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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 2973-3005, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105058

RESUMO

Leaf teas are widely used as a purported treatment for dysregulated glucose homeostasis. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the clinical and cellular-metabolic evidence, published between January 2013 and May 2019, and indexed on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, supporting the use of leaf teas for this purpose. Fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (13 on Camellia sinensis teas) were included, with mixed results, and providing scant mechanistic information. In contrast, 74 animal and cell culture studies focusing on the pancreas, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue yielded mostly positive results and highlighted enhanced insulin signaling as a recurring target associated with the effects of teas on glucose metabolism. We conclude that more studies, including RCTs and pre-clinical studies examining teas from a wider variety of species beyond C. sinensis, are required to establish a stronger evidence base on the use of leaf teas to normalize glucose metabolism.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Pâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1563-1570, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927998

RESUMO

Ethanamizuril(N-{4-[4-(3,5-dioxo-4,5-dihydro-3H-[1,2,4]triazin-2-yl)-2-methyl-phenoxy]-phenyl}-acetamide, EZL) is a new anticoccidiosis compound and belongs to the class of triazines. In this study, the metabolism, distribution, and excretion of EZL were evaluated in chickens after administration of EZL at a single dosage. According to the relevant drug biotransformation rules, the exact molecular mass detection, the fragmentation characteristics, and the retention times, a total of five metabolites were identified in vivo in chickens, including two phase I metabolites and three phase II conjugated metabolites. The major metabolic pathways of EZL in chickens were deacetylation, hydroxylation, and glucuronidation. Regarding 14C-tissue residues after administration, kidney was considered to be the target tissue, as 14C-tissue residues could be detected at 240 h postdose. DeacetylEZL (M3) was the main metabolite, accounting for 68.65% and 25.62% of 14C in kidney at 6 and 24 h, respectively. In heart, muscle, skin+fat, and lung tissues, EZL was the main radioactive substance accounting for 94.88%, 97.32%, 96.23%, and 91.3% of 14C, respectively. In the liver, EZL and M3 were 20.76% and 54.65% of 14C, respectively. In chicken tissues the ratio of M5 was too low to be quantitated and it was mainly detected in chicken fecal and bile samples. In chicken excreta, EZL, M3, and glucuronidation of EZL (M5) accounted for 7.02%, 12.33%, and 10.32% of the dose, respectively and were eliminated primarily. This study presents the first detection of EZL metabolites, which is helpful for further understanding of the metabolic mechanism and in vivo intermediate processes of EZL. The results of this study will be good bases for better understanding EZL's anticoccidiosis mechanism and will serve as a helpful reference for assessing the risks to animals and humans.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/farmacocinética , Triazinas/farmacocinética , Animais , Biotransformação , Galinhas , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Coccidiostáticos/metabolismo , Hidroxilação , Rim/química , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/química , Pulmão/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Triazinas/metabolismo
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 218: 105359, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765944

