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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19337, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of combined inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscle training (RMT) with respect to the swallowing function, pulmonary function, functional performance, and dysarthria in patients with stroke. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The trial included 21 subjects (12 men, 9 women) aged 35 to 80 years presenting with 6 months history of unilateral stroke, respiratory muscle weakness (≥70% predicted maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and/or ≤70% maximal expiratory pressure (MEP)), dysphagia, or dysarthria. These subjects were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10, rehabilitation) and experimental (n = 11, rehabilitation with RMT) groups. INTERVENTION: Inspiratory RMT starting from 30% to 60% of MIP and expiratory RMT starting from 15% to 75% of MEP for 5 days/week for 6 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MIP, MEP, pulmonary function, peak cough flow, perception of dyspnea, Fatigue Assessment Scale, Modified Rankin Scale, Brunnstrom stage, Barthel index, Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), and parameters of voice analysis. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between both groups in terms of MIP, forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume per second (FEV1) of the percentage predicted. Significant difference was found with respect to the change in fatigue, shimmer percent, amplitude perturbation quotient, and voice turbulence index (VTI) according to the acoustic analysis in the RMT group. The FEV1/FVC ratio was negatively correlated with jitter percent, relative average perturbation, pitch perturbation quotient, and VTI; the maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) and MMEF% were also negatively correlated with VTI. Significant differences among participants of the same group were observed while comparing the Brunnstrom stage before and after training of the affected limbs and the Barthel scale and FOIS scores in both the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, 6-week combined inspiratory and expiratory RMT is feasible as adjuvant therapy for stroke patients to improve fatigue level, respiratory muscle strength, lung volume, respiratory flow, and dysarthria.Clinical trial registration number (Clinical Trial Identifier): NCT03491111.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Disartria/terapia , Debilidade Muscular/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercícios Respiratórios/normas , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Transtornos de Deglutição/fisiopatologia , Disartria/etiologia , Disartria/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921295, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND This study examined the effects of abdominal draw-in lumbar stabilization exercises (ADIM) with respiratory resistance on women ages 40-49 years with low back pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty-four women ages 40-49 years were screened for participation and were randomly assigned to either a respiratory with resistance exercise group (n=22) or a control group (n=22). Abdominal draw-in lumbar stabilization exercises were administered to both groups, but only the respiratory with resistance exercise group received the respiratory resistance training. The exercise training lasted 50 min per session, 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. The assessment methods used were the quadruple visual analogue scale (QVAS), Oswestry disability index-Korean version (ODI-K), diaphragm thickness and contraction rate, and lung capacity test. RESULTS Both groups showed significant differences in the QVAS, ODI-K, maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and diaphragm thickness and contraction rate before and after the intervention (p<0.05). In the respiratory resistance exercise group, the ODI-K, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), MVV, and diaphragm thickness and contraction rate showed significantly better improvement than the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS A lumbar stabilization exercise program consisting of ADIM and respiratory resistance resulted in decreased pain, reduced dysfunctions, and increased muscle thickness in contraction, contraction rate, and pulmonary function. Strong contraction of the diaphragm and deep abdominal muscles through breathing resistance increased the pressure in the abdominal cavity. Therefore, this may be an effective clinical exercise method for patients with lumbar instability.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Dor Lombar/terapia , Músculos Abdominais/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(7): 504-508, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164100

