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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e19060, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000454

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate pelvic floor muscle bioelectrical activity in healthy, young, and nulliparous women, and to present normative values for all phases and parameters measured with the Glazer Protocol.In this study, 96 healthy, young, nulliparous women (age 22-27 years; 168.6 ±â€Š5.1 cm; 57.1 ±â€Š11.8 kg) were tested. The bioelectrical activity of the pelvic floor muscles was collected using an endovaginal electrode with the Glazer Protocol, which included the following series of muscles contractions and relaxations: pre-baseline rest, phasic contractions, tonic contractions, isometric contractions for muscle endurance evaluation, and post-baseline rest.The following normative values of the bioelectrical signal for all phases of the Glazer Protocol were calculated: mean, minimal, and maximal values, 95% confidence interval, standard deviation, 95% standard deviation confidence interval, variance, coefficient of variation, and standard error of measurement. Average Mean Amplitude (µV) was as follows: pre-baseline rest (6.26 ±â€Š3.33 µV), phasic contractions (49.76 ±â€Š26.44 µV), tonic contractions (37.05 ±â€Š25.99 µV), endurance contraction (16.10 ±â€Š6.68 µV), and post-baseline rest (6.93 ±â€Š3.99 µV).This study was the first in which normative values for all phases of the Glazer Protocol were reported. This protocol is very often used in electromyography devices as a tool for pelvic floor muscle assessment. Due to the fact that the interpretation of the pelvic floor muscle evaluation is complex and difficult, the authors believe that the normative values proposed in this study allow for comprehensive interpretation of this test (both qualitatively and quantitatively) and provide a reference point for parameters measured in women with different pelvic floor dysfunctions.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Diafragma da Pelve/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Valores de Referência
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1213: 165-176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030670

RESUMO

Advancements in musculoskeletal analysis have been achieved by adopting deep learning technology in image recognition and analysis. Unlike musculoskeletal modeling based on computational anatomy, deep learning-based methods can obtain muscle information automatically. Through analysis of image features, both approaches can obtain muscle characteristics such as shape, volume, and area, and derive additional information by analyzing other image textures. In this chapter, we first discuss the necessity of musculoskeletal analysis and the required image processing technology. Then, the limitations of skeletal muscle recognition based on conventional handcrafted features are discussed, and developments in skeletal muscle recognition using machine learning and deep learning technology are described. Next, a technique for analyzing musculoskeletal systems using whole-body computed tomography (CT) images is shown. This study aims to achieve automatic recognition of skeletal muscles throughout the body and automatic classification of atrophic muscular disease using only image features, to demonstrate an application of whole-body musculoskeletal analysis driven by deep learning. Finally, we discuss future development of musculoskeletal analysis that effectively combines deep learning with handcrafted feature-based modeling techniques.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Aprendizado Profundo , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Humanos
3.
Unfallchirurg ; 123(2): 104-113, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016494

