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1.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eRB4898, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508659

RESUMO

Alongside a proper diet, ergogenic aids with potential direct and/or indirect physical performance enhancing effects are sought after for improved adaptation to physical training. Nutritional ergogenics include diet composition changes and/or dietary supplementation. Branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine are widely popular among products with ergogenic claims. Their major marketing appeal derives from allegations that branched-chain amino acids intake combined with resistance physical exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis. Evidence supporting the efficacy of branched-chain amino acids alone for muscle hypertrophy in humans is somewhat equivocal. This brief review describes physiological and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effects of complete protein source and branched-chain amino acid intake on skeletal muscle growth in the postabsorptive and post-exercise state. Evidence in favor of or against potential anabolic effects of isolated branched-chain amino acid intake on muscle protein synthesis in humans is also examined.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício/fisiologia , Absorção Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8551, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482977

RESUMO

Fibroblasts are a highly heterogeneous population of cells, being found in a large number of different tissues. These cells produce the extracellular matrix, which is essential to preserve structural integrity of connective tissues. Fibroblasts are frequently engaged in migration and remodeling, exerting traction forces in the extracellular matrix, which is crucial for matrix deposition and wound healing. In addition, previous studies performed on primary myoblasts suggest that the E3 ligase MuRF2 might function as a cytoskeleton adaptor. Here, we hypothesized that MuRF2 also plays a functional role in skeletal muscle fibroblasts. We found that skeletal muscle fibroblasts express MuRF2 and its siRNA knock-down promoted decreased fibroblast migration, cell border accumulation of polymerized actin, and down-regulation of the phospho-Akt expression. Our results indicated that MuRF2 was necessary to maintain the actin cytoskeleton functionality in skeletal muscle fibroblasts via Akt activity and exerted an important role in extracellular matrix remodeling in the skeletal muscle tissue.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Proteínas Musculares/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/fisiologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Camundongos , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
3.
Life Sci ; 232: 116604, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260684

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients present L-arginine (L-arg) deficiency and L-arg supplementation has been used as a treatment. In addition, sarcopenia is another common problem in CKD population, resistance training (RT) is one of the conservative strategies developed to prevent CKD progression, and however there are no evidences of a combination of these two strategies to treat CKD outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral L-arg supplementation combined with RT in an experimental model of CKD. Twenty-five Munich-Wistar male rats, 8-week-old were divided in 5 groups: Sham (sedentary control), Nx (CKD sedentary), Nx L-arg (CKD sedentary supplemented with 2% of L-arg), Nx RT (CKD exercised) Nx RT + L-arg (CKD exercised and supplemented with 2% of L-arg). CKD model was obtained by a subtotal 5/6 nephrectomy. RT was performed on a ladder climbing, three weekly sessions on non-consecutive days, with an intensity of 70% maximum carrying capacity. They were submitted to RT and/or L-arg supplementation for 10 weeks. There was a significant improvement in muscle strength, renal function, anti-inflammatory cytokines, arginase metabolism and renal fibrosis after RT. However, the combination of RT and L-arg impaired all the improvements promoted by RT alone. The L-arg supplementation alone did not impair renal fibrosis and renal function. In conclusion, RT improved inflammatory balance, muscle strength, renal function and consequently decreased renal fibrosis. Nevertheless, the association with L-arg supplementation prevented all these effects promoted by RT.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Animais , Arginina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 233, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing costs of feed has subsequently increased the costs of production of livestock, thereby decreasing the profit margin of this sector. The utilization of agro-industrial by-products has to some extent substitute some of the corn grains and soyabean meal, commonly used in animal feeds. In Malaysia, palm kernel cake (PKC) is a by-product of the oil palm industry and is frequently used to supply both crude protein (14-16% CP) and energy (11 MJ/kg) in ruminants. The energy and protein content are adequate for maintenance in the majority of ruminants. However, highly available energy supplementation is known to improve growth performance and protein deposition. This study was carried out to determine the effect on the quality of meat and fatty acid composition of the semitendinosus (ST), supraspinatus (SS), and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles of Dorper lambs by including corn as an energy source in a basal diet of PKC urea-treated rice straw. RESULTS: The results show that the LL muscle-drip loss was greater in animals supplemented with 5% corn compared to the other groups. Higher pH values of SS and LL muscles were observed in animals supplemented with 5 and 10% corn. Furthermore, the L* value of ST muscle was increased in lambs fed on 5% corn while, reduced in those fed on 0% corn, but the a* and b* values were not significantly different in the treatment groups. The fatty acid composition of the SS muscles showed that lambs fed on 10% corn had higher levels of sum PUFA n-3 compared to those fed on 0% corn. The concentration of C18:1trans11 and CLA c12 t10 in ST muscle from the lambs fed on supplemented diets were higher than those of the controls. CONCLUSION: This study has concluded the supplementation of corn as a source of energy into a PKC urea-treated rice straw-based diet increased the PUFA concentrations of muscles as compared to control groups.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/normas , Músculo Esquelético/química , Oryza/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Malásia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ovinos , Ureia/química
5.
Food Chem ; 298: 125030, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260978