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the difference of pulmonary function among patients with dysphagia after stroke, patients without dysphagia and normal people, and to explore the correlation between swallowing function and pulmonary function. Methods: From September 2018 to April 2019, 310 stroke patients were enrolled from the rehabilitation department and neurology department of sun yat-sen memorial hospital, sun yat-sen university, of which 60 were selected as standard stroke patients. Pulmonary function of the three groups was assessed by pulmonary function detector and further compared. The swallowing function of the dysphagia group after stroke was examined by using videofluroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). The swallowing function was quantitatively assessed by Rosenbek penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) and videofluoroscopy dysphagia scale (VDS), and the correlation between swallowing function and respiratory function was analyzed. Results: There were significant differences in pulmonary function among three groups (P<0.05). Besides the FEF25,FVC, FIVC between patients with dysphagia after stroke and patients without dysphagia, the FEF75 between patients without dysphagia and normal people (all P>0.05), there were significant differences in the pairwise comparison of other indicators (all P<0.05). There were correlations between PAS and MIP (r=-0.618, P=0.001),PAS and MEP (r=-0.410, P=0.038), PAS and PEF (r=-0.443, P=0.024), DOSS and MIP (r=0.602, P=0.000),DOSS and MEP (r=0.496, P=0.005), DOSS and PEF (r=0.553, P=0.002), VDS and MEP (r=-0.483, P=0.012),VDS and PEF (r=-0.494, P=0.010), respectively. Conclusion: The pulmonary function of dysphagia patients after stroke decrease significantly, and the severity of dysphagia is correlated with the decrease of pulmonary function.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Deglutição , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Ventilação Pulmonar , Músculos Respiratórios , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227379, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978126

RESUMO

The inspiratory muscles contribute to balance via diaphragmatic contraction and by increasing intra-abdominal pressure. We have shown inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves dynamic balance significantly with healthy community-dwellers. However, it is not known how the magnitude of balance improvements following IMT compares to that of an established balance program. This study compared the effects of 8-week of IMT for community-dwellers, to 8-week of the Otago exercise program (OEP) for care-residents, on balance and physical performance outcomes. Nineteen healthy community-dwellers (74 ± 4 years) were assigned to self-administered IMT. Eighteen, healthy care-residents (82 ± 4 years) were assigned to instructor-led OEP. The IMT involved 30 breaths twice-daily at ~50% of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP). The OEP group undertook resistance and mobility exercises for ~60 minutes, twice-weekly. Balance and physical performance were assessed using the mini Balance Evaluation System Test (mini-BEST) and time up and go (TUG). After 8-week, both groups improved balance ability significantly (mini-BEST: IMT by 24 ± 34%; OEP by 34 ± 28%), with no between-group difference. Dynamic balance sub-tasks improved significantly more for the IMT group (P < 0.01), than the OEP group and vice versa for static balance sub-tasks (P = 0.01). The IMT group also improved MIP (by 66 ± 97%), peak inspiratory power (by 31 ± 12%) and TUG (by -11 ± 27%); whereas the OEP did not. IMT and OEP improved balance ability similarly, with IMT eliciting greater improvement in dynamic balance, whilst OEP improved static balance more than IMT. Unlike IMT, the OEP did not provide additional benefits in inspiratory muscle function and TUG performance. Our findings suggest that IMT offers a novel method of improving dynamic balance in older adults, which may be more relevant to function than static balance and potentially a useful adjunct to the OEP in frailty prevention.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas/métodos , Equilíbrio Postural , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Resistência Física
6.
Anaesthesia ; 75(3): 338-347, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420989

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnoea and residual neuromuscular blockade are, independently, known to be risk factors for respiratory complications after major surgery. Residual effects of neuromuscular blocking agents are known to reduce the hypoxic ventilatory response in healthy volunteers. Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea have impaired control of breathing, but it is not known to what extent neuromuscular blocking agents interfere with the regulation of breathing in such patients. In a physiological study in 10 unsedated men with untreated obstructive sleep apnoea, we wished to examine if partial neuromuscular blockade had an effect on hypoxic ventilatory response (isocapnic hypoxia to oxygen saturation of 80%) and hypercapnic ventilatory response (normoxic inspired carbon dioxide 5%). The hypoxic ventilatory response was reduced by 32% (p = 0.016) during residual neuromuscular block (rocuronium to train-of-four ratio 0.7), but the hypercapnic ventilatory response was unaffected. We conclude that neuromuscular blockade specifically depresses peripheral chemosensitivity, and not respiratory muscle function since the hypercapnic ventilatory response was unaffected.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/induzido quimicamente , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Neuromusculares não Despolarizantes/efeitos adversos , Ventilação Pulmonar , Rocurônio/efeitos adversos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Humanos , Hipercapnia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Músculos Respiratórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Muscle Nerve ; 60(6): 679-686, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566774

