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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360769

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency during pregnancy is a key reason for preeclampsia development. Besides its important vasomotor role, NO is shown to regulate the cell transcriptome. However, the role of NO in transcriptional regulation of developing smooth muscle has never been studied before. We hypothesized that in early ontogeny, NO is important for the regulation of arterial smooth muscle-specific genes expression. Pregnant rats consumed NO-synthase inhibitor L-NAME (500 mg/L in drinking water) from gestational day 10 till delivery, which led to an increase in blood pressure, a key manifestation of preeclampsia. L-NAME reduced blood concentrations of NO metabolites in dams and their newborn pups, as well as relaxations of pup aortic rings to acetylcholine. Using qPCR, we demonstrated reduced abundances of the smooth muscle-specific myosin heavy chain isoform, α-actin, SM22α, and L-type Ca2+-channel mRNAs in the aorta of newborn pups from the L-NAME group compared to control pups. To conclude, the intrauterine NO deficiency weakens gene expression specific for a contractile phenotype of arterial smooth muscle in newborn offspring.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/deficiência , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/induzido quimicamente , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Útero/patologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445528

RESUMO

Restenosis is a common vascular complication after balloon angioplasty. Catheter balloon inflation-induced transient ischemia (hypoxia) of local arterial tissues plays a pathological role in neointima formation. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-generating glycolytic enzyme, has been reported to associate with cell survival and can be triggered under hypoxia. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible role and regulation of PGK1 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and balloon-injured arteries under hypoxia. Neointimal hyperplasia was induced by a rat carotid artery injury model. The cellular functions and regulatory mechanisms of PGK1 in VSMCs were investigated using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), chemical inhibitors, or anaerobic cultivation. Our data indicated that protein expression of PGK1 can be rapidly induced at a very early stage after balloon angioplasty, and the silencing PGK1-induced low cellular energy circumstance resulted in the suppressions of VSMC proliferation and migration. Moreover, the experimental results demonstrated that blockage of PDGF receptor-ß (PDGFRB) or its downstream pathway, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) axis, effectively reduced hypoxia-induced factor-1 (HIF-1α) and PGK1 expressions in VSMCs. In vivo study evidenced that PGK1 knockdown significantly reduced neointima hyperplasia. PGK1 was expressed at the early stage of neointimal formation, and suppressing PGK1 has a potential beneficial effect for preventing restenosis.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão/efeitos adversos , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/terapia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neointima/patologia , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Neointima/etiologia , Neointima/metabolismo , Fosfoglicerato Quinase/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
3.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21822, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314061

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare but deadly cardiopulmonary disorder, is characterized by extensive remodeling of pulmonary arteries resulting from enhancement of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis; however, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain largely unknown. Recently, epigenetics has gained increasing prominence in the development of PH. We aimed to investigate the role of vestigial-like family member 4 (VGLL4) in chronic normobaric hypoxia (CNH)-induced PH and to address whether it is associated with epigenetic regulation. The rodent model of PH was established by CNH treatment (10% O2 , 23 hours/day). Western blot, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and adeno-associated virus tests were performed to explore the potential mechanisms involved in CNH-induced PH in mice. VGLL4 expression was upregulated and correlated with CNH in PH mouse lung tissues in a time-dependent manner. VGLL4 colocalized with α-smooth muscle actin in cultured pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), and VGLL4 immunoactivity was increased in PASMCs following hypoxia exposure in vitro. VGLL4 knockdown attenuated CNH-induced PH and pulmonary artery remodeling by blunting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling; conversely, VGLL4 overexpression exacerbated the development of PH. CNH enhanced the acetylation of VGLL4 and increased the interaction of ac-H3K9/VGLL4 and ac-H3K9/STAT3 in the lung tissues, and levels of ac-H3K9, p-STAT3/STAT3, and proliferation-associated protein levels were markedly up-regulated, whereas apoptosis-related protein levels were significantly downregulated, in the lung tissues of mice with CNH-induced PH. Notably, abrogation of VGLL4 acetylation reversed CNH-induced PH and pulmonary artery remodeling and suppressed STAT3 signaling. Finally, STAT3 knockdown alleviated CNH-induced PH. In conclusion, VGLL4 acetylation upregulation could contribute to CNH-induced PH and pulmonary artery remodeling via STAT3 signaling, and abrogation of VGLL4 acetylation reversed CNH-induced PH. Pharmacological or genetic deletion of VGLL4 might be a potential target for therapeutic interventions in CNH-induced PH.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Pulmão , Músculo Liso Vascular , Artéria Pulmonar , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Remodelação Vascular , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Doença Crônica , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Artéria Pulmonar/patologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
4.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(180): 20210336, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314650

