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3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e23654, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, digital tools have become a viable means for patients to address their health and information needs. Governments and health care organizations are offering digital tools such as self-assessment tools, symptom tracking tools, or chatbots. Other sources of digital tools, such as those offered through patient platforms, are available on the internet free of charge. We define patient platforms as health-specific websites that offer tools to anyone with internet access to engage them in their health care process with peer networks to support their learning. Although numerous social media platforms engage users without up-front charges, patient platforms are specific to health. As little is known about their business model, there is a need to understand what else these platforms are trying to achieve beyond supporting patients so that patients can make informed decisions about the benefits and risks of using the digital tools they offer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore what patient platforms are trying to achieve beyond supporting patients and how their digital tools can be used to generate income. METHODS: Textual and visual data collected from a purposeful selection of 11 patient platforms from September 2013 to August 2014 were analyzed using framework analysis. Data were systematically and rigorously coded and categorized according to key issues and themes by following 5 steps: familiarizing, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, charting, and mapping and interpretation. We used open coding to identify additional concepts not captured in the initial thematic framework. This paper reports on emergent findings on the business models of the platforms and their income-generating processes. RESULTS: Our analysis revealed that in addition to patients, the platforms support other parties with interests in health and information exchanges. Patient platforms did not charge up-front fees but generated income from other sources, such as advertising, sponsorship, marketing (eg, sending information to users on behalf of sponsors or providing means for sponsors to reach patients directly), supporting other portals, and providing research services. CONCLUSIONS: This study reports on the mechanisms by which some patient platforms generate income to support their operations, gain profit, or both. Although income-generating processes exist elsewhere on social media platforms in general, they pose unique challenges in the health context because digital tools engage patients in health and information exchanges. This study highlights the need to minimize the potential for unintended consequences that can pose health risks to patients or can lead to increased health expenses. By understanding other interests that patient platforms support, our findings point to important policy implications, such as whether (and how) authorities might protect users from processes that may not always be in their best interests and can potentially incur costs to the health system.


Assuntos
Participação do Paciente/métodos , Mídias Sociais/economia , Mídias Sociais/normas , Telemedicina/normas , Humanos , Internet , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e21338, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental ill-health is one of the most significant health and social issues affecting young people globally. To address the mental health crisis, a number of cross-sectoral research and action priorities have been identified. These include improving mental health literacy, translating research findings into accessible public health outputs, and the use of digital technologies. There are, however, few examples of public health-oriented knowledge transfer activities involving collaborations between researchers, the Arts, and online platforms in the field of youth mental health. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this project was to translate qualitative research findings into a series of online public mental health animations targeting young people between the ages of 16 and 25 years. A further aim was to track online social media engagement and viewing data for the animations for a period of 12 months. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected from a sample of 17 youth in Ireland, aged 18-21 years, as part of the longitudinal population-based Adolescent Brain Development study. Interviews explored the life histories and the emotional and mental health of participants. The narrative analysis revealed 5 thematic findings relating to young people's emotional and mental health. Through a collaboration between research, the Arts, and the online sector, the empirical thematic findings were translated into 5 public health animations. The animations were hosted and promoted on 3 social media platforms of the Irish youth health website called SpunOut. Viewing data, collected over a 12-month period, were analyzed to determine the reach of the animations. RESULTS: Narrative thematic analysis identified anxiety, depression, feeling different, loneliness, and being bullied as common experiences for young people. These thematic findings formed the basis of the animations. During the 12 months following the launch of the animations, they were viewed 15,848 times. A majority of views occurred during the period of the