-0.050), and an SRMR of 0.048. Findings: The results indicated that reported attitudes such as avoidance, sadness, withdrawal, anger, and anxiety were associated with acute stress, which was linked to an anxiety condition caused by uncertainty about achieving or maintaining overall good health. Discussion and Prospects: People in lockdown mentioned a sudden increase in alcohol consumption. They lived episodes of physical and emotional abuse, in contrast with those who stated that they did not go into lockdown or consume alcohol, or experienced abuse. Limitations: Further studies should diagnose mental health conditions as part of the impact of COVID-19, ensure their follow-up, and assess the effect of providing remote psychological care. There is a need to explore methods to curb the increase in the number of people affected by post-traumatic stress disorder.


Assuntos
Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , COVID-19 , Adulto , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e045261, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the transitions of disability onset and recovery, estimate life expectancy (LE) with and without disability and explore the relation between insurance and disability patterns in the population aged 50+ in Mexico. DESIGN: Multistate life table analysis of data from a longitudinal cohort survey. SETTING: Data came from the Mexican Health and Aging Study, a longitudinal and representative survey of older adults in Mexico. PARTICIPANTS: 10 651 individuals aged 50+ interviewed in 2012 and 2015, including those who died between waves. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Disability is measured using the activities of daily living (ADL) scale. Transition rates between disability free, ADL disabled and death were employed to estimate total life expectancy (TLE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE). RESULTS: 46% of the individuals who reported an ADL limitation in 2012 recover from disability by 2015. TLE at age 60 for people without ADL limitations is 30 years (95% CI 28.9 to 31), out of which 4.7 years (95% CI 4.1 to 5.4) are lived with ADL limitations, while TLE at age 60 in the initially disabled is 18.7 years (95% CI 17.3 to 20), with 9.4 years (95% CI 8.4 to 10.3) lived with disability. DFLE at age 60 in people with social security is 24.2 years (95% CI 23.3 to 25.2), in people with public insurance is 24.6 years (95% CI 23.7 to 25.4) and in uninsured people is 26.9 years (95% CI 25.9 to 27.9). CONCLUSIONS: In Mexico, a substantial proportion of ADL disabled individuals recover from disability. Nevertheless, initially disabled individuals have a considerably lower DFLE regardless of age when compared with initially active individuals. There appeared to be no differences in terms of disability and LEs between the individuals with social security and public insurance.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Expectativa de Vida , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Tábuas de Vida , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256447, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity is important to monitor epidemic dynamics and as a mitigation strategy. Given difficulties of large-scale quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) implementation, rapid antigen tests (Rapid Ag-T) have been proposed as alternatives in settings like Mexico. Here, we evaluated diagnostic performance of Rapid Ag-T for SARS-CoV-2 infection and its associated clinical implications compared to qRT-PCR testing in Mexico. METHODS: We analyzed data from the COVID-19 registry of the Mexican General Directorate of Epidemiology up to April 30th, 2021 (n = 6,632,938) and cases with both qRT-PCR and Rapid Ag-T (n = 216,388). We evaluated diagnostic performance using accuracy measures and assessed time-dependent changes in the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC). We also explored test discordances as predictors of hospitalization, intubation, severe COVID-19 and mortality. RESULTS: Rapid Ag-T is primarily used in Mexico City. Rapid Ag-T have low sensitivity 37.6% (95%CI 36.6-38.7), high specificity 95.5% (95%CI 95.1-95.8) and acceptable positive 86.1% (95%CI 85.0-86.6) and negative predictive values 67.2% (95%CI 66.2-69.2). Rapid Ag-T has optimal diagnostic performance up to days 3 after symptom onset, and its performance is modified by testing location, comorbidity, and age. qRT-PCR (-) / Rapid Ag-T (+) cases had higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes (HR 1.54 95% CI 1.41-1.68) and were older, qRT-PCR (+)/ Rapid Ag-T(-) cases had slightly higher risk or adverse outcomes and ≥7 days from symptom onset (HR 1.53 95% CI 1.48-1.59). Cases detected with rapid Ag-T were younger, without comorbidities, and milder COVID-19 course. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid Ag-T could be used as an alternative to qRT-PCR for large scale SARS-CoV-2 testing in Mexico. Interpretation of Rapid Ag-T results should be done with caution to minimize the risk associated with false negative results.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/análise , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444524