RESUMO

Normal function of the fingers and thumb depends on properly gliding flexor tendons and a free range of motion of the involved joints. This normal gliding function may be inhibited by adhesions due to damage of the tendon, tendon sheath and adjacent tissue. When digital function is still limited despite a long-term course of hand therapy and there are no signs of further improvement, surgical intervention should be considered. There are no absolute indications for tenoathrolysis of the flexor tendons. With respect to complications, such as secondary tendon rupture, loss of annular pulleys and scar formation, it is part of a stepwise reconstructive concept including further procedures, such as staged flexor tendon reconstruction. Important preconditions for tenoathrolysis are motivation of the patient, the possibility of readily available and frequent postoperative follow-up hand therapy, healed fractures and osteotomy, mature soft tissue, intact tendons and gliding tissue. Preoperatively, a maximum passive range of motion of the involved joints should be achieved. During the operative procedure all adhesive tissue surrounding the tendon within and outside the tendon sheath is consistently resected preserving the annular pulleys as far as possible. Therefore, extensive approaches, arthrolysis, dissolution of unfavorable scar tissue, resection of scarred lumbrical muscles and annular pulley reconstruction are frequently necessary. Salvage procedures, such as arthrodesis, amputation, ray resection or multistage flexor tendon reconstruction are recommended in failed cases and should be considered even preoperatively. In order to retain the intraoperative functional improvement hand therapy for at least 3-6 months should follow.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Traumatismos dos Tendões , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Traumatismos dos Tendões/cirurgia , Polegar/lesões , Polegar/cirurgia
4.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 412e-420e, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The muscle-sparing descending branch latissimus dorsi muscle (MSLD) flap is a versatile flap with numerous benefits. It is an often overlooked but useful option when considering free flap donors. In this article, the authors present the largest experience with the MSLD flap, with focus on its use in lower extremity reconstruction. METHODS: Patients undergoing lower extremity reconstruction with the MSLD flap at a single institution from 2012 to 2017 were identified. Patient and wound characteristics, surgical details, complications, and outcomes were examined. Outcomes were compared to a cohort who underwent lower extremity reconstruction with other free muscle flaps during the same period. RESULTS: Thirty-six consecutive patients who underwent MSLD flap surgery were identified. Mean follow-up was 18.8 months. Mean body mass index was 29.2 kg/m and 56 percent were smokers. The most common wound causes were motor vehicle collision (46 percent) and fall (22 percent). The most common anatomical location was the distal third of the tibia (33 percent). Mean operative time was 380 minutes. Complications included three total losses (8 percent) and one partial loss (3 percent). No donor-site seromas were reported. Four patients required subsequent amputation for orthopedic issues (nonunion/pain). Patients receiving MSLD and other flaps had similar rates of amputation, donor- and recipient-site complications, and ambulation status (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The MSLD flap is a useful and reliable option for free flap reconstruction of the lower extremity. Advantages include an easily contourable flap, low revision rate, low complication rate, and the ability to harvest in supine position. In addition, the MSLD flap preserves donor function useful for rehabilitation and minimizes seroma risk. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior , Músculo Esquelético/transplante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/irrigação sanguínea , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Adv Clin Chem ; 94: 155-218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952571

RESUMO

Bone and skeletal muscle are integrated organs and their coupling has been considered mainly a mechanical one in which bone serves as attachment site to muscle while muscle applies load to bone and regulates bone metabolism. However, skeletal muscle can affect bone homeostasis also in a non-mechanical fashion, i.e., through its endocrine activity. Being recognized as an endocrine organ itself, skeletal muscle secretes a panel of cytokines and proteins named myokines, synthesized and secreted by myocytes in response to muscle contraction. Myokines exert an autocrine function in regulating muscle metabolism as well as a paracrine/endocrine regulatory function on distant organs and tissues, such as bone, adipose tissue, brain and liver. Physical activity is the primary physiological stimulus for bone anabolism (and/or catabolism) through the production and secretion of myokines, such as IL-6, irisin, IGF-1, FGF2, beside the direct effect of loading. Importantly, exercise-induced myokine can exert an anti-inflammatory action that is able to counteract not only acute inflammation due to an infection, but also a condition of chronic low-grade inflammation raised as consequence of physical inactivity, aging or metabolic disorders (i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus). In this review article, we will discuss the effects that some of the most studied exercise-induced myokines exert on bone formation and bone resorption, as well as a brief overview of the anti-inflammatory effects of myokines during the onset pathological conditions characterized by the development a systemic low-grade inflammation, such as sarcopenia, obesity and aging.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Exercício , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1306-1314, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957433