social media ad campaign at a cost of €0.035 (approximately US $0.042) per view. Animations on feeling different and being bullied accounted for the majority of views. CONCLUSIONS: This project demonstrates that online animations provide an accessible means of translating empirical research findings into meaningful public health outputs. They offer a cost-effective way to provide targeted online information about mental health, coping, and help-seeking to young people. Cross-sectoral collaboration is required to leverage the knowledge and expertise required to maximize the quality and potential reach of any knowledge transfer activities. A high level of engagement is possible by targeting non-help-seeking young people on their native social media platforms. Paid promotion is, therefore, an important consideration when budgeting for online knowledge translation and dissemination activities in health research.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e16348, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social media provides the potential to engage a wide audience about scientific research, including the public. However, little empirical research exists to guide health scientists regarding what works and how to optimize impact. We examined the social media campaign #datasaveslives established in 2014 to highlight positive examples of the use and reuse of health data in research. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine how the #datasaveslives hashtag was used on social media, how often, and by whom; thus, we aim to provide insights into the impact of a major social media campaign in the UK health informatics research community and further afield. METHODS: We analyzed all publicly available posts (tweets) that included the hashtag #datasaveslives (N=13,895) on the microblogging platform Twitter between September 1, 2016, and August 31, 2017. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses, we determined the frequency and purpose of tweets. Social network analysis was used to analyze and visualize tweet sharing (retweet) networks among hashtag users. RESULTS: Overall, we found 4175 original posts and 9720 retweets featuring #datasaveslives by 3649 unique Twitter users. In total, 66.01% (2756/4175) of the original posts were retweeted at least once. Higher frequencies of tweets were observed during the weeks of prominent policy publications, popular conferences, and public engagement events. Cluster analysis based on retweet relationships revealed an interconnected series of groups of #datasaveslives users in academia, health services and policy, and charities and patient networks. Thematic analysis of tweets showed that #datasaveslives was used for a broader range of purposes than indexing information, including event reporting, encouraging participation and action, and showing personal support for data sharing. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that a hashtag-based social media campaign was effective in encouraging a wide audience of stakeholders to disseminate positive examples of health research. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the campaign supported community building and bridging practices within and between the interdisciplinary sectors related to the field of health data science and encouraged individuals to demonstrate personal support for sharing health data.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Mídias Sociais/normas , Análise de Rede Social , Humanos
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e20898, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a strong interest in the use of social media to spread positive sexual health messages through social networks of young people. However, research suggests that this potential may be limited by a reluctance to be visibly associated with sexual health content on the web or social media and by the lack of trust in the veracity of peer sources. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate opportunities and challenges of using social media to facilitate peer-to-peer sharing of sexual health messages within the context of STASH (Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Health), a secondary school-based and peer-led sexual health intervention. METHODS: Following training, and as a part of their role, student-nominated peer supporters (aged 14-16 years) invited school friends to trainer-monitored, private Facebook groups. Peer supporters posted curated educational sex and relationship content within these groups. Data came from a feasibility study of the STASH intervention in 6 UK schools. To understand student experiences of the social media component, we used data from 11 semistructured paired and group interviews with peer supporters and their friends (collectively termed students; n=42, aged 14-16 years), a web-based postintervention questionnaire administered to peer supporters (n=88), and baseline and follow-up questionnaires administered to students in the intervention year group (n=680 and n=603, respectively). We carried out a thematic analysis of qualitative data and a descriptive analysis of quantitative data. RESULTS: Message sharing by peer supporters was hindered by variable engagement with Facebook. The trainer-monitored and private Facebook groups were acceptable to student members (peer supporters and their friends) and reassuring to peer supporters but led to engagement that ran parallel to-rather than embedded in-their routine