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate respiratory muscle function in adults with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). METHODS: Fourteen patients with FSHD (9 men, 53 ± 16 years of age) and 14 matched controls underwent spirometry, diaphragm ultrasound, and measurement of twitch gastric and transdiaphragmatic pressures (twPgas and twPdi; n = 10) after magnetic stimulation of the lower thoracic nerve roots and the phrenic nerves. The latter was combined with recording of diaphragm compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs; n = 14). RESULTS: The following parameters were significantly lower in patients vs controls: forced vital capacity (FVC); maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure; peak cough flow; diaphragm excursion amplitude; and thickening ratio on ultrasound, twPdi (11 ± 5 vs 20 ± 6 cmH2 O) and twPgas (7 ± 3 vs 25 ± 20 cmH2 O). Diaphragm CMAP showed no group differences. FVC correlated inversely with the clinical severity scale score (r = -0.63, P = .02). DISCUSSION: In FSHD, respiratory muscle weakness involves both the diaphragm and the expiratory abdominal muscles.


Assuntos
Diafragma/fisiopatologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/fisiopatologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Distrofia Muscular Facioescapuloumeral/complicações , Condução Nervosa , Nervo Frênico , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais , Espirometria , Vértebras Torácicas , Ultrassonografia , Capacidade Vital
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17128, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-stroke brain damage, which affects the central control of respiration, leads to various respiratory disorders. They can be caused by the weakening of the respiratory muscles and chest movements, which can indirectly contribute to an impairment of the ventilation function. The aim of the study is an objective assessment of the effect of a single-session intervention of respiratory stimulation through Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) on chosen respiratory parameters and the following comparison of these changes with a group in which positioning was used (intra- and intergroup comparison). METHODS: This was a randomized interventional study evaluating the respiratory parameters depending on the applied respiratory stimulation in patients after ischemic stroke. The patients qualified to participate in the study were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: PNF-treated group - in which respiratory stimulation through PNF was used, PNF untreated group - in which positioning was used. The research procedure consisted of several stages. First, an interview was conducted with each participant and basic data was collected. Then, spirometry was conducted, after which each patient underwent a single-session intervention according to their assigned group. Finally, the patients were given another spirometry examination. The main outcomes will be to compare the results of a spirometry test (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/ FVC%, PEF) before and after single-session intervention and between groups. RESULTS: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the study, 60 patients took part in the measurement. The values of FEV1/FVC% were higher in PNF-treated group than in PNF-untreated group, if the post-intervention measures (P = .04) are considered. The difference between the pre- and post-intervention results of the FEV1/FVC% values in PNF-untreated group was substantially lower than in PNF-treated group (P = .001). CONCLUSION: A single application of respiratory stimulation through PNF positively affect air flow in the respiratory tract. Application of PNF stimulation contributed to an increase in the FEV1/FVC% parameter. However, no positive changes were noted in the other parameters, which would provide proof of the beneficial effect of facilitation on the respiratory system function.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Respiração , Músculos Respiratórios , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Sobreviventes
11.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 49: 102359, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568991

RESUMO

Cough is a defensive airway reflex consisting of a modified respiratory act which involves the sequential activation of several laryngeal and respiratory muscles. The contraction of the latter results in thoraco-abdominal volume variations in order to provide enough amount of air available, the operating volume (OV), to be expelled. Because both posture and OV could influence muscular activation and thoraco-abdominal displacements during voluntary cough, we aimed to verify if and how they play a role during inspiratory (ICP) and expiratory (ECP) cough phases, in terms of flow, volumes and surface electromyography activity (sEMG). In 10 healthy subjects, we measured sEMG of 7 muscles (scalene, sternocleidomastoid, parasternal, intercostal, diaphragm (assessed at the 8th intercostal space), external abdominal oblique and rectus abdominis) in supine and seated position during cough maneuvers performed at 4 different OV measured by opto-electronic plethismography: total lung capacity (TLC), functional residual capacity and two intermediate volumes. The amplitude of sEMG signals tended to be maximal at TLC (p < 0.005) during ICP in the neck and parasternal muscles and during ECP in abdominal muscles. Postures slightly affected only sEMG of the thoracic muscles. sEMG data were similar (p > 0.05) in the other OV, but cough peak flow increased with OV. Thoraco-abdominal volume variations during cough were unaffected by posture and OV as well, being predominantly thoracic (supine: 60 and 64%; seated: 68 and 69%, respectively during ICP and ECP). Our results suggest that voluntary cough OV or posture do not have an important effect on voluntary cough that seems more likely to be resulting from a motor mechanism that activates a synergetic antagonistic contraction of inspiratory and expiratory muscles leading to a specific thoraco-abdominal pattern, in which the rib cage is the predominant.