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine changes in depression, stress and social support levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in women living in Mexico City. We studied 466 women enrolled in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) study who completed the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EDS) questionnaire prior (2018-2019) and during the lockdown period of the pandemic (May-November 2020). Psychosocial stress and social support for both time periods were ascertained using the Crisis in Family Systems (CRISYS) questionnaire and the Social Support Network (SSN) Scale, respectively. Associations between stress, social support and change in EDS score/depression were analyzed using generalized linear models adjusting for covariates. Higher stress (>median) during the pandemic was associated with an increase in EDS score (ß: 2.13; 95% CI (1.06, 3.19), p < 0.001), and higher odds of depression (OR: 3.75; 95% CI (2.17, 6.50), p < 0.001), while social support was associated with lower odds of depression (OR: 0.56, 95% CI (0.32, 0.97), p = 0.037). Higher levels of stress during the pandemic were associated with depression. Social support may act as a buffer for the effects of psychosocial stress. Future studies should examine the long-term effects of stress associated with the pandemic on mental and overall health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedade , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoio Social
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Implementation of evidence-based care for heavy drinking and depression remains low in global health systems. We tested the impact of providing community support, training, and clinical packages of varied intensity on depression screening and management for heavy drinking patients in Latin American primary healthcare. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Quasi-experimental study involving 58 primary healthcare units in Colombia, Mexico and Peru randomized to receive: (1) usual care (control); (2) training using a brief clinical package; (3) community support plus training using a brief clinical package; (4) community support plus training using a standard clinical package. Outcomes were proportion of: (1) heavy drinking patients screened for depression; (2) screen-positive patients receiving appropriate support; (3) all consulting patients screened for depression, irrespective of drinking status. RESULTS: 550/615 identified heavy drinkers were screened for depression (89.4%). 147/230 patients screening positive for depression received appropriate support (64%). Amongst identified heavy drinkers, adjusting for country, sex, age and provider profession, provision of community support and training had no impact on depression activity rates. Intensity of clinical package also did not affect delivery rates, with comparable performance for brief and standard versions. However, amongst all consulting patients, training providers resulted in significantly higher rates of alcohol measurement and in turn higher depression screening rates; 2.7 times higher compared to those not trained. CONCLUSIONS: Training using a brief clinical package increased depression screening rates in Latin American primary healthcare. It is not possible to determine the effectiveness of community support on depression activity rates due to the impact of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoólicos/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Atenção à Saúde , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 835, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is now available in several world regions to better estimate transmission dynamics. However, to date, there is no epidemiological data regarding anti-SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in Mexico. Therefore, we aimed to determine the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and define the clinical and demographic characteristics associated with seroprevalence. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional serological survey in Ciudad Guadalupe, NL, Mexico. City government employees voluntarily participated during July 2020. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected at the time of blood sampling to analyze the associated characteristics. IgM/IgG antibodies were determined using a qualitative chemiluminescent immunoassay. Descriptive statistics were used for categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was tested using the Chi-squared test, Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney. Logistic regression models and the odds ratios (adjusted and unadjusted) were used to estimate the association of demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Of the 3,268 participants included, 193 (5.9%, 95% CI 5.1-6.8) tested positive for IgM/IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Sex, city of residence, and comorbidities did not show any association with having IgM/IgG antibodies. A total of 114 out of 193 (59.1%) subjects with a positive test were asymptomatic, and the odds of being positive were higher in those who reported symptoms of COVID-19 in the previous four weeks to the survey (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.9-5.5). CONCLUSIONS: There is a low rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection among government employees that have continuously been working during the pandemic. Six in ten infections were asymptomatic, and seroprevalence is low and still far from herd immunity. Epidemiological surveillance and preventive measures should be mandatory.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444296

RESUMO

A month-long wastewater sampling project was conducted along the northeast periphery of Mexico City, specifically in the state of Hidalgo, to assess the presence of SARS-CoV-2. To determine the prevalence of infection and obtain a range of COVID-19 cases in the main metropolitan zones. Viral RNA residues (0-197,655 copies/L) were measured in wastewater from the five central municipalities in the state. By recording the number of RNA viral copies per liter, micro-basins delimitation, demographic and physiological data, an interval of infected people and virus prevalence was estimated using a Monte Carlo model (with 90% confidence) in the micro-basin of five municipalities with metropolitan influence or industrial activity. Our procedure determined that the percentage of the infected population ranges from 1.4% to 41.7%, while the official data reports 0.1-0.3%. This model is proposed as a helpful method of regional epidemiological monitoring through the analysis of viral prevalence.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Águas Residuárias , Cidades , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444383