social media use. The offline context of a school-based intervention helped legitimate and augment Facebook posts; however, even where friends were receptive to STASH messages, they did not necessarily engage visibly on social media. Preferences for content design varied; however, humor, color, and text brevity were important. Preferences for social media versus offline message sharing varied. CONCLUSIONS: Invitation-only social media groups formed around peer supporters' existing friendship networks hold potential for diffusing messages in peer-based sexual health interventions. Ideally, interactive opportunities should not be limited to single social media platforms and should run alongside offline conversations. There are tensions between offering young people autonomy to engage flexibly and authentically and the need for adult oversight of activities for information accuracy and safeguarding.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Escolar/normas , Saúde Sexual/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e18264, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the increased older population in China and the subsequent reduced labor force, the "demographic bonus" is disappearing. The Chinese government proposed a Healthy China strategy in 2017. The transfer of the demographic bonus to a "health bonus" extended the working life of people and reduced the negative impact of the population's aging on the labor force structure. OBJECTIVE: This research focuses on the effect of older workers' social media usage at work on their work ability (related to both physical and mental health) and thus their willingness to delay retirement. METHODS: The questionnaire respondents were older than 55 years, and they obtained the questionnaire from social media, from June to July 2018. A total of 1020 valid questionnaires were collected, and SmartPLS 3.28 (SmartPLS GmbH) was used to analyze the data. Effects were analyzed using 2-tailed t tests. RESULTS: (1) Use of social media at work can improve information support (t14=13.318, P<.001), emotional support (t14=13.184, P<.001), and self-efficacy (t14=6.364, P<.001) for older people; (2) information support is the main factor affecting the self-efficacy of older workers (t14=23.304, P<.001), as compared with emotional support (t14=1.799, P=0.07); (3) the impacts of emotional support on work ability (t14=8.876, P<.001) and work stress (t14=9.545, P<.001) are generally higher than those of information support (t14=4.394, P<.001; t14=5.002, P<.001); (4) self-efficacy has an impact on work ability (t14=5.658, P<.001) and work stress (t14=4.717, P<.001); and (5) the impacts of work ability (t14=8.586, P<.001) and work stress (t14=8.579, P<.001) on retirement willingness are greater than those of emotional support (t14=2.112, P=.04) and information support (t14=4.314, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that the use of social media at work has a positive impact on older workers. Based on the findings, we have put forward proposals to extend people's working lives and help governments implement health bonus policies. In the future, we will compare the different values of willingness to delay retirement among older people in different occupations and different cultures.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Demografia/métodos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Mídias Sociais/normas , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e19134, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empirical research has demonstrated that people frequently use social media for gathering and sharing online health information. Health literacy, social media use, and self-efficacy are important factors that may influence people's health behaviors online. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the associations between health literacy, health-related social media use, self-efficacy, and health behavioral intentions online. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of adults 18 years and older (n=449) to examine predictors of health-related behavioral intentions online including health literacy, social media use, and self-efficacy in China using 2 moderated mediation models. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Self-efficacy mediated the effects of health literacy (Bindirect=0.213, 95% CI 0.101 to 0.339) and social media use (Bindirect=0.023, 95% CI 0.008 to 0.045) on health behavioral intentions on social media. Age moderated the effects of health literacy on self-efficacy (P=.03), while previous experience moderated the effects of social media use on self-efficacy (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Health literacy and health-related social media use influenced health behavioral intentions on social media via their prior effects on self-efficacy. The association between health literacy and self-efficacy was stronger among younger respondents, whereas the association between health-related social media use and self-efficacy was stronger among those who previously had positive experiences with health information on social media. Health practitioners should target self-efficacy among older populations and increase positive media experience related to health.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/ética , Letramento em Saúde/normas , Comportamento de Busca de Informação/ética , Mídias Sociais/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Autoeficácia
9.
