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2.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 977-985, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In February 2020 the first cases of COVID-19 were identified in Kuwait. Inevitably as many countries worldwide, the general public were negatively affected by the pandemic. Unemployment, uncertainty, distress, increasing deaths, lockdown measures all of which are potential burdens on mental health. AIM: To assess the impact of COVID19 outbreak on mental health in Kuwait, and to explore the potential influencing risk factors. METHODS: We conducted an online questionnaire-based study in Kuwait between 25th May 2020 to 30th May 2020. Questions were based on demographics, lifestyle during outbreak, depression and anxiety assessment. Total PHQ9 and GAD7 scores were calculated for each responder. RESULTS: We had 4132 responders. Most were females (69.31%), married (59.37%), between the age of 21-30 (23.84%) and non-smokers (81.46%). Only (7.96%) had a positive past psychiatric history, (32.04%) had a past history of a chronic medical disease. During the outbreak most of the responders lost their jobs (39.21%) and only (12.83%) were attending work regularly, only (6.82%) worked in the healthcare sector. 59.27% report increased social media use compared to before the lockdown. When asked about their daily time spent following COVID19-related news, most (37.8%) spend more than 2 hours and (7.74%) spend more than 4 hours. The overall prevalence of depressive symptoms was (30.13%) and the prevalence of anxiety symptoms was (25.28%). LIMITATIONS: In the cross-sectional nature of the study. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a burden on mental health. Psychological support and mental health awareness should be implemented and made accessible to all individuals during pandemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desemprego , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 491-501, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046926

RESUMO

Disasters and disease outbreaks have long been a catalyst for innovative applications of emerging technologies. The urgent need to respond to an emergency leads to resourceful uses of the technologies at hand. However, the best and most cost-effective use of new technologies is to prevent disease and improve resilience. In this paper, the authors present a range of approaches through which both opportunities can be grasped. Global connectedness enables more data to be collected and processed in emergencies, especially with the rise of open-source data, including social media. In general, the poorest and most remote populations are most vulnerable to disaster. However, with smaller, faster, smarter, cheaper and more connected technology, reliable, efficient, and targeted response and recovery can be provided. Initially, crowdsourcing was used to find people, map affected areas, and determine resource allocation. This led to the generation of an overwhelming amount of data, and the need to extract valuable information from that data in a timely manner. As technology evolved, organisations started outsourcing many tasks, first to other people, then to machines. Since the volume of data generated outpaces human capacity, data analysis is being automated using artificial intelligence and machine learning, which furthers our abilities in predictive analytics. As we move towards prevention rather than remediation, information collection and processing must become faster and more efficient while maintaining accuracy. Moreover, these new strategies and technologies can help us to move forwards, by integrating layers of human, veterinary, public, and environmental health data for a One Health approach.


Assuntos
Desastres , Mídias Sociais , Animais , Inteligência Artificial , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos
4.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e21340, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The magnitude and time course of the COVID-19 epidemic in the United States depends on early interventions to reduce the basic reproductive number to below 1. It is imperative, then, to develop methods to actively assess where quarantine measures such as social distancing may be deficient and suppress those potential resurgence nodes as early as possible. OBJECTIVE: We ask if social media is an early indicator of public social distancing measures in the United States by investigating its correlation with the time-varying reproduction number (Rt) as compared to social mobility estimates reported from Google and Apple Maps. METHODS: In this observational study, the estimated Rt was obtained for the period between March 5 and April 5, 2020, using the EpiEstim package. Social media activity was assessed using queries of "social distancing" or "#socialdistancing" on Google Trends, Instagram, and Twitter, with social mobility assessed using Apple and Google Maps data. Cross-correlations were performed between Rt and social media activity or mobility for the United States. We used Pearson correlations and the coefficient of determination (ρ) with significance set to P<.05. RESULTS: Negative correlations were found between Google search interest for "social distancing" and Rt in the United States (P<.001), and between search interest and state-specific Rt for 9 states with the highest COVID-19 cases (P<.001); most states experienced a delay varying between 3-8 days before reaching significance. A negative correlation was seen at a 4-day delay from the start of the Instagram hashtag "#socialdistancing" and at 6 days for Twitter (P<.001). Significant correlations between Rt and social media manifest earlier in time compared to social mobility measures from Google and Apple Maps, with peaks at -6 and -4 days. Meanwhile, changes in social mobility correlated best with Rt at -2 days and +1 day for workplace and grocery/pharmacy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the potential use of Google Trends, Instagram, and Twitter as epidemiological tools in the assessment of social distancing measures in the United States during the early course of the COVID-19 pandemic. Their correlation and earlier rise and peak in correlative strength with Rt when compared to social mobility may provide proactive insight into whether social distancing efforts are sufficiently enacted. Whether this proves valuable in the creation of more accurate assessments of the early epidemic course is uncertain due to limitations. These limitations include the use of a biased sample that is internet literate with internet access, which may covary with socioeconomic status, education, geography, and age, and the use of subtotal social media mentions of social distancing. Future studies should focus on investigating how social media reactions change during the course of the epidemic, as well as the conversion of social media behavior to actual physical behavior.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Distância Social , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Número Básico de Reprodução , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
5.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4201-4210, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027357