Assuntos
Tosse/fisiopatologia , Expiração , Contração Isométrica , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Reflexo , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Músculos Abdominais/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Postura , Parede Torácica/fisiologia
12.
J Bras Pneumol ; 45(6): e20180148, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576908

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate parameters of lung function and respiratory muscle strength in different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as to determine their correlation with motor function and quality of life. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a referral center for PD in the city of Recife, Brazil. Respiratory muscle strength and lung function, as well as their relationship with motor function and quality of life, were evaluated in patients with PD, stratified by the level of severity, and were compared with the data obtained for a control group. After confirming the normality of data distribution, we performed one-way ANOVA with a post hoc t-test. RESULTS: The sample comprised 66 individuals, in two groups: PD (n = 49) and control (n = 17). All of the parameters investigated showed inverse correlations with PD severity, and there were significant differences among the levels of severity, as well as between the PD and control groups, in terms of the MIP, MEP, FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75%. The lung function parameters also showed moderate to weak inverse correlations with bradykinesia and rigidity. On a quality of life questionnaire, the total score and mobility domain score both presented a moderate inverse correlation with FVC, FEV1, PEF, and MEP. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory muscle strength and some lung function parameters are impaired from the early stages of PD onward, bradykinesia and rigidity being the cardinal signs that correlate most strongly with impairment of those parameters. Such alterations negatively affect the quality of life of patients with PD.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Bras Pneumol ; 45(6): e20180252, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a cut-off point for clinical and functional variables to determinate sarcopenia and dynapenia in COPD patients, and to analyze the impact of skeletal muscle dysfunction (SMD) on these variables. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, screened COPD patients for sarcopenia or dynapenia through low muscle mass and hand grip strength (HGS). Clinical variables: pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and functional capacity (FC). The precision of the variables in determining points of predictive cut-off for sarcopenia or dynapenia were performed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve and two-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: 20 COPD patients stratified for sarcopenia (n = 11) and dynapenia (n = 07). Sarcopenia group presented lower lean mass and lower maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), decreased HGS, reduced FC (p<0.050). Dynapenia group presented reduced MIP, lower HGS and walked a shorter distance at Incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) (p<0.050). We found cut-off points of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), MIP and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and ISWT. It is possible to identify sarcopenia or dynapenia in these patients. We found the coexistence of the conditions (SMD effect) in COPD - reduction in the distance in the ISWT (p = 0.002) and %ISWT (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: In moderate to very severe COPD patients the sarcopenia could be predicted by FEV1 (%predicted) < 52, MIP < 73 cmH2O, MEP < 126 cmH2O and distance traveled of < 295 m in ISWT. Whereas dynapenia could be predicted by FEV1 < 40%, MIP < 71 cmH2O, MEP < 110 cmH2O and distance of < 230 m traveled in ISWT.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Debilidade Muscular/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pressões Respiratórias Máximas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Curva ROC , Valores de Referência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Teste de Caminhada
14.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 39(3): 141-150, jul.-sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185832