RESUMO

Carbohydrate metabolism switches from aerobic to anaerobic (glycolysis) to supply energy in response to acute hypoxic stress. Acute hypoxic stress with dissolved oxygen (DO) levels of 1.2 ±â€¯0.1 mg/L for 24 h and 12 h re-oxygenation was used to investigate the response of the anaerobic glycolytic pathway in Micropterus salmoides muscle. The results showed that the glucose concentration was significantly lower in muscle, while the lactic acid and pyruvic acid concentrations tended to increase during hypoxic stress. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen, and ATP content fluctuated significantly. The activities of gluconeogenesis-related enzymes were slightly elevated, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). The activities of the glycolytic enzymes increased after the induction of hypoxia, such as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Curiously, phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was significantly down-regulated within 4 h during hypoxia, although these effects were transient, and most indices returned to control levels after 12 h of re-oxygenation. Upregulated hif-1α, ampkα, hk, glut1, and ldh mRNA expression suggested that carbohydrate metabolism was reprogrammed under hypoxia. Lactate transport was regulated by miR-124-5p according to quantitative polymerase chain reaction and dual luciferase reporter assays. Our findings provide new insight into the molecular regulatory mechanism of hypoxia in Micropterus salmoides muscle.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Bass/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Transportadores de Ácidos Monocarboxílicos/genética , Músculos/metabolismo , Simportadores/genética , Aclimatação/genética , Animais , Bass/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipóxia/genética , Músculos/enzimologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1643-1652, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is a medium-sized carp that is promising for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study's aim was to investigate the ideal dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA): linoleic acid (LA) ratio for maximizing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) synthesis and their deposition in the muscle of silver barb, as that of fish oil based control diet. RESULT: Fish (with an initial body weight of 11.07 ± 0.12 g) were fed for 60 days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic, and iso-caloric diets, supplemented with linseed oil and peanut oil at varying levels to obtain ALA:LA ratios of 0.35, 0.51, 0.91, 2.04, 2.66. A control diet was prepared by supplementing fish oil. The dietary ALA:LA ratio did not influence the growth performance of fish. With increased dietary ALA:LA ratios, LA content decreased and ALA content increased in the muscle and liver of silver barb. The n-3 LC-PUFA level in muscle and liver was not influenced by feeding different ratios of ALA:LA, whereas n-6 LC-PUFA was decreased in the muscle and increased in the liver with increased dietary ALA:LA ratios. Increasing dietary ALA:LA ratio increased the Δ6fad and elovl5mRNA expression in the liver, muscle, brain, and intestinal tissues of silver barbs. CONCLUSION: Silver barb possess the ability to elongate and desaturate ALA and LA to their end products EPA and DHA. The highest level expression of Δ6 fad and elovl5 mRNA at the dietary ALA:LA ratio of 2.66 suggests greater affinity of these enzymes towards ALA than LA in silver barb. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cyprinidae/sangue , Cyprinidae/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo
5.
Insect Mol Biol ; 29(1): 56-65, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290213

RESUMO

Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is a DNA/RNA-binding protein associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. The exact molecular mechanisms by which FUS results in neurotoxicity have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we found that parkin is a genetic suppressor of defective phenotypes induced by exogenous human wild type FUS in Drosophila. Although parkin overexpression did not modulate the FUS protein expression level, the locomotive defects in FUS-expressing larvae and adult flies were rescued by parkin expression. We found that FUS expression in muscle tissues resulted in a reduction of the levels and assembly of mitochondrial complex I and III subunits, as well as decreased ATP. Remarkably, expression of parkin suppressed these mitochondrial dysfunctions. Our results indicate parkin as a neuroprotective regulator of FUS-induced proteinopathy by recovering the protein levels of mitochondrial complexes I and III. Our findings on parkin-mediated neuroprotection may expand our understanding of FUS-induced ALS pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Larva , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Músculos/patologia , Proteína FUS de Ligação a RNA/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
6.
Aquat Toxicol ; 218: 105373, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786386

RESUMO

Production of industrial effluents have led to increased copper (Cu) pollution of aquatic ecosystems, impacting the physiology of aquatic vertebrates. Past work has shown that Cu exerts its toxicity by disruption ion regulation and/ or increasing oxidative stress. However, it remains unclear how Cu may influence aerobic metabolism and hypoxia tolerance, two possible targets of its toxicity. To address this issue, we exposed freshwater acclimated killifish (F. heteroclitus) to a 96 h Cu exposure at a target concentration of 100 µg L-1. We determined resting oxygen consumption (MO2), MO2max after exhaustive exercise, and followed MO2 for 3 h in post-exercise recovery in water with either no Cu or 100 µg L-1 Cu. We assessed hypoxia tolerance by determining the critical oxygen tension (Pcrit). It was found that killifish exposed to combined 96 h Cu exposure and Cu present during metabolic measurements, showed a significant decrease in MO2max and in aerobic scope (MO2max - MO2rest), compared to control fish. However, changes in blood and muscle lactate and muscle glycogen were not consistent with an upregulation of anaerobic metabolism as compensation for reduced aerobic performance in Cu exposed fish. Hypoxia tolerance was not influenced by the 96 h Cu exposure or by presence or absence of Cu during the Pcrit test. This study suggests that Cu differentially influences responses to changes in oxygen demand and oxygen availability.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Fundulidae/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Esforço Físico/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Anaerobiose , Animais , Ecossistema , Água Doce/química , Fundulidae/sangue , Fundulidae/fisiologia , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1136-1146, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820954