Am J Public Health ; 111(3): 514-519, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476229

RESUMO

Amid the COVID-19 global pandemic, a highly troublesome influx of viral misinformation threatens to exacerbate the crisis through its deleterious effects on public health outcomes and health behavior decisions.This "misinfodemic" has ignited a surge of ongoing research aimed at characterizing its content, identifying its sources, and documenting its effects. Noticeably absent as of yet is a cogent strategy to disrupt misinformation.We start with the premise that the diffusion and persistence of COVID-19 misinformation are networked phenomena that require network interventions. To this end, we propose five classes of social network intervention to provide a roadmap of opportunities for disrupting misinformation dynamics during a global health crisis. Collectively, these strategies identify five distinct yet interdependent features of information environments that present viable opportunities for interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Mídias Sociais/normas , Saúde Global , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e21212, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complex unfolding of the US opioid epidemic in the last 20 years has been the subject of a large body of medical and pharmacological research, and it has sparked a multidisciplinary discussion on how to implement interventions and policies to effectively control its impact on public health. OBJECTIVE: This study leverages Reddit, a social media platform, as the primary data source to investigate the opioid crisis. We aimed to find a large cohort of Reddit users interested in discussing the use of opioids, trace the temporal evolution of their interest, and extensively characterize patterns of the nonmedical consumption of opioids, with a focus on routes of administration and drug tampering. METHODS: We used a semiautomatic information retrieval algorithm to identify subreddits discussing nonmedical opioid consumption and developed a methodology based on word embedding to find alternative colloquial and nonmedical terms referring to opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug-tampering methods. We modeled the preferences of adoption of substances and routes of administration, estimating their prevalence and temporal unfolding. Ultimately, through the evaluation of odds ratios based on co-mentions, we measured the strength of association between opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug tampering. RESULTS: We identified 32 subreddits discussing nonmedical opioid usage from 2014 to 2018 and observed the evolution of interest among over 86,000 Reddit users potentially involved in firsthand opioid usage. We learned the language model of opioid consumption and provided alternative vocabularies for opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug tampering. A data-driven taxonomy of nonmedical routes of administration was proposed. We modeled the temporal evolution of interest in opioid consumption by ranking the popularity of the adoption of opioid substances and routes of administration, observing relevant trends, such as the surge in synthetic opioids like fentanyl and an increasing interest in rectal administration. In addition, we measured the strength of association between drug tampering, routes of administration, and substance consumption, finding evidence of understudied abusive behaviors, like chewing fentanyl patches and dissolving buprenorphine sublingually. CONCLUSIONS: This work investigated some important consumption-related aspects of the opioid epidemic using Reddit data. We believe that our approach may provide a novel perspective for a more comprehensive understanding of nonmedical abuse of opioids substances and inform the prevention, treatment, and control of the public health effects.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Mídias Sociais/normas , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Humanos
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e23262, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social media platforms such as YouTube are hotbeds for the spread of misinformation about vaccines. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore how individuals are exposed to antivaccine misinformation on YouTube based on whether they start their viewing from a keyword-based search or from antivaccine seed videos. METHODS: Four networks of videos based on YouTube recommendations were collected in November 2019. Two search networks were created from provaccine and antivaccine keywords to resemble goal-oriented browsing. Two seed networks were constructed from conspiracy and antivaccine expert seed videos to resemble direct navigation. Video contents and network structures were analyzed using the network exposure model. RESULTS: Viewers are more likely to encounter antivaccine videos through direct navigation starting from an antivaccine video than through goal-oriented browsing. In the two seed networks, provaccine videos, antivaccine videos, and videos containing health misinformation were all found to be more likely to lead to more antivaccine videos. CONCLUSIONS: YouTube has boosted the search rankings of provaccine videos to combat the influence of antivaccine information. However, when viewers are directed to antivaccine videos on YouTube from another site, the recommendation algorithm is still likely to expose them to additional antivaccine information.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Mídias Sociais/normas , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Algoritmos , Humanos