RESUMO

Introduction: those who use voice for professional purposes know how crucial it is to regulate posture, breath and voice to get the best vocal performance. Pilates, a fitness system that focuses on breathing and postural control, should be beneficial in optimizing singers' voice. The present study aims to demonstrate that the practice of Pilates improves the quality of artistic vocal production. Materials and methods: we collected a sample of 15 singing students that underwent ENT examination and filled in a first questionnaire. After that we proceeded to voice recording and acoustic analysis through software Praat. Next, together with a fully qualified Pilates teacher, we identified a few exercises acting on the respiratory muscles, that were explained and practiced during a Pilates lesson. These exercises were performed by each subject on his/her own at least three times a week for two months and together during other two Pilates group lessons. Finally, a second voice recording was performed, using the Praat software and under the very same condition of the first recording and a second self-assessment questionnaire was filled in. Results: the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test revealed that the Fo and Jitter parameters were not normally distributed, while the Shimmer and HNR resulted to be normally distributed. The averages of Shimmer and HNR parameters were thus analyzed through the T Test, while the F0 and Jitter parameters were analyzed through the Wilcoxon test. The analysis revealed that all the four parameters underwent statistically significant changes after the Pilates practice. Questionnaire results revealed that Pilates had a positive effect on voice production (15/15), especially on postural alignment (15/15) and respiratory capacity (13/15). Discussion: in our study the F0 increased after Pilates practice. This finding should be due to changes in the vocal folds length and tension, probably related to the postural exercises that had been performed, which conferred greater elasticity to the muscles. Contrariwise the Jitter parameter after exercising had decreased allowing us to conclude that Pilates helps to reduce vibratory perturbations of the vocal cords during vocal emission. This should have been obtained through a greater control of the respiratory dynamics provided by the exercises. The Shimmer parameter had also diminished, allowing us to hypothesize that the Pilates exercises, acting on the respiratory mechanisms, minimize intensity variations. On the contrary, HNR had increased suggesting that the amount of periodic signal in the voice after Pilates practice is greater than before. Since voices with a higher average HNR tend to be judged as more attractive, our results point to the fact that Pilates practice improves voice quality, as subjectively reported by the participants themselves. Conclusion: our study has highlighted the positive role of Pilates on vocal production in singing students: in a relatively short time, simple exercises - performed regularly - have shown a significant impact on vocal quality. It is likely that the very same positive effects could also be obtained by other occupational voice users


Introducción: los que usan la voz con fines profesionales saben lo importante que es regular postura, respiración y voz para obtener la mejor interpretación vocal. Pilates, un sistema de fitness que se enfoca en el control de la respiración y de la postura, puede ser beneficioso para optimizar la voz de los cantantes. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo demostrar que la práctica de pilates mejora la calidad de producción vocal artística. Materiales y métodos: recolectamos 15 estudiantes de canto que se sometieron a un examen otorrinolaringológico y rellenado en un primer cuestionario. Después de eso procedimos a la grabación de voz y análisis acústico a través del software Praat. A continuación, junto con un profesor de Pilates completamente calificado, se identificaron algunos ejercicios que actúan sobre los músculos respiratorios, que fueron explicados y practicados durante una lección de pilates. Estos ejercicios fueron realizados por cada sujeto por su cuenta en por lo menos tres veces por semana durante dos meses y juntos durante otras dos clases grupales de pilates. Finalmente, se realizó una segunda grabación de voz, utilizando el software Praat y bajo el mismo se completó la misma condición de la primera grabación y un segundo cuestionario de autoevaluación. Resultados: la prueba de Kolmogorov-Smirnov reveló que los parámetros de Fo y Jitter no fueron normalmente distribuidos, mientras que Shimmer y HNR resultaron ser distribuidos normalmente. Los promedios de los parámetros Shimmer y HNR se analizaron por medio de la prueba T, mientras que los parámetros F0 y Jitter fueron analizados a través de la prueba de Wilcoxon. El análisis reveló que todos los cuatro parámetros sufrieron cambios estadísticamente significativos después de la práctica de pilates. Los resultados del cuestionario revelaron que Pilates tuvo un efecto positivo en la producción de voz (15/15), especialmente en alineación postural (15/15) y capacidad respiratoria (13/15). Discusión: en nuestro estudio, el F0 aumentó después de la práctica de pilates. Este hallazgo se debe a cambios en la longitud y tensión de los pliegues vocales, probablemente relacionados con los ejercicios posturales que se han realizado, que confieren mayor elasticidad a los músculos. En cambio, el parámetro Jitter después del ejercicio había disminuido, lo que nos permite concluir que el pilates ayuda a reducir las perturbaciones vibratorias de las cuerdas vocales durante la emisión vocal. Esto debería haberse obtenido con mayor control de la dinámica respiratoria proporcionada por los ejercicios. El parámetro Shimmer también había disminuido, permitiéndonos hipotetizar que los ejercicios de pilates, actuando sobre los mecanismos respiratorios, reducen las variaciones de intensidad. En cambio, HNR había aumentado, lo que sugiere que la cantidad de señal periódica en la voz después de la práctica de pilates es mayor que antes. Dado que las voces con un HNR medio más alto tienden a ser consideradas más atractivas, nuestros resultados apuntan al hecho de que la práctica del pilates mejora la calidad de la voz, según lo informado subjetivamente por los propios participantes. Conclusión: nuestro estudio ha destacado el papel positivo del pilates en la producción vocal en estudiantes de canto: en un tiempo relativamente corto, ejercicios simples, realizados regularmente, han demostrado un impacto considerable en la calidad vocal. Es probable que los mismos efectos positivos también puedan ser obtenidos por otros usuarios de voz profesional