RESUMO

This work investigated the influence of enzymatic tenderization on digestibility changes of beef semimembranosus proteins using peptidomics methods. Hydrolysis by proteinase K and bromelain elevated the average bitterness index of identified peptides by generating high-Q values peptides (1714-1790 Cal/mol), including KDLFDPIIQ, LIDDHFLFDKPVSPL, and QLIDDHFLFDKPVSPLLL. Proteolysis during enzymatic tenderization acted as a "pre-digestion" step and significantly elevated the degree of hydrolysis of beef protein (by 4.5-17.3%) in subsequent simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Peptidomics analysis of digests revealed large variations in the peptide composition, which was positively correlated with the degree of proteolysis during enzymatic tenderization. Enzymatic tenderization with proteinase K- (for 0.5 h) or bromelain-treated samples largely increased the survival rate (by 65.5 or 82.8%) of peptides during simulated digestion, possibly because of the "secondary enzyme-substrate interaction" effect. This work could provide a new sight into the possible influence of enzymatic tenderization on meat nutrition.


Assuntos
Bromelaínas/química , Endopeptidase K/química , Papaína/química , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Biocatálise , Bovinos , Digestão , Combinação de Medicamentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Sódio na Dieta
8.
Food Chem ; 311: 125966, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862567

RESUMO

A hapten of sulfabenzamide was first synthesized to generate a monoclonal antibody that simultaneously recognized 32 sulfonamides. The computational simulation showed that the 3D conformation, molecular bend angle, molecular volume, electronic charge of core structure of these drugs all showed influences on the antibody binding. The antibody was combined with a heterologous enzyme-labeled hapten to develop a direct competitive chemiluminescence enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for determination of the 32 sulfonamides in chicken muscle sample. The CRs of the optimized method for these drugs were in the range of 7.3%-1778%, and the IC50 values were in the range of 0.038-11.2 ng/g. The limits of detection for detection of these drugs in chicken were in the range of 0.03-26 ng/g. Their recoveries from the standards fortified blank chicken samples were in the range of 60.8%-97.1%. Therefore, this method could be used as a useful tool for routine screening sulfonamides residues in meat.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Imunoensaio/métodos , Músculos/química , Sulfonamidas/análise , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Haptenos/química , Medições Luminescentes , Músculos/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/imunologia
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 119-128, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T-2 toxin (T-2) is a potent mycotoxin and a common contaminant of aquatic animal feed, posing a serious risk to health and aquatic animals. We investigated the effect of T-2 on shrimp muscle proteins using proteomics and conventional biochemical methods. Shrimp were fed a diet containing T-2 at 0-12.2 mg kg-1 for 20 days, and changes to the muscle protein composition, ATPase activities, and the sulfhydryl (SH) content and hydrophobicity of actomyosin (AM) were determined. A proteomics study of the proteins was conducted with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). RESULTS: Exposure to T-2 markedly affected the muscle protein composition of shrimp in a concentration-responsive manner that displayed a diphasic effect. At a low T-2 concentration (1.2 mg kg-1 ), the levels of three major muscle proteins (myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic, and stroma) increased but at higher concentrations they declined progressively. T-2 exposure also led to a breakdown of muscle proteins as evidenced by increases in alkali-soluble protein and the surface hydrophobicity (SoANS) of AM. Thirty differentially expressed proteins were detected, 12 of which showed a concentration-response relationship with T-2 exposure. Among them, 11 homologous proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (MS), with several being key enzymes in energy metabolism. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that T-2 exposure at medium to high concentrations could significantly affect the protein composition and quality of shrimp muscle, and potentially some of its key metabolisms. One of the arginine kinases (spot 27) was particularly responsive to T-2 and could potentially be used as a biomarker protein for T-2 intoxication by shrimp. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/química , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/química , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
10.
Food Chem ; 303: 125367, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442901

RESUMO

Fish muscle firmness is an important quality trait for consumer acceptance. Phosphorylation is known to change chemical and physical properties of proteins and is thus expected to affect muscle firmness, but only few such phosphoproteins have been identified. To explore phosphoproteins that affect fish muscle firmness, firm muscle (crisp grass carp) and soft muscle (ordinary grass carp) were analyzed by quantitative phosphoproteomics. We identified 27 up-regulated and 22 down-regulated phosphopeptides in crisp grass carp (ratio ≥1.5 or ≤0.667, and P-value < 0.05) and their potential upstream kinases. Protein-protein interaction analysis clustered these phosphoproteins into four groups, many of which have been suggested to impact muscle firmness and its postmortem changes: muscle fiber, connective tissue, carbohydrate metabolism and signal regulation. These results provide novel insights into the role of protein phosphorylation in fish muscle firmness and will contribute to the quality improvement of fish products.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Alimentos Marinhos
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 101-108, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789143