RESUMO

This paper aims to present an analysis of the most widespread fake news about the New Coronavirus (Sars-CoV-2) on social networks and how it can harm public health. This is a quantitative empirical study, based on the notifications received by the Eu Fiscalizo Brazilian application. The conclusions show that WhatsApp is the primary channel for sharing fake news, followed by Instagram and Facebook. We can conclude that the dissemination of malicious content related to Covid-19 contributes to the discrediting of science and global health institutions, and the solution to this problem is to increase the level of adequate information for Brazilian society.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Decepção , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Mídias Sociais , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
6.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(3): 633-643, jul.-set. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1121788

RESUMO

O fenômeno do efeito contágio na mídia não é novo, mas muito atual. No Brasil a mídia é a terceira maior causa de suicídio em jovens de 15 a 29 anos, e um grave problema de saúde pública. Nesse ensaio desvelamos por meio de uma revisão bibliográfica as evidências que suportam o efeito epidêmico de suicídio na mídia e seus modos de operação por meio de teorias como a de Albert Bandura e sua Teoria da Aprendizagem Social. Tal relação é aqui prestigiada em função dos mais recentes sucessos como 13 Reasons Why e Euphoria, que descrevem o suicídio e comportamentos autodestrutivos de forma curiosamente descuidada. Apontamos como urgente a necessidade de normatização legal da produção e distribuição dessas mensagens nos meios de comunicação social brasileiros, que venha a contemplar os diversos gêneros audiovisuais e, sobretudo, os novos suportes de veiculação caracterizados por seu modelo assincrônico de distribuição de conteúdo.


The phenomenon of the contagion effect in the media is not new, but very current. In Brazil, the media is the third leading cause of suicide in young people aged 15 to 29, and a serious public health problem. In this text, we unveiled through a bibliographic review the evidence that supports the epidemic effect of suicide in the media and its modes of operation through theories such as that of Albert Bandura and his Theory of Social Learning. This relationship is prestigious here due to the most recent hits such as 13 Reasons Why and Euphoria, which describe suicide and self-destructive behaviors in a curiously careless way. We point out as urgent the need for legal regulation of the production and distribution of these messages in the Brazilian media, which will include the various audiovisual genres and, above all, the new media that are characterized by their asynchronous model of content distribution.


El fenómeno del efecto contagio en los medios no es nuevo, sino muy actual. En Brasil, los medios son la tercera causa principal de suicidio en jóvenes de 15 a 29 años y un grave problema de salud pública. En este texto, revelamos a través de una revisión bibliográfica la evidencia que respalda el efecto epidémico del suicidio en los medios y sus modos de operación a través de teorías como la de Albert Bandura y su Teoría del aprendizaje social. Esta relación es prestigiosa aquí debido a los éxitos más recientes, como 13 Razones Por Qué y Euforia, que describen el suicidio y los comportamientos autodestructivos de una manera curiosamente descuidada. Señalamos como urgente la necesidad de una regulación legal de la producción y distribución de estos mensajes en los medios brasileños, que incluirán los diversos géneros audiovisuales y, sobre todo, los nuevos medios que se caracterizan por su modelo asíncrono de distribución de contenido.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Recursos Audiovisuais , Suicídio , Brasil , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Meios de Comunicação , Comunicação Social , Rede Social , Mídias Sociais
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993005