RESUMO

Hypertension induces significant aortic remodelling, often adaptive but sometimes not. To identify immuno-mechanical mechanisms responsible for differential remodelling, we studied thoracic aortas from 129S6/SvEvTac and C57BL/6 J mice before and after continuous 14-day angiotensin II infusion, which elevated blood pressure similarly in both strains. Histological and biomechanical assessments of excised vessels were similar at baseline, suggesting a common homeostatic set-point for mean wall stress. Histology further revealed near mechano-adaptive remodelling of the hypertensive 129S6/SvEvTac aortas, but a grossly maladaptive remodelling of C57BL/6 J aortas. Bulk RNA sequencing suggested that increased smooth muscle contractile processes promoted mechano-adaptation of 129S6/SvEvTac aortas while immune processes prevented adaptation of C57BL/6 J aortas. Functional studies confirmed an increased vasoconstrictive capacity of the former while immunohistochemistry demonstrated marked increases in inflammatory cells in the latter. We then used multiple computational biomechanical models to test the hypothesis that excessive adventitial wall stress correlates with inflammatory cell infiltration. These models consistently predicted that increased vasoconstriction against an increased pressure coupled with modest deposition of new matrix thickens the wall appropriately, restoring wall stress towards homeostatic consistent with adaptive remodelling. By contrast, insufficient vasoconstriction permits high wall stresses and exuberant inflammation-driven matrix deposition, especially in the adventitia, reflecting compromised homeostasis and gross maladaptation.


Assuntos
Túnica Adventícia , Hipertensão , Túnica Adventícia/patologia , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Hipertensão/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia
5.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): e427-e439, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261328

RESUMO

Objective: Atheromatous fibrous caps are produced by smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that are recruited to the subendothelial space. We tested whether the recruitment mechanisms are the same as in embryonic artery development, which relies prominently on Notch signaling to form the subendothelial medial SMC layers. Approach and Results: Notch elements were expressed in regions of fibrous cap in human and mouse plaques. To assess the causal role of Notch signaling in cap formation, we studied atherosclerosis in mice where the Notch pathway was inactivated in SMCs by conditional knockout of the essential effector transcription factor RBPJ (recombination signal-binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region). The recruitment of cap SMCs was significantly reduced without major effects on plaque size. Lineage tracing revealed the accumulation of SMC-derived plaque cells in the cap region was unaltered but that Notch-defective cells failed to re-acquire the SMC phenotype in the cap. Conversely, to analyze whether the loss of Notch signaling is required for SMC-derived cells to accumulate in atherogenesis, we studied atherosclerosis in mice with constitutive activation of Notch signaling in SMCs achieved by conditional expression of the Notch intracellular domain. Forced Notch signaling inhibited the ability of medial SMCs to contribute to plaque cells, including both cap SMCs and osteochondrogenic cells, and significantly reduced atherosclerosis development. Conclusions: Sequential loss and gain of Notch signaling is needed to build the cap SMC population. The shared mechanisms with embryonic arterial media assembly suggest that the cap forms as a neo-media that restores the connection between endothelium and subendothelial SMCs, transiently disrupted in early atherogenesis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Túnica Média/metabolismo , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Artérias/metabolismo , Artérias/patologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linhagem da Célula , Células Cultivadas , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose , Humanos , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/metabolismo , Proteína Jagged-1/genética , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Fenótipo , Ratos , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Túnica Média/patologia
6.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2399-2416, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289702