RESUMO

Plant extracts from rosemary (RE), green tea (GTE), and maté (ME) were compared for the protection against iron-induced oxidation in porcine homogenates at total phenolic concentrations from 25 to 250 ppm. Lipid oxidation as indicated by TBARS was in all cases sufficiently suppressed, especially for RE. Hydrophobic RE retarded overall oxidation in the homogenates with an inverted dose-dependent response. Optimum delay of oxygen consumption was found at the lowest concentration applied, similar to protection against thiols and formation of protein radicals as measured by ESR, whereas the high concentration increased oxygen consumption and caused additionally thiol loss possibly due to thiol-quinone interactions, generating protein-phenol complexes. Hydrophilic ME or GTE increased the initial oxygen consumption rate as an indication of prooxidant activities at elevated concentrations. However, they were found to protect myoglobin and protein at those high concentrations with GTE being more efficient, possibly due to better chelation effect.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Ferro/química , Ferro/toxicidade , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mioglobina/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosmarinus/química , Suínos , Chá/química
6.
Int J Exp Pathol ; 100(3): 175-183, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321841

RESUMO

Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a leucine metabolite with protein anabolic effects. We examined the effects of an HMB-enriched diet in healthy rats and rats with liver cirrhosis induced by multiple doses of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). HMB increased branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; valine, leucine and isoleucine) in blood and BCAA and ATP in muscles of healthy animals. The effect on muscle mass and protein content was insignificant. In CCl4-treated animals alterations characteristic of liver cirrhosis were found with decreased ratio of the BCAA to aromatic amino acids in blood and lower muscle mass and ATP content when compared with controls. In CCl4-treated animals consuming HMB, we observed higher mortality, lower body weight, higher BCAA levels in blood plasma, higher ATP content in muscles, and lower ATP content and higher cathepsin B and L activities in the liver when compared with CCl4-treated animals without HMB. We conclude that (1) HMB supplementation has a positive effect on muscle mitochondrial function and enhances BCAA concentrations in healthy animals and (2) the effects of HMB on the course of liver cirrhosis in CCl4-treated rats are detrimental. Further studies examining the effects of HMB in other models of hepatic injury are needed to determine pros and cons of HMB in the treatment of subjects with liver cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Valeratos/farmacologia , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leucina/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2767, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235694

RESUMO

The coactivator PGC-1α1 is activated by exercise training in skeletal muscle and promotes fatigue-resistance. In exercised muscle, PGC-1α1 enhances the expression of kynurenine aminotransferases (Kats), which convert kynurenine into kynurenic acid. This reduces kynurenine-associated neurotoxicity and generates glutamate as a byproduct. Here, we show that PGC-1α1 elevates aspartate and glutamate levels and increases the expression of glycolysis and malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS) genes. These interconnected processes improve energy utilization and transfer fuel-derived electrons to mitochondrial respiration. This PGC-1α1-dependent mechanism allows trained muscle to use kynurenine metabolism to increase the bioenergetic efficiency of glucose oxidation. Kat inhibition with carbidopa impairs aspartate biosynthesis, mitochondrial respiration, and reduces exercise performance and muscle force in mice. Our findings show that PGC-1α1 activates the MAS in skeletal muscle, supported by kynurenine catabolism, as part of the adaptations to endurance exercise. This crosstalk between kynurenine metabolism and the MAS may have important physiological and clinical implications.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Carbidopa/farmacologia , Respiração Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Respiração Celular/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/fisiologia , Malatos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Transaminases/antagonistas & inibidores , Transaminases/metabolismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 7197-7203, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240934