RESUMO

Background: Anecdotal reports suggest a rise in anti-Asian racial attitudes and discrimination in response to COVID-19. Racism can have significant social, economic, and health impacts, but there has been little systematic investigation of increases in anti-Asian prejudice. Methods: We utilized Twitter's Streaming Application Programming Interface (API) to collect 3,377,295 U.S. race-related tweets from November 2019-June 2020. Sentiment analysis was performed using support vector machine (SVM), a supervised machine learning model. Accuracy for identifying negative sentiments, comparing the machine learning model to manually labeled tweets was 91%. We investigated changes in racial sentiment before and following the emergence of COVID-19. Results: The proportion of negative tweets referencing Asians increased by 68.4% (from 9.79% in November to 16.49% in March). In contrast, the proportion of negative tweets referencing other racial/ethnic minorities (Blacks and Latinx) remained relatively stable during this time period, declining less than 1% for tweets referencing Blacks and increasing by 2% for tweets referencing Latinx. Common themes that emerged during the content analysis of a random subsample of 3300 tweets included: racism and blame (20%), anti-racism (20%), and daily life impact (27%). Conclusion: Social media data can be used to provide timely information to investigate shifts in area-level racial sentiment.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Estados Unidos
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e22060, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The success of behavioral interventions and policies designed to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic depends on how well individuals are informed about both the consequences of infection and the steps that should be taken to reduce the impact of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between public knowledge about COVID-19, adherence to social distancing, and public trust in government information sources (eg, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), private sources (eg, FOX and CNN), and social networks (eg, Facebook and Twitter) to inform future policies related to critical information distribution. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (N=1243) between April 10 and 14, 2020. Data collection was stratified by US region and other demographics to ensure representativeness of the sample. RESULTS: Government information sources were the most trusted among the public. However, we observed trends in the data that suggested variations in trust by age and gender. White and older populations generally expressed higher trust in government sources, while non-White and younger populations expressed higher trust in private sources (eg, CNN) and social networks (eg, Twitter). Trust in government sources was positively associated with accurate knowledge about COVID-19 and adherence to social distancing. However, trust in private sources (eg, FOX and CNN) was negatively associated with knowledge about COVID-19. Similarly, trust in social networks (eg, Facebook and Twitter) was negatively associated with both knowledge and adherence to social distancing. CONCLUSIONS: During pandemics such as the COVID-19 outbreak, policy makers should carefully consider the quality of information disseminated through private sources and social networks. Furthermore, when disseminating urgent health information, a variety of information sources should be used to ensure that diverse populations have timely access to critical knowledge.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Confiança , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Governo , Humanos , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Distância Social , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e040328, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948576

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the public's knowledge, attitudes and practices about the novel coronavirus in Sierra Leone to inform an evidence-based communication strategy around COVID-19. DESIGN: Nationwide, cross-sectional Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey. SETTING: 56 randomly selected communities in all 14 districts in Sierra Leone. PARTICIPANTS: 1253 adults aged 18 years and older of which 52% were men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We calculated proportions of core indicators (awareness, knowledge, risk perception, practices). A composite variable for knowledge (based on seven variables) was created, and categorised into low (0-2 correct), medium (3-4) and high (5-7). Predictors of knowledge were analysed with multilevel ordinal regression models. Associations between information sources, knowledge and two practices (washing hands with soap and avoiding crowds) were analysed using multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS: We found that 75% of the respondents felt at moderate or great risk of contracting coronavirus. A majority (70%) of women did not know you can survive COVID-19, compared with 61% of men. 60% of men and 54% of women had already taken action to avoid infection with the coronavirus, mostly washing hands with soap and water (87%). Radio (73%) was the most used source for COVID-19 information, followed by social media (39%). Having a medium or high level of knowledge was associated with higher odds of washing hands with soap (medium knowledge: adjusted OR (AOR) 2.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.4; high knowledge: AOR 4.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 10.2) and avoiding crowds (medium knowledge: AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6; high knowledge: AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.3). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that in the context of COVID-19 in Sierra Leone, there is a strong association between knowledge and practices. Because the knowledge gap differs between genders, regions, educational levels and age, it is important that messages are specifically targeted to these core audiences.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Rádio , Serra Leoa , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Math Biosci Eng ; 17(4): 3147-3159, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987521