RESUMO

Objective: Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) plasticity plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as important regulators in the vessel wall and impact cellular function through diverse interactors. However, the role of lncRNAs in regulating VSMCs plasticity and atherosclerosis remains unclear. Approach and Results: We identified a VSMC-enriched lncRNA cardiac mesoderm enhancer-associated noncoding RNA (CARMN) that is dynamically regulated with progression of atherosclerosis. In both mouse and human atherosclerotic plaques, CARMN colocalized with VSMCs and was expressed in the nucleus. Knockdown of CARMN using antisense oligonucleotides in Ldlr−/− mice significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation by 38% and suppressed VSMCs proliferation by 45% without affecting apoptosis. In vitro CARMN gain- and loss-of-function studies verified effects on VSMC proliferation, migration, and differentiation. TGF-ß1 (transforming growth factor-beta) induced CARMN expression in a Smad2/3-dependent manner. CARMN regulated VSMC plasticity independent of the miR143/145 cluster, which is located in close proximity to the CARMN locus. Mechanistically, lncRNA pulldown in combination with mass spectrometry analysis showed that the nuclear-localized CARMN interacted with SRF (serum response factor) through a specific 600­1197 nucleotide domain. CARMN enhanced SRF occupancy on the promoter regions of its downstream VSMC targets. Finally, knockdown of SRF abolished the regulatory role of CARMN in VSMC plasticity. Conclusions: The lncRNA CARMN is a critical regulator of VSMC plasticity and atherosclerosis. These findings highlight the role of a lncRNA in SRF-dependent signaling and provide implications for a range of chronic vascular occlusive disease states.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Plasticidade Celular , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Fator de Resposta Sérica/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Fenótipo , Placa Aterosclerótica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Receptores de LDL/genética , Fator de Resposta Sérica/genética , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2469-2482, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320834

RESUMO

Objective: Critical limb ischemia is a major complication of diabetes characterized by insufficient collateral vessel development and proper growth factor signaling unresponsiveness. Although mainly deactivated by hypoxia, phosphatases are important players in the deregulation of proangiogenetic pathways. Previously, SHP-1 (Scr homology 2-containing phosphatase-1) was found to be associated with the downregulation of growth factor actions in the diabetic muscle. Thus, we aimed to gain further understanding of the impact of SHP-1 on smooth muscle cell (SMC) function under hypoxic and diabetic conditions. Approach and Results: Despite being inactivated under hypoxic conditions, high glucose level exposure sustained SHP-1 phosphatase activity in SMC and increased its interaction with PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor)-ß, thus reducing PDGF proangiogenic actions. Overexpression of an inactive form of SHP-1 fully restored PDGF-induced proliferation, migration, and signaling pathways in SMC exposed to high glucose and hypoxia. Nondiabetic and diabetic mice with deletion of SHP-1 specifically in SMC were generated. Ligation of the femoral artery was performed, and blood flow was measured for 4 weeks. Blood flow reperfusion, vascular density and maturation, and limb survival were all improved while vascular apoptosis was attenuated in diabetic SMC-specific SHP-1 null mice as compared to diabetic mice. Conclusions: Diabetes and high glucose level exposure maintained SHP-1 activity preventing hypoxia-induced PDGF actions in SMC. Specific deletion of SHP-1 in SMC partially restored blood flow reperfusion in the diabetic ischemic limb. Therefore, local modulation of SHP-1 activity in SMC could represent a potential therapeutic avenue to improve the proangiogenic properties of SMC under ischemia and diabetes.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/enzimologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/enzimologia , Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Isquemia/enzimologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Hipóxia Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/genética , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(9): 1578-1589, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265237