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers and, as such, is important for public health. The increased incidence of this neoplasm is attributed to non-modifiable controls such as family history and modifiable variable behavioral risk factors involved in lifestyle like diets in Mexico. The presence of these factors is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate family history and lifestyle factors associated with developing colorectal cancer in a Mexican population. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (OR), as well as the 95% confidence intervals (CI). In this paper, significant differences were demonstrated between cases and controls. A family history of cancer (FHC) increased the probability of CRC [OR = 3.19 (95% CI: 1.81-5.60)]. The area of urban residence was found to be a protective factor compared to the rural area. This was also the case for frequent consumption of fruits [OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.28-0.88)], the frequent consumption of beef [OR = 2.95 (95% CI: 1.05-8.26)], pork [OR = 3.26 (95% CI: 1.34-7.90)], and region-typical fried food [OR = 2.79 (95% CI (1.32-5.89)]. These results provide additional evidence supporting the association of some CRC risk factors with family history of cancer, low fruit consumption, high consumption of red meat, and fried foods typical of the region of México. It is important to establish intervention methods, as well as genetic counseling to relatives of patients with CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Dieta , Hábitos , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e934134, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456329

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects almost a quarter of the world's population and is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. The recent proposal to replace the terminology of NAFLD with metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) aims to reflect the pathophysiology and risk factors for this disease. Importantly, the risk factors for MAFLD may be prenatal, such as genetic factors, or postnatal, such as obesity and insulin resistance. MAFLD is increasingly recognized in children and adolescents. Early diagnosis and identification of high-risk individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome is important. The diagnosis and management of MAFLD in children and adolescents should follow international clinical guidelines, such as those from the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD). Current guidelines recommend lifestyle and dietary modifications, exercise, screening, individualized patient assessment, and multidisciplinary patient management. This review assesses the revised terminology and discusses the epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prevention of MAFLD in children and adolescents worldwide and in Mexico, and also considers the implications for public health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Saúde Pública
20.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 78(4): 251-258, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351892

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Hasta ahora existen pocos estudios sobre las características clínicas de la población pediátrica con neumonía por COVID-19. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los datos que se asocian con el desarrollo de neumonía en niños y adolescentes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 en México. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un análisis secundario de la base de datos de la Dirección General de Epidemiología del Gobierno Mexicano. Se incluyeron menores de 19 años con infección por SARS-CoV-2 confirmada mediante la prueba de retrotranscripción acoplada a la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (RT-PCR). La variable dependiente fue el diagnóstico de neumonía. Se calcularon las razones de momios (RM) y los intervalos de confianza del 95% (IC95%). Se realizaron modelos de regresión logística múltiple para ajustar los factores asociados a neumonía. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 1443 niños con diagnóstico de COVID-19. La mediana de edad de los participantes fue de 12 años (rango intercuartilar 25-75: 5-16). La neumonía se presentó en 141 niños (9.8%). Los principales factores de riesgo fueron edad < 3 años (RM: 3.5; IC95%: 2.45-5.03), diabetes u obesidad (RM: 12.6; IC95%: 4.62-34.91) e inmunocompromiso (RM: 7.03; IC95%: 3.97-13.61). CONCLUSIONES: Los niños con COVID-19 menores de 3 años y con comorbilidad, especialmente diabetes u obesidad, y los inmunocomprometidos presentan mayor riesgo de desarrollar neumonía. BACKGROUND: Currently, there are a few studies on the clinical characteristics of the pediatric population with COVID-19 and pneumonia. This study aimed to analyze data associated with the development of pneumonia in children and adolescents with SARS-CoV-2 infection throughout Mexico. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the database of the Dirección General de Epidemiología of the Mexican Government. We included children under the age of 19 who were confirmed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. The dependent variable was the diagnosis of pneumonia. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to adjust factors associated with pneumonia. RESULTS: A total of 1443 children with a COVID-19 diagnosis were included. The median age of the participants was 12 years (interquartile range 25, 75: 5, 16). Pneumonia occurred in 141 children (9.8%). The main risk factors were age < 3 years (OR, 3.5; 95%CI, 2.45-5.03); diabetes or obesity (OR, 12.6; 95%CI, 4.62-34.91); and immunocompromise (OR, 7.03; 95%CI, 3.97-13.61). CONCLUSIONS: Children < 3 years with COVID-19 and comorbidities, especially diabetes or obesity, and immunocompromised patients have a higher risk of developing pneumonia.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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