Assuntos
Humanos , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento/métodos , Canto , Voz , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia
15.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(8): e8671, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389492

RESUMO

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a neural tube defect that often causes spinal cord injury at the thoracolumbar region, as well as sensory and motor paralysis in the lower limbs. This leads to continuous use of a wheelchair and, consequently, a sedentary lifestyle, predisposition to muscle weakness, cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, obesity, and structural alterations in the spine. We assessed the respiratory function and shoulder strength of MMC participants who were wheelchair-users and had no respiratory complaints and compared them to healthy children and adolescents. MMC (n=10) and healthy (n=25) participants of both genders with a mean age of 12.45 years (SD=2.1) were assessed for weight, height, respiratory performance, and isometric peak for shoulder flexors, extensors, abductors, and adductors, using an isokinetic dynamometer. Medullary lesion, functional levels, and abnormal curvatures of the spine were assessed for MMC participants. The level of spinal cord injury for the majority of the MMC participants was high lumbar and they had scoliosis. MMC showed lower values for forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume at the first second, forced expiratory flow (25-75%), maximal voluntary ventilation, and isometric peak for shoulder flexors and adductors compared to healthy participants. This indicated a decreased vital capacity, respiratory muscle endurance, and shoulder muscle strength.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Meningomielocele/fisiopatologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia , Cadeiras de Rodas , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dados Preliminares , Testes de Função Respiratória
16.
Ergonomics ; 62(11): 1439-1449, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389759

RESUMO

Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) whilst adopting body positions that mimic exercise (functional IMT; IMTF) improves running performance above traditional IMT methods in unloaded exercise. We investigated the effect of IMTF during load carriage tasks. Seventeen males completed 60 min walking at 6.5 km·h-1 followed by a 2.4 km load carriage time-trial (LCTT) whilst wearing a 25 kg backpack. Trials were completed at baseline; post 4 weeks IMT (consisting of 30 breaths twice daily at 50% of maximum inspiratory pressure) and again following either 4 weeks IMTF (comprising four inspiratory loaded core exercises) or maintenance IMT (IMTCON). Baseline LCTT was 15.93 ± 2.30 min and was reduced to 14.73 ± 2.40 min (mean reduction 1.19 ± 0.83 min, p < 0.01) after IMT. Following phase two, LCTT increased in IMTF only (13.59 ± 2.33 min, p < 0.05) and was unchanged in post-IMTCON. Performance was increased following IMTF, providing an additional ergogenic effect beyond IMT alone. Practitioner Summary: We confirmed the ergogenic benefit of Inspiratory Muscle Training (IMT) upon load carriage performance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that functional IMT methods provide a greater performance benefit during exercise with thoracic loads. Abbreviations: [Lac-]B: blood lactate; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1/FVC: forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity ratio; FVC: forced vital capacity; HR: heart rate; IMT: inspiratory muscle training; IMTCON: inspiratory muscle training maintenance; IMTF: functional inspiratory muscle training; LC: load carriage; LCTT: load carriage time trial; Pdi: transdiaphragmatic pressure; PEF: peak expiratory flow; PEmax: maximum expiratory mouth pressure; PImax: maximum inspiratory mouth pressure; RPE: rating of perceived exertion; RPEbreating: rating of perceived exertion for the breathing; RPEleg: rating of perceived exertion for the legs; SEPT: sport-specific endurance plank test; V̇ O2: oxygen consumption; V̇ O2peak: peak oxygen consumption.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Inalação/fisiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Remoção , Masculino , Mecânica Respiratória , Adulto Jovem
17.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(4): 547-554, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397649