RESUMO

Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is characterized by dilation of the aortic root or ascending/descending aorta. TAA is a heritable disease that can be potentially life threatening. While 10%-20% of TAA cases are caused by rare, pathogenic variants in single genes, the origin of the majority of TAA cases remains unknown. A previous study implicated common variants in FBN1 with TAA disease risk. Here, we report a genome-wide scan of 1,351 TAA-affected individuals and 18,295 control individuals from the Cardiovascular Health Improvement Project and Michigan Genomics Initiative at the University of Michigan. We identified a genome-wide significant association with TAA for variants within the third intron of TCF7L2 following replication with meta-analysis of four additional independent cohorts. Common variants in this locus are the strongest known genetic risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Although evidence indicates the presence of different causal variants for TAA and type 2 diabetes at this locus, we observed an opposite direction of effect. The genetic association for TAA colocalizes with an aortic eQTL of TCF7L2, suggesting a functional relationship. These analyses predict an association of higher expression of TCF7L2 with TAA disease risk. In vitro, we show that upregulation of TCF7L2 is associated with BCL2 repression promoting vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, a key driver of TAA disease.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Íntrons , Michigan , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2431-2451, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196217

RESUMO

Objective: Arterial restenosis is the pathological narrowing of arteries after endovascular procedures, and it is an adverse event that causes patients to experience recurrent occlusive symptoms. Following angioplasty, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) change their phenotype, migrate, and proliferate, resulting in neointima formation, a hallmark of arterial restenosis. SIKs (salt-inducible kinases) are a subfamily of the AMP-activated protein kinase family that play a critical role in metabolic diseases including hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism. Their role in vascular pathological remodeling, however, has not been explored. In this study, we aimed to understand the role and regulation of SIK3 in vascular SMC migration, proliferation, and neointima formation. Approach and Results: We observed that SIK3 expression was low in contractile aortic SMCs but high in proliferating SMCs. It was also highly induced by growth medium in vitro and in neointimal lesions in vivo. Inactivation of SIKs significantly attenuated vascular SMC proliferation and up-regulated p21CIP1 and p27KIP1. SIK inhibition also suppressed SMC migration and modulated actin polymerization. Importantly, we found that inhibition of SIKs reduced neointima formation and vascular inflammation in a femoral artery wire injury model. In mechanistic studies, we demonstrated that inactivation of SIKs mainly suppressed SMC proliferation by down-regulating AKT (protein kinase B) and PKA (protein kinase A)-CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) signaling. CRTC3 (CREB-regulated transcriptional coactivator 3) signaling likely contributed to SIK inactivation-mediated antiproliferative effects. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SIK3 may play a critical role in regulating SMC proliferation, migration, and arterial restenosis. This study provides insights into SIK inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy for treating restenosis in patients with peripheral arterial disease.


Assuntos
Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/enzimologia , Animais , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Constrição Patológica , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/enzimologia , Artéria Femoral/lesões , Artéria Femoral/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/lesões , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neointima , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/tratamento farmacológico , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/genética , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/patologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207234