RESUMO

Dimer procyanidin B2 [epicatechin-(4ß-8)-epicatechin] (PB2) has attracted a lot of interest in nutrition and medicine because of its significant health-promoting abilities. However, the function of PB2 on different types of skeletal myofiber is still unclear. Here, we have found that PB2 significantly increased protein expression of the slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) and decreased fast MyHC protein in C2C12 myotubes, accompanied by upregulation of mRNA expression of MyHC I, MyHC IIa, and Tnni1 and downregulation of MyHC IIx and MyHC IIb. We have also found that PB2 enhanced the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinic dehydrogenase and reduced lactate dehydrogenase activity. PB2 promoted phosphorylation of AMPK and significantly increased mRNA expression of AMPKα1. The upstream factors of AMPK, such as phospho-LKB1, NRF1, and CaMKKß, and the downstream factors of AMPK, including Sirt1 and PGC-1α, were also increased by PB2. Specific suppression of AMPK signaling by AMPKα1 siRNA or by AMPK inhibitor compound C significantly attenuated the PB2-induced upregulation of phospho-AMPK, PGC-1α, and slow MyHC and downregulation of fast MyHC. Our findings suggested that PB2 promotes skeletal slow-twitch myofiber gene expression through the AMPK signaling pathway in C2C12 myotubes.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares de Contração Lenta/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(1): 20-25, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether quantitative analysis of lower leg muscle enhancement measured from dynamic computed tomographic angiography (dyn-CTA) could be used for diagnosis of peripheral arterial occlusive disease. METHODS: Patients (N = 35) with known peripheral arterial occlusive disease underwent the dyn-CTA of calves first. Five minutes later, standard CTA of the peripheral runoff from the diaphragm to the toes was performed. A runoff score was assigned by radiologists as a reference standard for each of 4 lower leg artery segments. The lower leg muscle enhancement measured from the dyn-CTA was analyzed by using quantitative kinetic parameters, including initial enhancement (E1), peak enhancement (Epeak), and enhancement ratio (ER) calculated from average time attenuation curves. In addition, histogram of lower leg muscle enhancement was evaluated by using the first enhanced phase images. RESULTS: Lower extremities were diagnosed as a normal group (n = 22) with each vessel segment score equals to 1 or lower and runoff score, 7 or lower, and otherwise as an ischemia group (n = 48). Average ± SD E1 is 91.4% ± 8.5% and 82.3% ± 10.7%, Epeak is 122.7% ± 10.4% and 115.6% ± 11.1%, and ER is 0.75 ± 0.05 and 0.72 ± 0.09 for normal and ischemia group, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that average E1 and Epeak for the ischemia group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the normal group. The histogram analysis demonstrated that mean and median of muscle enhancement in the ischemia group were significantly smaller (P < 0.05), and coefficient of variation (CV) was significantly larger (P < 0.05) than the normal group. There were weak negative correlations (r = -0.42, P < 0.05) between runoff scores and E1 and Epeak, and weak positive correlation (r = 0.40, P < 0.05) between runoff scores and CV. The receiver operating characteristics analysis between the 2 groups had area under the curve of 0.77 and 0.76 for E1 and CV, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lower leg muscle enhancement measured from the dyn-CTA could be assessed quantitatively to assist diagnosis of ischemia in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doses de Radiação
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 201-207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893411

RESUMO

Our previous research confirmed that patients with malignant hematopoietic disease already had a low hemoglobin level before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, no study has determined whether a correlation exists between exercise load, hemoglobin level, and muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived SmO2 is associated with exercise load, as determined by a dynamometer, before allo-HSCT. This study included 19 male patients who received allo-HSCT in Hyogo College of Medicine Hospital (Japan) between November 2009 and October 2012. Patients performed isometric repeated dorsiflexion at 50% maximum voluntary contraction for 180 s to determine exercise load, and SmO2 was evaluated during exercise at the same time using NIRS (BOM-L1TRW, Omega Wave, Inc., Japan). The hemoglobin level was also evaluated before allo-HSCT. Patients with hematopoietic disease before allo-HSCT already had a low hemoglobin level. There was a significant correlation between exercise load and ∆SmO2; however, the hemoglobin level was not correlated with exercise load. In these patients, exercise load might be affected by muscle oxygen consumption rather than by the hemoglobin level. This finding shows that NIRS can used to assess fatigue in patients with malignant hematopoietic disease.


Assuntos
Exercício , Doenças Hematológicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Hemoglobinas , Músculo Esquelético , Consumo de Oxigênio , Doenças Hematológicas/metabolismo , Doenças Hematológicas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/fisiopatologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 215-221, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893413

RESUMO

Patients with hematological malignancy might already have decreased muscle oxygen saturation at rest and exercise capacity before undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, to date, no studies have investigated the relationship between exercise capacity and muscle oxygen saturation at rest in these patients. Therefore, purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between exercise capacity and muscle oxygen-hemoglobin (O2Hb) saturation (SmO2) at rest and patients' hemoglobin level before undergoing HSCT. METHODS: This study included 60 men with hematologic disease who underwent allo-HSCT. Patients performed a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) to determine exercise capacity, and muscle O2Hb saturation at rest was evaluatabed using near-infrared spectroscopy (BOM-L1TRW, Omegawave Inc., Japan); hemoglobin levels in hematological malignancy patients before undergoing HSCT were also evaluated. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the 6MWT and muscle O2Hb saturation at rest in hematological malignancy patients (p < 0.05). Additionally, the 6MWT was significantly correlated to the hemoglobin level (p < 0.05). Furthermore, muscle O2Hb saturation at rest was significantly related to hemoglobin level (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: In patients with hematological malignancy, a relationship exists between exercise capacity, muscle O2Hb saturation, and hemoglobin level before they undergo HSCT. Therefore, rehabilitation staff, nurses, and physicians should recognize these relationships in patients who undergo allo-HSCT. Moreover, physiotherapists may need to promote muscle oxidative metabolism through exercise to increase exercise capacity in these patients.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hemoglobinas , Músculo Esquelético , Adolescente , Adulto , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 223-229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893414