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aims to analyze changes in Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP), lung function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood pressure, in 10 healthy active elderly women, following 7 weeks of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) combined with a multicomponent training program (MCTP). The association among these health parameters, their changes after training (deltas), and the influence of MIP at baseline (MIPpre) are also considered. Methods: IMT involved 30 inspirations at 50% of the MIP, twice daily, 7 days a week, while MCTP was 1 hr, twice a week. MIP, lung function (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75%, PEF), 6MWT, and blood pressure (SBP, DBP), jointly with body composition, were assessed before and after the intervention. Results: Seven weeks were enough to improved MIP (p = .019; d = 1.397), 6MWT (p = .012; d = .832), SBP (p = .003; d = 1.035) and DBP (p = .024; d = .848). Despite the high physical fitness (VO2 peak: M = 23.38, SD = 3.39 ml·min·Kg-1), MIPpre was low (M = 39.00, SD = 7.63 cmH2O) and displayed a significant negative correlation with ΔMIPpre-post (r = -.821; p < .004), showing that women who started the intervention with lower MIP achieved higher improvements in inspiratory muscle strength after training. Conclusions: No significant changes in spirometric parameters may signal that lung function is independent of early improvements in inspiratory muscles and cardiorespiratory fitness. Absence of correlation between physical fitness and respiratory outcomes suggests that being fit does not ensure cardiorespiratory health in active elderly women, so IMT might be beneficial and should supplement the MCTP in this population.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Inalação/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Força Muscular/fisiologia
18.
Ergonomics ; 62(9): 1181-1192, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364962

RESUMO

The effect of load carriage on pulmonary function was investigated during a treadmill march of increasing intensity. 24 male infantry soldiers marched on six occasions wearing either: no load, 15 kg, 30 kg, 40 kg or 50 kg. Each loaded configuration included body armour which was worn as battle-fit or loose-fit (40 kg only). FVC and FEV1 were reduced by 6 to 15% with load. Maximal mouth pressures were reduced post load carriage by up to 11% (inspiratory) and 17% (expiratory). Increased ventilatory demands associated with carrying increased mass were met by increases in breathing frequency (from 3 to 26 breaths·min-1) with minimal changes to tidal volume. 72% of participants experienced expiratory flow limitation whilst wearing the heaviest load. Loosening the armour had minimal effects on pulmonary function. It was concluded that as mass and exercise intensity are increased, the degree of expiratory flow limitation also increases. Practitioner Summary: This study investigated the effect of soldier load carriage on pulmonary function, to inform the trade-off between protection and burden. Load carriage caused an inefficient breathing pattern, respiratory muscle fatigue and expiratory flow limitation during marching. These effects were exacerbated by increases in mass carried and march intensity.


Assuntos
Roupa de Proteção/efeitos adversos , Equipamentos Esportivos/efeitos adversos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Suporte de Carga/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Militares , Fadiga Muscular , Ventilação Pulmonar , Músculos Respiratórios , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol ; 48: 176-186, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401341

RESUMO

Transcutaneous electromyography (tc-EMG) has been used to measure the electrical activity of respiratory muscles during inspiration in various studies. Processing the raw tc-EMG signal of these inspiratory muscles has shown to be difficult as baseline noise, cardiac interference, cross-talk and motion artefacts can influence the signal quality. In this review we will discuss the most important sources of signal noise in tc-EMG of respiratory muscles and the various techniques described to suppress or reduce this signal noise. Furthermore, we will elaborate on the options available to develop or improve an algorithm that can be used to guide the approach for analysis of tc-EMG signals of inspiratory muscles in future research.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Eletromiografia/normas , Humanos , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
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