RESUMO

Awareness of prevention is enhanced to reduce the rate of infection by media coverage, which plays an important role in preventing and controlling infectious diseases. Based on epidemic situation of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei, an SIHRS epidemic model with media coverage was proposed. Firstly, by the basic reproduction number R0, the globally asymptotically stable of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium were proved. Then, based on the reported epidemic data of Hubei Province from January 26 to February 13, numerical simulations are used to verify the analysis results, and the impact of peak time and the scale of disease transmission were mainly considered with different information implementation rate and the contact rate. It was shown that with the decrease of information implementation rate, the peak of confirmed cases would be delayed to reach, and would increase significantly. Therefore, in order to do a better prevention measures after resumption of work, it is very necessary to maintain the amount of information and implementation rate of media coverage.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Meios de Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239441, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976519

RESUMO

The study aims to understand Twitter users' discourse and psychological reactions to COVID-19. We use machine learning techniques to analyze about 1.9 million Tweets (written in English) related to coronavirus collected from January 23 to March 7, 2020. A total of salient 11 topics are identified and then categorized into ten themes, including "updates about confirmed cases," "COVID-19 related death," "cases outside China (worldwide)," "COVID-19 outbreak in South Korea," "early signs of the outbreak in New York," "Diamond Princess cruise," "economic impact," "Preventive measures," "authorities," and "supply chain." Results do not reveal treatments and symptoms related messages as prevalent topics on Twitter. Sentiment analysis shows that fear for the unknown nature of the coronavirus is dominant in all topics. Implications and limitations of the study are also discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/classificação , Betacoronavirus , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Medo/psicologia , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Aprendizado de Máquina , Pandemias
14.
N Z Med J ; 133(1522): 63-70, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994617

RESUMO

AIMS: To empower a large whanau (extended family) with a history of severe premature heart disease and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). METHODS: After broad consultation a Hui was held to discuss how to better manage this issue to ensure present and future generations were appropriately screened and treated. RESULTS: A closed social media page with detailed information on how to manage and screen FH that includes a family tree (for those who consent) has been created. The whanau, facilitated by health professionals, have ownership of their health. This has led to an uptake of screening and treatment for FH with whanau who are now able to inform local health professionals about their disorder. CONCLUSION: FH is the most common dominant genetic disorder in humans and causes premature heart disease and death. Current approaches are dependent on index patients presenting for cascade screening and do not incorporate the needs and views of the extended whanau. Establishing a partnership with the whanau and giving back control of health information is crucial to ensure equity. A national systematic programme is also needed to manage this condition with important health outcomes that can be averted if treated from a young age.