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare muscle O2 dynamics during exercise between aerobic capacity-matched overweight and normal-weight adults. Overweight women (OW, n = 9) and normal-weight women (NW, n = 14) performed graded treadmill exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆total-Hb) were monitored continuously at gastrocnemius medialis muscle by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. Significantly higher SmO2 and lower ∆deoxy-Hb and ∆total-Hb were observed in OW compared with NW. Pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) normalized by fat-free mass was matched between groups. In both groups, peak VO2 was significantly correlated with change in SmO2 and ∆deoxy-Hb. Our findings suggest that both muscle blood volume and deoxygenation were lower in overweight adults, compared to aerobic capacity-matched normal-weight adults. Moreover, lowered muscle O2 extraction was related to peak VO2 in overweight adults, as well as in normal-weight adults.


Assuntos
Exercício , Músculo Esquelético , Sobrepeso , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 245-251, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893417

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle metabolic function is known to respond positively to endurance exercise interventions, such as marathon training. Studies investigating skeletal muscle have typically used muscle biopsy samples or magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to interrogate metabolic function. We aimed to non-invasively detect exercise-training-induced improvements in muscle function using broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We used NIRS to determine concentration changes in oxygenated haemoglobin (HbO2) and the oxidation state of cytochrome-c-oxidase (oxCCO) in gastrocnemius during arterial occlusion in 14 volunteers. We also used a cardio-pulmonary exercise test (CPET) to assess peak total body oxygen uptake (peakVO2; a measure of fitness). Measurements were made at baseline (BL) which was prior to a period of at least 16 weeks of training for the 2017 London Marathon, and then within 3 weeks after completion of the marathon, follow-up (FU). We observed an increase in locally measured muscle oxygen consumption and rate of oxCCO concentration change, but not in cardio-respiratory fitness measured as whole-body peak oxygen consumption (peakVO2).


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Consumo de Oxigênio , Corrida , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo
12.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 253-259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) tissue oximeters enable non-invasive measurement of muscle oxygenation and perfusion. Several NIRS oximeters are currently available, particularly for muscle measurements. AIM: To evaluate the agreement of oxygenation and perfusion measurements obtained by two devices (Moxy, Fortiori Designs LLC, USA, and Nimo, Nirox, Italy) during an arterial occlusion test on the arm. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Arterial occlusions were conducted at the arm of one individual for 10 min with 200 mmHg. Measurements were made twice a day on five different days. Both NIRS devices were fixed at the arm (covering the muscles extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, and flexor carpi ulnaris). RESULTS: The experiment revealed that i) both devices could detect changes in muscle oxygenation and perfusion during the occlusion, but ii) the magnitudes and dynamic changes differed between the two devices. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Both devices had different performances with regard to the measurement of tissue oxygenation and perfusion. This study shows that it might be worthwhile to compare all NIRS tissue oximeters currently available for muscle measurement in a large systematic study to increase the comparability of measurements obtained with different devices.


Assuntos
Oximetria , Oxigênio , Adulto , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/normas , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18708, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914078

RESUMO

Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome and it impairs physical function. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at a higher risk of sarcopenia. The purpose of this study is to explore characteristics of general information and metabolic factors of sarcopenia in patients with T2DM in the northeast of China, and provide information for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia in clinical practice.Patients with T2DM aged ≥65 were recruited in Changchun from March 2017 to February 2018. Questionnaires of general information, physical examination, laboratory and imaging examination were conducted. The patients were assigned into sarcopenia group and non-sarcopenia group according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by Asian working group for sarcopenia (AWGS), and the differences between 2 groups were analyzed.A total of 132 participants were included in this study, of which, 38 (28.8%) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. 94 (71.2%) were with no sarcopenia. Logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR: 1.182, 95%CI: 1.038-1.346), trunk fat mass (TFM) (OR: 1.499, 95%CI: 1.146-1.960) and free thyroxine (FT4) (OR: 1.342, 95%CI: 1.102-1.635) were independent risk factors for sarcopenia. BMI (body mass index) (OR: 0.365, 95%CI: 0.236-0.661), exercise (OR: 0.016, 95%CI: 0.001-0.169), female (OR: 0.000, 95%CI: 0.00-0.012), metformin (OR: 0.159, 95%CI: 0.026-0.967) and TSM (trunk skeletal muscle mass) (OR: 0.395, 95%CI: 0.236-0.661) were protective factors for sarcopenia.Sarcopenia in patients with T2DM is associated with increased age, increased TFM and increased FT4 level. Regular exercise, female, metformin administrations, high BMI and increased TSM are associated with lower risk of sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Tiroxina/sangue
15.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(1): 3-11, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791089