RESUMO

Nutritional profiles and consumer preferences differ between wild and farmed fish, and identification of fish sources can be difficult. We analyzed the metabolite molecules of wild and farmed red sea bream ( Pagrus major) to identify specific metabolic differences. The total lipid content and molecular composition of wild and farmed red sea bream muscles were analyzed using thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry imaging. Triacylglycerol levels were significantly higher in farmed fish. Wild fish contained saturated-fatty-acid-containing triacylglycerols as a major molecular species, while docosahexaenoic-acid-containing triacylglycerol levels were significantly higher in farmed fish than in wild fish. The localization of each muscle-fiber-type-specific marker demonstrated that wild fish exhibit myosin heavy chain (MHC)-type-IIb-specific phospholipids, while farmed fish exhibit MHC-type-IIa-specific phospholipids in their white muscle. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses separated the identified myosins and revealed that farmed fish possess additional myosin isoforms when compared to wild fish. In addition, we found a farmed-fish-specific distribution of anserine in their white muscle. These molecules can be used as new molecular markers for determining the geographic origins of wild versus farmed red sea bream.


Assuntos
Dourada/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Animais Selvagens/metabolismo , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Pesqueiros , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/química , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
9.
Biochemistry (Mosc) ; 84(4): 435-440, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228935

RESUMO

Active skeletal muscles produce lactate. H+ is generated during lactate neutralization in the Cori cycle, which leads to muscle acidosis and soreness (the so-called Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness, DOMS) in vertebrates. The aim of the study was to determine the activities/concentrations of compounds involved in the Cori cycle in worker and forager bees. Muscles, fat bodies, and hemolymph from 1- and 14-day-old workers and foragers were collected and assayed for the protein, lactate, glucose, NAD+, and NADH concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Both lactate concentration and LDH activity in the hemolymph, muscles, and fat bodies increased with age. The concentrations of NAD+ and NADH in the tissues decreased with ageing/senescence, whereas protein concentrations increased until day 14 of bee's life and then decreased in foragers. The concentration of glucose decreased in the hemolymph and muscles and increased in the fat bodies. Elevated lactate concentrations in foragers may indicate transition from the aerobic to the anaerobic phase and development of metabolic acidosis that may eventually lead to muscle damage/soreness and shorter lifespan. When analyzing flight dynamics, load mass, and bee behavior, changes in the concentrations of Cori cycle compounds should be taken into account.


Assuntos
L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Animais , Abelhas , Corpo Adiposo/enzimologia , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/enzimologia , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mialgia/patologia , Mialgia/veterinária , NAD/metabolismo
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2430, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160583

RESUMO

Muscle loss due to fibrotic or adipogenic replacement of myofibers is common in muscle diseases and muscle-resident fibro/adipogenic precursors (FAPs) are implicated in this process. While FAP-mediated muscle fibrosis is widely studied in muscle diseases, the role of FAPs in adipogenic muscle loss is not well understood. Adipogenic muscle loss is a feature of limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2B (LGMD2B) - a disease caused by mutations in dysferlin. Here we show that FAPs cause the adipogenic loss of dysferlin deficient muscle. Progressive accumulation of Annexin A2 (AnxA2) in the myofiber matrix causes FAP differentiation into adipocytes. Lack of AnxA2 prevents FAP adipogenesis, protecting against adipogenic loss of dysferlinopathic muscle while exogenous AnxA2 enhances muscle loss. Pharmacological inhibition of FAP adipogenesis arrests adipogenic replacement and degeneration of dysferlin-deficient muscle. These results demonstrate the pathogenic role of FAPs in LGMD2B and establish these cells as therapeutic targets to ameliorate muscle loss in patients.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/citologia , Adipócitos/patologia , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Animais , Anexina A2/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disferlina/genética , Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/genética , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/patologia , Fenilalanina/análogos & derivados , Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Life Sci ; 232: 116603, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254587