Assuntos
Família/etnologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/etnologia , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/etnologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/terapia , Programas de Rastreamento , Nova Zelândia
15.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 324, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic necessitated the delivery of online higher education. Online learning is a novel experience for medical education in Sri Lanka. A novel approach to undergraduate surgical learning was taken up in an attempt to improve the interest amongst the students in clinical practice while maximizing the limited contact time. METHOD: Online learning activity was designed involving medical students from all stages and multi consultant panel discussions. The discussions were designed to cover each topic from basic sciences to high-level clinical management in an attempt to stimulate the student interest in clinical medicine. Online meeting platform with free to use basic plan and a social media platform were used in combination to communicate with the students. The student feedback was periodically assessed for individual topics as well as for general outcome. Lickert scales and numeric scales were used to acquire student agreement on the desired learning outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1047 student responses for 7 questionnaires were analysed. During a 6-week period, 24 surgical topics were discussed with 51 contact hours. Eighty-seven per cent definitely agreed (highest agreement) with the statement 'students benefitted from the discussions'. Over 95% have either participated for all or most sessions. A majority of the respondents (83.4%) 'definitely agreed' that the discussions helped to improve their clinical sense. Of the total respondents, 79.3% definitely agreed that the discussions helped to build an interest in clinical medicine. Around 90% agreed that both exam-oriented and clinical practice-oriented topics were highly important and relevant. Most widely raised concerns were the poor Internet connectivity and limitation of access to the meeting platform. CONCLUSION: Online teaching with a novel structure is feasible and effective in a resource-limited setting. Students agree that it could improve clinical interest while meeting the expected learning outcomes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Medicina Clínica/educação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância/organização & administração , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Escolha da Profissão , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Pandemias , Satisfação Pessoal , Mídias Sociais , Sri Lanka , Estudantes de Medicina , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e19992, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the absence of a vaccine or effective treatment for COVID-19, countries have adopted nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) such as social distancing and full lockdown. An objective and quantitative means of passively monitoring the impact and response of these interventions at a local level is needed. OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the utility of the recently developed open-source mobile health platform Remote Assessment of Disease and Relapse (RADAR)-base as a toolbox to rapidly test the effect and response to NPIs intended to limit the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed data extracted from smartphone and wearable devices, and managed by the RADAR-base from 1062 participants recruited in Italy, Spain, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. We derived nine features on a daily basis including time spent at home, maximum distance travelled from home, the maximum number of Bluetooth-enabled nearby devices (as a proxy for physical distancing), step count, average heart rate, sleep duration, bedtime, phone unlock duration, and social app use duration. We performed Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by post hoc Dunn tests to assess differences in these features among baseline, prelockdown, and during lockdown periods. We also studied behavioral differences by age, gender, BMI, and educational background. RESULTS: We were able to quantify expected changes in time spent at home, distance travelled, and the number of nearby Bluetooth-enabled devices between prelockdown and during lockdown periods (P<.001 for all five countries). We saw reduced sociality as measured through mobility features and increased virtual sociality through phone use. People were more active on their phones (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom), spending more time using social media apps (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands), particularly around major news events. Furthermore, participants had a lower heart rate (P<.001 for Italy and Spain; P=.02 for Denmark), went to bed later (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands), and slept more (P<.001 for Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom). We also found that young people had longer homestay than older people during the lockdown and fewer daily steps. Although there was no significant difference between the high and low BMI groups in time spent at home, the low BMI group walked more. CONCLUSIONS: RADAR-base, a freely deployable data collection platform leveraging data from wearables and mobile technologies, can be used to rapidly quantify and provide a holistic view of behavioral changes in response to public health interventions as a result of infectious outbreaks such as COVID-19. RADAR-base may be a viable approach to implementing an early warning system for passively assessing the local compliance to interventions in epidemics and pandemics, and could help countries ease out of lockdown.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Coleta de Dados , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Smartphone , Isolamento Social , Telemedicina , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis , Monitorização Fisiológica , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Mídias Sociais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22767, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The perceived threat of a contagious virus may lead people to be distrustful of immigrants and out-groups. Since the COVID-19 outbreak, the salient politicized discourses of blaming Chinese people for spreading the virus have fueled over 2000 reports of anti-Asian racial incidents and hate crimes in the United States. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to investigate the relationships between news consumption, trust, intergroup contact, and prejudicial attitudes toward Asians and Asian Americans residing in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compare how traditional news, social media use, and biased news exposure cultivate racial attitudes, and the moderating role of media use and trust on prejudice against Asians is examined. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was completed in May 2020. A total of 430 US adults (mean age 36.75, SD 11.49 years; n=258, 60% male) participated in an online survey through Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform. Respondents answered questions related to traditional news exposure, social media use, perceived trust, and their top three news channels for staying informed about the novel coronavirus. In addition, intergroup contact and racial attitudes toward Asians were assessed. We performed hierarchical regression analyses to test the associations. Moderation effects were estimated using simple slopes testing with a 95% bootstrap confidence interval approach. RESULTS: Participants who identified as conservatives (ß=.08, P=.02), had a personal infection history (ß=.10, P=.004), and interacted with Asian people frequently in their daily lives (ß=.46, P<.001) reported more negative attitudes toward Asians after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Relying more on traditional news media (ß=.08, P=.04) and higher levels of trust in social media (ß=.13, P=.007) were positively associated with prejudice against Asians. In contrast, consuming news from left-leaning outlets (ß=-.15, P=.001) and neutral outlets (ß=-.13, P=.003) was linked to less prejudicial attitudes toward Asians. Among those who had high trust in social media, exposure had a negative relationship with prejudice. At high levels of trust in digital websites and apps, frequent use was related to less unfavorable attitudes toward Asians. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing racial prejudice among the Asian population during a challenging pandemic can cause poor psychological outcomes and exacerbate health disparities. The results suggest that conservative ideology, personal infection history, frequency of intergroup contact, traditional news exposure, and trust in social media emerge as positive predictors of prejudice against Asians and Asian Americans, whereas people who get COVID-19 news from left-leaning and balanced outlets show less prejudice. For those who have more trust in social media and digital news, frequent use of these two sources is associated with lower levels of prejudice. Our findings highlight the need to reshape traditional news discourses and use social media and mobile news apps to develop credible messages for combating racial prejudice against Asians.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Atitude , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Confiança , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Braz Dent J ; 31(4): 392-398, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901715