12.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e18286, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A diverse array of digital technologies are available to children and young people living in the Global North to monitor, manage, and promote their health and well-being. OBJECTIVE: This article provides a narrative literature review of the growing number of social research studies published over the past decade that investigate the types of digital technologies used by children and young people in the Global North, in addition to investigating which of these technologies they find most useful or not useful. Key findings as well as major gaps and directions for future research are identified and discussed. METHODS: A comprehensive search of relevant publications listed in Google Scholar was conducted, supported by following citation trails of these publications. The findings are listed under type of digital technology used for health: cross-media, internet, social media, apps and wearable devices, sexual health support and information, and mental health support and information. RESULTS: Many young people in the Global North are active users of digital health technologies. However, it is notable that they still rely on older technologies, such as websites and search engines, to find information. Apps and platforms that may not have been specifically developed for young people as digital health resources often better suit their needs. Young people appreciate the ready availability of information online, the opportunities to learn more about their bodies and health states, and the opportunities to learn how to improve their health and physical fitness. They enjoy being able to connect with peers, and they find emotional support and relief from distress by using social media platforms, YouTube, and online forums. Young people can find the vast reams of information available to them difficult to navigate. They often look to trusted adults to help them make sense of the information they find online and to provide alternative sources of information and support. Face-to-face interactions with these trusted providers remain important to young people. Risks and harms that young people report from digital health use include becoming overly obsessed with their bodies' shape and size when using self-tracking technologies and comparing their bodies with the social media influencers they follow. CONCLUSIONS: Further details on how young people are using social media platforms and YouTube as health support resources and for peer-to-peer sharing of information, including attention paid to the content of these resources and the role played by young social media influencers and microcelebrities, would contribute important insights to this body of literature. The role played by visual media, such as GIFs (Graphics Interchange Format) and memes, and social media platforms that have recently become very popular with young people (eg, Snapchat and TikTok) in health-related content creation and sharing requires more attention by social researchers seeking to better understand young people's use of digital devices and software for health and fitness.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia Digital/métodos , Mídias Sociais/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Health Promot Int ; 36(2): 524-534, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450022

RESUMO

The emergence of COVID-19, caused by novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, became a pandemic in just 10 weeks. Without effective medications or vaccines available, authorities turned toward mitigation measures such as use of face masks, school's closings, shelter-in-place, telework and social distancing. People found refuge on the internet and social media apps; however, there was a proliferation of instant messaging containing hoaxed, deliberate misleading information: fake news messaging (FNM). The aim of this study was to assess FNM through content analysis and to discriminate them in a proposed taxonomy structure. A sample of convenience of messages, memes, tweets or cartoons in several languages was selected from the most popular social media outlets, i.e. Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter etc. More than 300 FNM were identified. Descriptive statistics were used for highlighting potential relationships between variables. Content analysis determined that FNM could be divided into Health- and non-health-related types. There are several sub-types considering, but not limited to, religious beliefs, politics, economy, nutrition, behaviors, prevention of the infection, the origin of the disease and conspiracy theories. The parallel FNM pandemic affected the response from an already debilitated public health system through the confusion created in the community and the erosion in the credibility of genuine media. Public health practitioners had to face people's unpredictable behaviors, panic, tensions with the communities and, in some cases, a hostile climate toward frontline workers. Public health practitioners must adjust ongoing and future health promotion and education interventions including plans to neutralize fake news messages.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Política , Religião , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e17187, 2021 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although at present there is broad agreement among researchers, health professionals, and policy makers on the need to control and combat health misinformation, the magnitude of this problem is still unknown. Consequently, it is fundamental to discover both the most prevalent health topics and the social media platforms from which these topics are initially framed and subsequently disseminated. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to identify the main health misinformation topics and their prevalence on different social media platforms, focusing on methodological quality and the diverse solutions that are being implemented to address this public health concern. METHODS: We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for articles published in English before March 2019, with a focus on the study of health misinformation in social media. We defined health misinformation as a health-related claim that is based on anecdotal evidence, false, or misleading owing to the lack of existing scientific knowledge. We included (1) articles that focused on health misinformation in social media, including those in which the authors discussed the consequences or purposes of health misinformation and (2) studies that described empirical findings regarding the measurement of health misinformation on these platforms. RESULTS: A total of 69 studies were identified as eligible, and they covered a wide range of health topics and social media platforms. The topics were articulated around the following six principal categories: vaccines (32%), drugs or smoking (22%), noncommunicable diseases (19%), pandemics (10%), eating disorders (9%), and medical treatments (7%). Studies were mainly based on the following five methodological approaches: social network analysis (28%), evaluating content (26%), evaluating quality (24%), content/text analysis (16%), and sentiment analysis (6%). Health misinformation was most prevalent in studies related to smoking products and drugs such as opioids and marijuana. Posts with misinformation reached 87% in some studies. Health misinformation about vaccines was also very common (43%), with the human papilloma virus vaccine being the most affected. Health misinformation related to diets or pro-eating disorder arguments were moderate in comparison to the aforementioned topics (36%). Studies focused on diseases (ie, noncommunicable diseases and pandemics) also reported moderate misinformation rates (40%), especially in the case of cancer. Finally, the lowest levels of health misinformation were related to medical treatments (30%). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of health misinformation was the highest on Twitter and on issues related to smoking products and drugs. However, misinformation on major public health issues, such as vaccines and diseases, was also high. Our study offers a comprehensive characterization of the dominant health misinformation topics and a comprehensive description of their prevalence on different social media platforms, which can guide future studies and help in the development of evidence-based digital policy action plans.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Saúde Pública/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , Humanos , Prevalência
16.
Global Health ; 17(1): 4, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402169

RESUMO

During global pandemics, such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), crisis communication is indispensable in dispelling fears, uncertainty, and unifying individuals worldwide in a collective fight against health threats. Inadequate crisis communication can bring dire personal and economic consequences. Mounting research shows that seemingly endless newsfeeds related to COVID-19 infection and death rates could considerably increase the risk of mental health problems. Unfortunately, media reports that include infodemics regarding the influence of COVID-19 on mental health may be a source of the adverse psychological effects on individuals. Owing partially to insufficient crisis communication practices, media and news organizations across the globe have played minimal roles in battling COVID-19 infodemics. Common refrains include raging QAnon conspiracies, a false and misleading "Chinese virus" narrative, and the use of disinfectants to "cure" COVID-19. With the potential to deteriorate mental health, infodemics fueled by a kaleidoscopic range of misinformation can be dangerous. Unfortunately, there is a shortage of research on how to improve crisis communication across media and news organization channels. This paper identifies ways that legacy media reports on COVID-19 and how social media-based infodemics can result in mental health concerns. This paper discusses possible crisis communication solutions that media and news organizations can adopt to mitigate the negative influences of COVID-19 related news on mental health. Emphasizing the need for global media entities to forge a fact-based, person-centered, and collaborative response to COVID-19 reporting, this paper encourages media resources to focus on the core issue of how to slow or stop COVID-19 transmission effectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/métodos , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor/normas , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/normas , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Mídias Sociais/normas
17.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(1): 9-13, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322939

RESUMO

Online misinformation regarding COVID-19 has undermined public health efforts to control the novel coronavirus. To date, public health organizations' efforts to counter COVID-19 misinformation have focused on identifying and correcting false information on social media platforms. Citing extant literature in health communication and psychology, we argue that these fact-checking efforts are a necessary, but insufficient, response to health misinformation. First, research suggests that fact-checking has several important limitations and is rarely successful in fully undoing the effects of misinformation exposure. Second, there are many factors driving misinformation sharing and acceptance in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic-such as emotions, distrust, cognitive biases, racism, and xenophobia-and these factors both make individuals more vulnerable to certain types of misinformation and also make them impervious to future correction attempts. We conclude by outlining several additional measures, beyond fact-checking, that may help further mitigate the effects of misinformation in the current pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Comunicação em Saúde/normas , Mídias Sociais/normas , Comunicação , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Confiança
18.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e20920, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337338