RESUMO

AIMS: Although anabolic steroids (AS) and trans-fatty acids overload exerts systemic toxicity and are independent risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, their interaction remains poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the impact of a diet rich in trans-fatty acids (HFD) combined with AS on glycemic control, lipid profile, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and pancreas microstructure and expression of genes involved in energy metabolism. MAIN METHODS: Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice were randomized into 6 groups treated for 12 weeks with a standard diet (SD) or a diet rich in C18:1 trans-fatty isomers (HFD), alone or combined with 10 or 20 mg/kg testosterone cypionate (AS). KEY FINDINGS: Our results indicated that AS improved glycemic control, upregulated gene expression of Glut-4 and CPT-1 in skeletal muscle, FAS, ACC and UCP-1 in adipose tissue. AS also reduced total and LDL cholesterol in mice fed a SD. When combined with the HFD, AS was unable to induce microstructural adaptations in adipose tissue, pancreatic islets and ß-cells, but potentiated GCK and Glut-2 (pancreas) and Glut-4 and CPT-1 (skeletal muscle) upregulation. HFD plus AS also downregulated FAS and ACC gene expression in adipose tissue. Combined with HFD, AS increased triacylglycerol circulating levels, improved insulin sensitivity and glycemic control in mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicated that HFD and AS can interact to modulates glycemic control and lipid profile by a mechanism potentially related with a reprogramming of genes expression in organs such as the pancreas, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Congêneres da Testosterona/genética , Congêneres da Testosterona/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Trans/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Carga Glicêmica/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Trans/fisiologia
12.
Food Chem ; 295: 129-137, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174741

RESUMO

Heat stress causes oxidative damage and quality reduction in poultry. Here, a tandem mass tag proteomic approach was applied to investigate the proteomic differences in duck meat from birds exposed to heat stress. Altogether 212 differential proteins were identified, including 178 down-regulated and 34 up-regulated proteins, compared to the control. Malondialdehyde and carbonyl content and cooking loss of the chest muscle significantly increased under heat stress. The proteomic analysis indicated that heat stress suppressed mitochondrial functions and respiratory chains, which might be responsible for the higher oxidation level. The results also revealed potential protective proteins involved in the defensive mechanisms against heat stress in duck muscles, such as sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases, Mn-superoxide dismutase, heat shock protein family B member 7, methyltransferase like 21C, myosin-binding protein C, and carbonic anhydrase 3. These results provide potential targets for the research and identification of oxidative meat products due to heat stress.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Animais , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/metabolismo , Culinária , Patos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(7): 434-439, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189188

RESUMO

This study investigated aerobic metabolism responses in trunk muscles during a prolonged trunk extension exercise in athletes and untrained young men. The aim was to analyze the adaptations induced by 2 types of sports: one involving intensive use of trunk muscles (i. e., judo), and one known to induce high aerobic capacity in the whole body (i. e., cycling). Eleven judokas, 10 cyclists and 9 healthy untrained young men performed trunk extension exercises on an isokinetic dynamometer. During the first session, muscle strength was assessed during maximal trunk extension. During a second session, a 5-min exercise was performed to investigate aerobic responses with regard to trunk muscles. The near infrared spectroscopy technique and a gas exchange analyzer were used continuously to evaluate mechanical efficiency, V̇O2 on-set kinetics, trunk muscle deoxygenation and blood volume. Judokas showed greater trunk strength and mechanical efficiency (p<0.05). Cyclists presented faster V̇O2 on-set kinetics (p<0.05) and greater muscle deoxygenation and blood volume compared to untrained men (p<0.001). These results suggest that practicing judo improves trunk extension efficiency whereas cycling accelerates aerobic pathways and enhances microvascular responses to trunk extension exercise. Sport practice improves aerobic metabolism responses in trunk extensor muscles differently, according to the training specificities.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Volume Sanguíneo , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Consumo de Oxigênio , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Torque , Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Food Chem ; 293: 396-407, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151627