RESUMO

Filamin A (FLNA) is a large actin-binding cytoskeletal protein that is important for cell motility by stabilizing actin networks and integrating them with cell membranes. Interestingly, a C-terminal fragment of FLNA can be cleaved off by calpain to stimulate adaptive angiogenesis by transporting multiple transcription factors into the nucleus. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that FLNA participates in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, in which the interaction of FLNA with transcription factors and/or cell signaling molecules dictate the function of vascular cells. Localized FLNA mutations associate with cardiovascular malformations in humans. A lack of FLNA in experimental animal models disrupts cell migration during embryogenesis and causes anomalies, including heart and vessels, similar to human malformations. More recently, it was shown that FLNA mediates the progression of myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis. Thus, these latest findings identify FLNA as an important novel mediator of cardiovascular development and remodeling, and thus a potential target for therapy. In this update, we summarized the literature on filamin biology with regard to cardiovascular cell function.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Filaminas/genética , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Filaminas/metabolismo , Humanos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia
11.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(11): 14892-14909, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated a key role of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Cyclin-dependent kinases 9 (CDK9), a potential biomarker of atherosclerosis, was significantly increased in coronary artery disease patient serum and played an important role in inflammatory diseases. This study was to explore the pharmacological role of CDK9 inhibition in attenuating atherosclerosis. METHODS: A small-molecule CDK9 inhibitor, LDC000067, was utilized to treat the high fat diet (HFD)-fed ApoE-/- mice and human VSMCs. RESULTS: The results showed that inflammation and phenotypic switching of VSMCs were observed in HFD-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice, which were accompanied with increased CDK9 in the serum and atherosclerotic lesions where it colocalized with VSMCs. LDC000067 treatment significantly suppressed HFD-induced inflammation, proliferation and phenotypic switching of VSMCs, resulting in reduced atherosclerosis in the ApoE-/- mice, while had no effect on plasma lipids. Further in vitro studies confirmed that LDC000067 and siRNA-mediated CDK9 knockdown reversed ox-LDL-induced inflammation and phenotypic switching of VSMCs from a contractile phenotype to a synthetic phenotype via inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway in human VSMCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that inhibition of CDK9 may be a novel therapeutic target for the prevention of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Quinase 9 Dependente de Ciclina/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamação/patologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Aterosclerose/complicações , Quinase 9 Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Humanos , Inflamação/complicações , Lipoproteínas LDL , Masculino , Camundongos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(12): 16749-16762, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170851

RESUMO

Our previous study showed that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell derived exosomes (BMSC-Exos) suppress high phosphorus (Pi)-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, the mechanism had remained unclear. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which BMSC-Exos inhibit vascular calcification (VC). We found that BMSC-Exos reduced high Pi-induced Runx2, osteocalcin and BMP2 expression and inhibited the calcium deposition. Gene expression of human VSMCs stimulated by Pi or Pi plus BMSC-Exos (Pi + Exo) was systematically examined by microarray technology. NONHSAT 084969.2 and transcription factor p65 expression was significantly lower in the Pi + Exo group compared with the Pi group. This finding indicated that NONHSAT 084969.2 and the nuclear factor-κB pathway might play an important role in VC inhibition by BMSC-Exos. By silencing NONHSAT 084969.2 with small interfering RNA, Runx2, BMP2, and osteocalcin expression was decreased significantly. The calcified nodule content and alkaline phosphatase activity were reduced after NONHSAT 084969.2 inhibition and p65, p50, and IκB kinase-α expression was decreased significantly. These results indicated that BMSC-Exos inhibited Pi-induced transdifferentiation and calcification of VSMCs by regulating the NONHSAT 084969.2/nuclear factor-κB axis.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fósforo/toxicidade , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise por Conglomerados , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Minerais/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcificação Vascular/patologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066088

RESUMO

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is increasingly associated with inflammation, a phenotype that persists despite treatment with lipid lowering therapies. The alternative C3 complement system (C3), as a key inflammatory mediator, seems to be involved in the atherosclerotic process; however, the relationship between C3 and lipids during plaque progression remains unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate by a systems biology approach the role of C3 in relation to lipoprotein levels during atherosclerosis (AT) progression and to gain a better understanding on the effects of C3 products on the phenotype and function of human lipid-loaded vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). By mass spectrometry and differential proteomics, we found the extracellular matrix (ECM) of human aortas to be enriched in active components of the C3 complement system, with a significantly different proteomic signature in AT segments. Thus, C3 products were more abundant in AT-ECM than in macroscopically normal segments. Furthermore, circulating C3 levels were significantly elevated in FH patients with subclinical coronary AT, evidenced by computed tomographic angiography. However, no correlation was identified between circulating C3 levels and the increase in plaque burden, indicating a local regulation of the C3 in AT arteries. In cell culture studies of human VSMCs, we evidenced the expression of C3, C3aR (anaphylatoxin receptor) and the integrin αMß2 receptor for C3b/iC3b (RT-PCR and Western blot). C3mRNA was up-regulated in lipid-loaded human VSMCs, and C3 protein significantly increased in cell culture supernatants, indicating that the C3 products in the AT-ECM have a local vessel-wall niche. Interestingly, C3a and iC3b (C3 active fragments) have functional effects on VSMCs, significantly reversing the inhibition of VSMC migration induced by aggregated LDL and stimulating cell spreading, organization of F-actin stress fibers and attachment during the adhesion of lipid-loaded human VSMCs. This study, by using a systems biology approach, identified molecular processes involving the C3 complement system in vascular remodeling and in the progression of advanced human atherosclerotic lesions.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Complemento C3/metabolismo , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/patologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Adesão Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/imunologia , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Liso Vascular/imunologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/imunologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Proteoma/análise , Remodelação Vascular , Cicatrização , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064140