RESUMO

This study evaluated the morphological changes of the lower limb and associated hemodynamic responses to different lower-body compression pressures (COMPs) in physically active, healthy individuals at rest. Each of the 32 participants underwent three trials with three different degrees of lower-body compression applied: "Low" (2.2±1.4 mmHg), "Medium" (12.9±3.9 mmHg), and "High" (28.8±8.3 mmHg). In each COMP, a cross-sectional area of leg muscles (CSAmuscle), subcutaneous fat (CSAfat), superficial vessels (SupV), deep arteries (DA), and deep veins (DV) at the calf, knee, and thigh levels were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Additionally, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) were measured using Doppler ultrasound (USCOM®). With High COMP, calf CSAmuscle and SupV were smaller (p<0.01), whereas DA and DV were larger (p<0.05). Calf CSAfat, however, was similar among all COMPs. There were no major changes in CSAmuscle and CSAfat at knee and thigh levels. CO (3.2±0.9 L/min) and SV (51.9±16.4 mL) were higher (p<0.05) only with High COMP, but other hemodynamic variables showed no significant changes across different COMPs. The High COMP at the lower limb induces leg morphological changes and increases associated hemodynamic responses of physically active healthy individuals at rest.


Assuntos
Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Meias de Compressão , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Gordura Subcutânea/irrigação sanguínea , Gordura Subcutânea/diagnóstico por imagem , Gordura Subcutânea/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(1): 36-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747699

RESUMO

Subconcussive head impacts (SHI), defined as impacts to the cranium that do not result in concussion symptoms, are gaining traction as a major public health concern. The contribution of physiological factors such as physical exertion and muscle damage to SHI-dependent changes in neurological measures remains unknown. A prospective longitudinal study examined the association between physiological factors and SHI kinematics in 15 high school American football players over one season. Players wore a sensor-installed mouthguard for all practices and games, recording frequency and magnitude of all head impacts. Serum samples were collected at 12 time points (pre-season, pre- and post-game for five in-season games, and post-season) and were assessed for an isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MM) primarily found in skeletal muscle. Physical exertion was estimated in the form of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) from heart rate data captured during the five games. Mixed-effect regression models indicated that head impact kinematics were significantly and positively associated with change in CK-MM but not EPOC. There was a significant and positive association between CK-MM and EPOC. These data suggest that when examining SHI, effects of skeletal muscle damage should be considered when using outcome measures that may have an interaction with muscle damage.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano/lesões , Cabeça/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Creatina Quinase Forma MM/sangue , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
17.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 38-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613185