RESUMO

To explore the involvement of protein lysine acetylation in the conversion of muscle to meat, a quantitative analysis of the acetylome in postmortem porcine muscle with or without antemortem stress was conducted. In total, 771 acetylpeptides containing 681 lysine acetylation sites mapping to 176 acetylproteins were identified. Acetylproteins were enriched in muscle contraction, carbohydrate metabolism, cell apoptosis and calcium signaling. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that preslaughter handling may be associated with glycolysis in postmortem muscle and the overall meat quality, via acetylation of multiple enzymes of glycogenolysis/glycolysis, regulate rigor mortis via acetylation of contractile, ATP production and calcium signaling-related proteins, and regulate stress response, cell apoptosis and meat tenderization via regulating the functions of heat shock proteins and permeability transition pore complex. This study provides the first overview of the acetylome in postmortem muscle as affected by preslaughter handling and broadens knowledge of the biochemistry regulating meat quality development.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Lisina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Acetilação , Animais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Glicólise , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Carne/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Estresse Psicológico , Suínos
15.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(6): 674-686, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160712

RESUMO

In vertebrates, multipotent progenitors located in the pharyngeal mesoderm form cardiomyocytes and branchiomeric head muscles, but the dynamic gene expression programmes and mechanisms underlying cardiopharyngeal multipotency and heart versus head muscle fate choices remain elusive. Here, we used single-cell genomics in the simple chordate model Ciona to reconstruct developmental trajectories forming first and second heart lineages and pharyngeal muscle precursors and characterize the molecular underpinnings of cardiopharyngeal fate choices. We show that FGF-MAPK signalling maintains multipotency and promotes the pharyngeal muscle fate, whereas signal termination permits the deployment of a pan-cardiac programme, shared by the first and second heart lineages, to define heart identity. In the second heart lineage, a Tbx1/10-Dach pathway actively suppresses the first heart lineage programme, conditioning later cell diversity in the beating heart. Finally, cross-species comparisons between Ciona and the mouse evoke the deep evolutionary origins of cardiopharyngeal networks in chordates.


Assuntos
Ciona intestinalis/genética , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculos Faríngeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem da Célula/genética , Ciona intestinalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Genômica , Mesoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/citologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
16.
Life Sci ; 231: 116533, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173783

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) against skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and to determine the underlying mechanism. MAIN METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: skeletal muscle IR injury group (IR), CIHH pretreatment following IR group (IR + CIHH), and sham operation group (Sham). The skeletal muscle IR injury model was induced by the unilateral application of a tourniquet on a hind limb for 3 h and then releasing it for 24 h. CIHH pretreatment simulating a 5000-m altitude was applied 6 h per day for 28 days. The functional and morphological performance of IR-injured gastrocnemius muscle was evaluated using contraction force, H&E staining, and transmission electron microscopy. IR injury-induced CD68+ macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunofluorescence. TNFα levels in serum and muscle were measured by ELISA and western blotting, respectively. Apoptosis was examined by TUNEL staining and Cleaved Caspase-3 protein expression. KEY FINDINGS: Acute IR injury resulted in reduced contraction tension, morphological destruction, macrophage infiltration, increased TNFα levels, and apoptosis in gastrocnemius muscle. CIHH pretreatment significantly ameliorated contraction function and morphological performance in IR-injured skeletal muscle. In addition, CIHH pretreatment resulted in marked decreases in CD68+ macrophage infiltration, TNFα levels, and apoptosis. SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrated that CIHH has a protective effect against acute IR injury in skeletal muscle via inhibition of inflammation and apoptosis.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 38(3): 237-244, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184310

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia impairs oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle. Muscle oxidative capacity is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α). Transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO2) enhances PGC-1α expression in skeletal muscle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the effects of CO2 therapy on muscle oxidative capacity impaired by streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, CO2 treatment, STZ-induced hyperglycemia, and STZ-induced hyperglycemia treated with CO2. STZ-induced hyperglycemia resulted in a decrease of muscle oxidative capacity and decreased PGC-1α and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 (COX-4) expression levels; while, application of transcutaneous CO2 attenuated this effect, and enhanced the expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis (eNOS). These results indicate that transcutaneous CO2 improves impaired muscle oxidative capacity via enhancement of eNOS and PGC-1α-related signaling in the skeletal muscle of rats with hyperglycemia.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
DNA Res ; 26(3): 261-272, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231762