RESUMO

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) expression is upregulated in vascular inflammation and participates in vascular remodeling, including aneurysm dilatation and arterial neointima development. Neointima at the arteriovenous (AV) fistula anastomosis site primarily causes AV fistula stenosis and failure; however, the effects of MMP-9 on perioperative AV fistula remodeling remain unknown. Therefore, we created AV fistulas (end-to-side anastomosis) in wild-type (WT) and MMP-9 knockout mice with chronic kidney disease to further clarify this. Neointima progressively developed in the AV fistula venous segment of WT mice during the four-week postoperative course, and MMP-9 knockout increased the lumen area and attenuated neointima size by reducing smooth muscle cell and collagen components. Early perioperative AV fistula mRNA sequencing data revealed that inflammation-related gene sets were negatively enriched in AV fistula of MMP-9 knockout mice compared to that in WT mice. qPCR results also showed that inflammatory genes, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), were downregulated. In addition, Western blot results showed that MMP-9 knockout reduced CD44 and RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation. In vitro, MMP-9 addition enhanced IL-6 and MCP-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, as well as cell migration, which was reversed by an MMP-9 inhibitor. In conclusion, MMP-9 knockout attenuated AV fistula stenosis by reducing perioperative vascular inflammation.


Assuntos
Fístula Arteriovenosa/genética , Inflamação/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Neointima/genética , Animais , Movimento Celular/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Período Perioperatório , Remodelação Vascular/genética
15.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 611, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021256

RESUMO

Accumulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a hallmark of multiple vascular pathologies, including following neointimal formation after injury and atherosclerosis. However, human VSMCs in advanced atherosclerotic lesions show reduced cell proliferation, extensive and persistent DNA damage, and features of premature cell senescence. Here, we report that stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) and stable expression of a telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 protein mutant (TRF2T188A) induce senescence of human VSMCs, associated with persistent telomeric DNA damage. VSMC senescence is associated with formation of micronuclei, activation of cGAS-STING cytoplasmic sensing, and induction of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines. VSMC-specific TRF2T188A expression in a multicolor clonal VSMC-tracking mouse model shows no change in VSMC clonal patches after injury, but an increase in neointima formation, outward remodeling, senescence and immune/inflammatory cell infiltration or retention. We suggest that persistent telomere damage in VSMCs inducing cell senescence has a major role in driving persistent inflammation in vascular disease.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Senescência Celular , Inflamação/patologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neointima/patologia , Telômero/patologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Dano ao DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/fisiologia , Proteínas Musculares/fisiologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/imunologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/imunologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Neointima/etiologia , Neointima/metabolismo , Telômero/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Repetições Teloméricas/metabolismo
16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(10): 13859-13875, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029211