RESUMO

To help inform strategies aimed at increasing muscular fitness levels, we examined factors associated with childhood muscular fitness (strength and power) that preceded the recently observed secular decline. Data were available from a nationally representative sample of Australian children aged 7-15 years in 1985 (n = 8469). Muscular fitness measures included strength (right and left grip, shoulder extension and flexion, and leg strength) and power (standing long jump distance). Anthropometric (adiposity, fat-free mass), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), flexibility, speed capability, physical activity (individual and parental), dietary quality and intake (fruit, vegetable, protein) and sociodemographic (area-level socioeconomic status (SES), school type) data were available. Statistical analyses included sex-stratified linear regression. Of all examined factors, measures of adiposity, fat-free mass, CRF, flexibility and speed capability were associated with muscular fitness at levels that met Cohen's threshold for important effects (r-squared = 0.02 to 0.28). These findings highlight the multifactorial relationship between muscular fitness and its determinants. Collectively, these factors were powerful in explaining muscular strength (females: r-squared = 0.32; males: r-squared = 0.41) and muscular power (females: r-squared = 0.36; males: r-squared = 0.42). These findings highlight modifiable and environmental factors that could be targeted to increase childhood muscular fitness.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adolescente , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Meio Ambiente , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Classe Social
18.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 80-87, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions is increasing, and although current guidelines for physical activity attempt to combat this, many fail to achieve the recommended targets. The present study sought to investigate whether regular tennis participation is more effective at enhancing MSK function than meeting the current international physical activity guidelines. HYPOTHESIS: Tennis players will display significantly enhanced MSK function when compared with age-matched healthy active nonplayers. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Ninety participants (age range, 18-65 years) took part in this study; there were 43 tennis players (18 men, 25 women) and 47 nonplayers (26 men, 21 women). MSK function was assessed by cluster analysis of 3 factors: (1) electromyographic fatigability of prime movers during handgrip, knee extension, and knee flexion; (2) isometric strength in the aforementioned movements; and (3) body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximal oxygen uptake was also assessed to characterize cardiorespiratory fitness. RESULTS: Tennis players displayed significantly greater upper body MSK function than nonplayers when cluster scores of body fat percentage, handgrip strength, and flexor carpi radialis fatigue were compared by analysis of covariance, using age as a covariate (tennis players, 0.33 ± 1.93 vs nonplayers, -0.26 ± 1.66; P < 0.05). Similarly, tennis players also demonstrated greater lower extremity function in a cluster of body fat percentage, knee extension strength, and rectus femoris fatigue (tennis players, 0.17 ± 1.76 vs nonplayers, -0.16 ± 1.70; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The present study offers support for improved MSK functionality in tennis players when compared with age-matched healthy active nonplayers. This may be due to the hybrid high-intensity interval training nature of tennis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The findings suggest tennis is an excellent activity mode to promote MSK health and should therefore be more frequently recommended as a viable alternative to existing physical activity guidelines.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Tênis/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1311-1319, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intramuscular fat (IMF) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been thought to play a crucial role in improving meat quality. Considering the ability of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGZ) to deposit fat, and the anti-stress capability of chromium methionine (CrMet), we combined these compounds to produce higher quality meat in poultry. A total of 3000 female chickens were divided into four groups (five replicates, each with 150 chickens): control, control plus15 mg·kg-1 PGZ, control plus 200 µg·kg-1 CrMet, and control plus15 mg·kg-1 PGZ plus 200 µg·kg-1 CrMet. The experiment lasted for 28 days. RESULTS: Compared to the control group and the PGZ group, the average daily gain (ADG) was significantly increased in the PGZ plus CrMet group, whereas the feed-to-gain ratio (F/G) was decreased from 0 to 14 days. Meanwhile, the redness value of breast muscle and IMF of thigh muscle increased in the PGZ plus CrMet group compared with the control group and these detections in the PGZ plus CrMet group exhibited highest value among the four groups. The cooking loss decreased in the breast muscle and thigh muscle after PGZ combined with CrMet in diets. The percentages of C16:1, C18:2n-6 and PUFAs increased in the PGZ plus CrMet group. The mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ, PPAR coactivator 1 α, and fatty acid binding protein 3 was significantly enhanced with PGZ plus CrMet supplementation. CONCLUSION: Collectively, dietary supplementation with PGZ plus CrMet improved growth performance and meat quality by decreasing the cooking loss and increasing the IMF and PUFA levels. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metionina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Cromo/administração & dosagem , Culinária , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Carne/análise , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Músculo Esquelético/química , Pioglitazona/administração & dosagem
20.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110965, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743741

RESUMO

Perilla oil (PerO), a natural oil with a high unsaturated fatty acid content derived from the mature seeds of Perilla frutescens, is a homology of medicine and food. The type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model was successfully established using a high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with a single low-dose of streptozocin (STZ). PerO intervention reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose and the level, size and accumulation of lipid droplets, increased the insulin level and diminished the body weight loss. PerO pretreatment markedly promoted the serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase alanine (AST) and inhibited the levels of glucose (GLU), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC). Moreover, PerO treatment enhanced the expression of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) and activated the expression of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) and phospho-AKT serine/threonine kinase (p-AS160) in the liver. Additionally, PerO treatment distinctly decreased the abundance of Aerococcus and facilitated the richness of Alloprevotella in the intestine, as well as accelerated the restoration of the gut microflora diversity. Thus, PerO regulates intestinal microbiota and alleviates insulin resistance through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in type-2 diabetic KKAy mice and may be a potential functional food for diabetic treatment.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Perilla/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Estreptozocina
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