RESUMO

Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing meditated by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) enzymes is a widespread post-transcriptional event in mammals. However, A-to-I editing in skeletal muscle remains poorly understood. By integrating strand-specific RNA-seq, whole genome bisulphite sequencing, and genome sequencing data, we comprehensively profiled the A-to-I editome in developing skeletal muscles across 27 prenatal and postnatal stages in pig, an important farm animal and biomedical model. We detected 198,892 A-to-I editing sites and found that they occurred more frequently at prenatal stages and showed low conservation among pig, human, and mouse. Both the editing level and frequency decreased during development and were positively correlated with ADAR enzymes expression. The hyper-edited genes were functionally related to the cell cycle and cell division. A co-editing module associated with myogenesis was identified. The developmentally differential editing sites were functionally enriched in genes associated with muscle development, their editing levels were highly correlated with expression of their host mRNAs, and they potentially influenced the gain/loss of miRNA binding sites. Finally, we developed a database to visualize the Sus scrofa RNA editome. Our study presents the first profile of the dynamic A-to-I editome in developing animal skeletal muscle and provides evidences that RNA editing is a vital regulator of myogenesis.


Assuntos
Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Edição de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Animais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Sus scrofa/genética , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
Georgian Med News ; (289): 47-50, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215878

RESUMO

In patients with chronic renal failure receiving hemodialysis, the development of protein-energy wasting (PEW) has a significant impact on the quality and duration of life. Myostatin (MSTN) and protein kinase-ß (AKT) play an important role in this process. The aim of our study was to assess the contribution of these molecular markers of muscle metabolism to the development of PEW in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5D (CKD5D). The study included 80 patients with CKD5D. All patients underwent anthropometric research, hand dynamometry, bio-impedancemetry. MSTN and AKT levels were determined in the blood by ELISA. In the study, the prevalence of PEW was 90%. We have proposed a catabolic muscle tissue index (CMTI), which takes into account the complex effect of the relationship between MSTN and AKT on the development of PEW. An increase in this index in degrees from 0-2 characterizes the prevalence of catabolic processes in muscle tissue. There is an increase in CMTI with the progression of nutritional disorders in patients on hemodialysis (HD). An increase in CMTI is associated with a decrease in muscle strength, muscle mass (measured by the diameter of the shoulder). No correlation was found between CMTI and gender, age, or bio-impedance indicators, which requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica , Músculo Esquelético , Miostatina , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miostatina/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Desnutrição Proteico-Calórica/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Diálise Renal
20.
Anim Genet ; 50(4): 395-398, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179574

RESUMO

In recent years, Luchuan pigs in southern China have been used to produce high-quality meat by crossbreeding them with Duroc boars; however, PSE (pale, soft and exudative) meat was frequently reported in the crossbred pigs, and the underlying reason remains unknown. We excluded the possibility of the well-known causative mutations in RYR1 and PRKAG3 but identified the existence of an unfavorable allele of a splicing mutation (g.8283C>A) in PHKG1 in two Duroc boars and three Duroc × Luchuan crossbred pigs with PSE meat. An association analysis with 425 Duroc × Luchuan crossbred pigs revealed that the polymorphism of the splicing site of PHKG1 has significant association with the ultimate meat pH value (P = 0.035) and color score (P = 0.004). In addition, a strong cis-eQTL (expression QTL) signal for the expression of PHKG1 was identified in 189 Duroc × Luchuan crossbred pigs, and the splicing mutation was proven to be significantly associated with the expression of PHKG1 (P = 4.01e-11). Furthermore, RNA-sequencing data analysis confirmed that 131 CC homozygotes had only one transcript (T1), with FPKM (fragments per kilobase of transcript per million) of 35.40 ± 7.28, and 58 CA heterozygotes had two types of transcripts (T1 and T2), with FPKM of 19.63 ± 5.11 and 9.20 ± 2.39 respectively. Based on the association and eQTL analysis results, we concluded that PSE meat in Duroc × Luchuan crossbred pigs is caused by the splicing mutation in PHKG1. Our findings further support the effect of the causative mutation in PHKG1 on meat quality. The GEO accession number for the data is GSE124315.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Sus scrofa/genética , Animais , Carne , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mutação , Processamento de RNA
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