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease and a leading cause of death worldwide. Being a novel adipokine, chemerin is reported to be positively correlated with the severity of AS, yet its underlying mechanisms in AS remains elusive. It is well-known that AS development is significantly attributed to abnormal proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Therefore, we investigated the role of the chemerin / chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1, chemerin receptor) signaling, and the potential therapeutic effect of curcumin in VSMCs proliferation and migration during AS by establishing a high fat diet (HFD) mouse model. We found that CMKLR1 was highly expressed in HFD-induced AS tissues and that its expression level was positively correlated with aortic proliferation. Knockdown of CMKLR1 significantly inhibited VSMCs proliferation and migration, as evidenced by the EdU-incorporation assay, wound healing assay, and the induction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. Furthermore, we discovered that Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) acts as a key factor involved in CMKLR1-mediated VSMCs proliferation and migration via the p38 / MAPK and Wnt / ß-catenin signaling pathways, and we demonstrated that curcumin inhibits VSMCs proliferation and migration by inhibiting chemerin / CMKLR1 / LCN2, thereby reducing AS progression. Our findings suggest that chemerin / CMKLR1 activation promotes the development of AS; hence, targeting the chemerin / CMKLR1 / LCN2 signaling pathway may be a reasonable treatment modality for AS.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Curcumina/farmacologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Lipocalina-2/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Receptores de Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(10): 14355-14371, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016793

RESUMO

In the present study, the effects and mechanism of action of U50,488H (a selective κ-opioid receptor agonist) on calcification of rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by ß-glycerophosphate (ß-GP) were investigated. VSMCs were isolated and cultured in traditional FBS-based media. A calcification model was established in VSMCs under hyperphosphatemia and intracellular calcium contents. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lactate were detected in cell culture supernatants before and after treatment. Alizarin red staining was used to detect the degree of calcification of VSMCs. Expression levels of key molecules of osteogenic markers, fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3), and proline hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), were determined using western blotting. Further, vascular calcification was induced by vitamin D3 plus nicotine in rats and isolated thoracic aortas, calcium concentration was assessed in rat aortic rings in vitro. We demonstrated that U50,488H inhibited VSMC calcification in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, U50,488H significantly inhibited osteogenic differentiation and ALP activity in VSMCs pretreated with ß-GP. Further studies confirmed that PFKFB3 expression, LDH level, and lactate content significantly increased during calcification of VSMCs; U50,488H reversed these changes. PHD2 expression showed the opposite trend compared to PFKFB3 expression. nor-BNI or 3-PO abolished U50,488H protective effects. Besides, U50,488H inhibited VSMC calcification in rat aortic rings ex vivo. Collectively, our experiments show that κ-opioid receptor activation inhibits VSMC calcification by reducing PFKFB3 expression and lactate content, providing a potential drug target and strategy for the clinical treatment of vascular calcification.


Assuntos
Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/metabolismo , Receptores Opioides kappa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicerofosfatos/farmacologia , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Prolina Dioxigenases do Fator Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Masculino , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcificação Vascular/patologia
19.
Biol Chem ; 402(4): 451-460, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938177

RESUMO

The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects of injection of dihydroartemisinin (DHA) into the balloon-injured carotid arteries on balloon injury-induced neointimal formation and to explore whether autophagy is involved in the action of DHA. Percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats to induce neointimal formation, immediately after which DHA (100 µmol/l × 1 ml) and/or Rapamycin (1 mg/100 µl), were injected into the balloon-injured carotid arteries. After 14 days, the serum samples and carotid artery tissues were harvested for analysis. Rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were pretreated with DMSO (vehicle), DHA (1, 10, and 100 µmol/l), or 3-methyladenine (3-MA; 10 mM) for 1 h and then stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB; 10 ng/ml) for another 24 h. Animal experiments showed that DHA attenuated the balloon injury-induced neointimal formation, inflammation and VSMC phenotypic transition by inhibiting the balloon injury-induced autophagy activation. In vitro results showed that DHA attenuated the PDGF-BB-induced VSMC phenotypic transition, proliferation, and migration by inhibiting the PDGF-BB-induced autophagy activation. Taken together, DHA ameliorates balloon injury-induced neointimal formation through suppressing autophagy. This study provides insights into the development of a drug-eluting stent using DHA.


Assuntos
Artemisininas/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neointima/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Conformação Molecular , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Neointima/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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