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are the most common mental illnesses, and they constitute the leading cause of disability worldwide. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most commonly prescribed drugs for the treatment of depressive disorders. Some people share information about their experiences with antidepressants on social media platforms such as Twitter. Analysis of the messages posted by Twitter users under SSRI treatment can yield useful information on how these antidepressants affect users' behavior. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the behavioral and linguistic characteristics of the tweets posted while users were likely to be under SSRI treatment, in comparison to the tweets posted by the same users when they were less likely to be taking this medication. METHODS: In the first step, the timelines of Twitter users mentioning SSRI antidepressants in their tweets were selected using a list of 128 generic and brand names of SSRIs. In the second step, two datasets of tweets were created, the in-treatment dataset (made up of the tweets posted throughout the 30 days after mentioning an SSRI) and the unknown-treatment dataset (made up of tweets posted more than 90 days before or more than 90 days after any tweet mentioning an SSRI). For each user, the changes in behavioral and linguistic features between the tweets classified in these two datasets were analyzed. 186 users and their timelines with 668,842 tweets were finally included in the study. RESULTS: The number of tweets generated per day by the users when they were in treatment was higher than it was when they were in the unknown-treatment period (P=.001). When the users were in treatment, the mean percentage of tweets posted during the daytime (from 8 AM to midnight) increased in comparison to the unknown-treatment period (P=.002). The number of characters and words per tweet was higher when the users were in treatment (P=.03 and P=.02, respectively). Regarding linguistic features, the percentage of pronouns that were first-person singular was higher when users were in treatment (P=.008). CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral and linguistic changes have been detected when users with depression are taking antidepressant medication. These features can provide interesting insights for monitoring the evolution of this disease, as well as offering additional information related to treatment adherence. This information may be especially useful in patients who are receiving long-term treatments such as people suffering from depression.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/terapia , Linguística/métodos , Mídias Sociais/normas , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Humanos , Idioma
20.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000860, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960891

RESUMO

Engagement with scientific manuscripts is frequently facilitated by Twitter and other social media platforms. As such, the demographics of a paper's social media audience provide a wealth of information about how scholarly research is transmitted, consumed, and interpreted by online communities. By paying attention to public perceptions of their publications, scientists can learn whether their research is stimulating positive scholarly and public thought. They can also become aware of potentially negative patterns of interest from groups that misinterpret their work in harmful ways, either willfully or unintentionally, and devise strategies for altering their messaging to mitigate these impacts. In this study, we collected 331,696 Twitter posts referencing 1,800 highly tweeted bioRxiv preprints and leveraged topic modeling to infer the characteristics of various communities engaging with each preprint on Twitter. We agnostically learned the characteristics of these audience sectors from keywords each user's followers provide in their Twitter biographies. We estimate that 96% of the preprints analyzed are dominated by academic audiences on Twitter, suggesting that social media attention does not always correspond to greater public exposure. We further demonstrate how our audience segmentation method can quantify the level of interest from nonspecialist audience sectors such as mental health advocates, dog lovers, video game developers, vegans, bitcoin investors, conspiracy theorists, journalists, religious groups, and political constituencies. Surprisingly, we also found that 10% of the preprints analyzed have sizable (>5%) audience sectors that are associated with right-wing white nationalist communities. Although none of these preprints appear to intentionally espouse any right-wing extremist messages, cases exist in which extremist appropriation comprises more than 50% of the tweets referencing a given preprint. These results present unique opportunities for improving and contextualizing the public discourse surrounding scientific research.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados como Assunto , Publicações , Ciência , Mudança Social , Mídias Sociais , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Academias e Institutos/normas , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso à Informação , Bases de Dados como Assunto/organização & administração , Bases de Dados como Assunto/normas , Bases de Dados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/normas , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Internet/organização & administração , Internet/normas , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Ativismo Político , Publicações/classificação , Publicações/normas , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/provisão & distribuição , Ciência/organização & administração , Ciência/normas , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/organização & administração , Mídias Sociais/normas , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
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