RESUMO

This study aimed to analyze the videos available on YouTube related to dentistry and the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), as there is no such analysis in the existing literature. The terms "dental" and "COVID-19" were searched on YouTube on May 9, 2020. The top 116 English-language videos with at least 300 views were analyzed by two observers. Data was saved for each video, including target audience, source, country of origin, content, number of views, time watched, average views, duration, like/dislike ratio, and usefulness. Total video information and quality index (VIQI) scores were calculated, consisting of flow, information, accuracy, quality, and precision indices. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis. The analyzed videos were viewed 375,000 times and totaled 20 h of content. Most videos were uploaded by dentists (45.7%), originated from the United States (79.3%), and contained information targeted towards patients (48.3%). Nearly half of the videos (47.4%) were moderately useful. For the usefulness of the videos, statistically significant differences were found for all indices as well as total VIQI scores. A comparison of the indices according to the relevance of the videos showed statistically significant differences in the videos' information and precision indices and total VIQI scores. The results of this study showed that dentistry YouTube videos related to COVID-19 had high view numbers; however, the videos were generally moderate in quality and usefulness.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais , Betacoronavirus , Odontologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e114, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901729

RESUMO

The aim of the present infodemiological study was to evaluate whether the COVID-19 outbreak has influenced the volume of content related to the dental treatment needs of Brazilian Twitter users to summarize the trends, and to identify the perceptions of the treatment needed. We collected tweets related to dental care needs of individuals exposed to the COVID-19 outbreak scenario between March 23 to May 4, 2020 and of those not exposed to the COVID-19 pandemic (unexposed group) on the same reported days of 2019 using the terms "dentista (dentist), dente (tooth), siso (third molar), and aparelho (orthodontic appliance)." Descriptive analysis was performed to provide summary statistics of the frequencies of tweets related to different dental treatment needs and also the differences in volume content between the years 2019 and 2020. Moreover, the data were analyzed by qualitative analysis using an inductive approach. A total of 1,763 tweets from 2020 and 1,339 tweets from 2019 were screened. Those tweets posted by non-Brazilian users, duplicates, and those unrelated to dental treatment needs were removed and, therefore 1,197 tweets from 2020 and 719 tweets from 2019 were selected. Content volume related to dental treatment needs greatly increased during the COVID-19 outbreak. Findings from the word cloud and content analysis suggest that dental pain, related or not to the third molar, and problems with orthodontic appliances were the topics most commonly related to dental treatment needs discussed during the COVID-19 outbreak, mainly conveying anxiety and distress. The volume of tweets related to dental treatment needs posted by Brazilian users increased during the COVID-19 outbreak and self-reported pain and urgencies were the most popular topics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Humanos , Pandemias , Autorrelato , Mídias Sociais
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