RESUMO

This is the first report to assay the heavy metal accumulation in Blue Swimmer Crab in the northern Bay of Bengal. The present study finds that copper (Cu) concentration though has been the highest compared to the other metals, particularly in the gill. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) have high affinity to be concentrated in Hepatopancreas all through the year. All the metal concentrations were higher during monsoon season (comparatively low salinity) than non-monsoon (high salinity) in the different body parts of Blue swimmer crab i.e. the inverse relationship between accumulation of heavy metals and sea water salinity has been shown. Present study revealed that salinity having the role to accumulate metal in different body parts of Blue Swimmer Crab. In future, microcosm experiments should be done to test the effect of frequent fluctuations of ambient salinity, such as is usual in different seasons in the present study area.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Baías , Braquiúros/efeitos dos fármacos , Braquiúros/metabolismo , Brânquias/química , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/química , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Músculos/química , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0221745, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877133

RESUMO

To comprehensively characterize the metabolic roles of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), metabolites in two CHH target tissues of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, whose levels were significantly different between CHH knockdown and control (saline-treated) animals, were analyzed using bioinformatics tools provided by an on-line analysis suite (MetaboAnalyst). Analysis with Metabolic Pathway Analysis (MetPA) indicated that in the muscle Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, Pyruvate metabolism, and Nitrogen metabolism were significantly affected by silencing of CHH gene expression at 24 hours post injection (hpi), while only Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism remained significantly affected at 48 hpi. In the hepatopancreas, silencing of CHH gene expression significantly impacted, at 24 hpi, Pyruvate metabolism and Glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, and at 48 hpi, Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. Moreover, analysis using Metabolite Set Enrichment Analysis (MSEA) showed that many metabolite sets were significantly affected in the muscle at 24hpi, including Ammonia recycling, Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, Pyruvate metabolism, Purine metabolism, Warburg effect, Citric acid cycle, and metabolism of several amino acids, and at 48 hpi only Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, Glycine and serine metabolism, and Ammonia recycling remained significantly affected. In the hepatopancreas, MSEA analysis showed that Fatty acid biosynthesis was significantly impacted at 24 hpi. Finally, in the muscle, levels of several amino acids decreased significantly, while those of 5 other amino acids or related compounds significantly increased in response to CHH gene silencing. Levels of metabolites related to nucleotide metabolism significantly decreased across the board at both time points. In the hepatopancreas, the effects were comparatively minor with only levels of thymine and urea being significantly decreased at 24 hpi. The combined results showed that the metabolic effects of silencing CHH gene expression were far more diverse than suggested by previous studies that emphasized on carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Based on the results, metabolic roles of CHH on the muscle and hepatopancreas are suggested: CHH promotes carbohydrate utilization in the hepatopancreas via stimulating glycolysis and lipolysis, while its stimulatory effect on nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism plays a central role in coordinating metabolic activity in the muscle with diverse and wide-ranging consequences, including enhancing the fluxes of glycolysis, TCA cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway, leading to increased ATP supply and elevated protein and nucleic acid turnovers.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/genética , Astacoidea/metabolismo , Hormônios de Invertebrado/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Inativação Gênica , Glicólise , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Taiwan
13.
Adv Neurobiol ; 23: 125-145, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667807

RESUMO

Glycogen constitutes the main store of glucose in animal cells. Being present at much lower concentrations in the brain than in liver and muscles, brain glycogen has long been considered as an emergency source of glucose, mobilized under stress conditions (including hypoglyceamia). Nevertheless, over the past decade, multiple studies have shed a new light on the roles of brain glycogen, being notably an energy supply critical for high-cognitive processes such as learning and memory consolidation. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is the key enzyme regulating the mobilization of glycogen in cells. It is found in humans as three isozymes: muscle (mGP), liver (lGP) and brain GP (bGP). In the brain, astrocytes express both mGP and bGP while neurons only express the brain isoform. Although GP isozymes are very similar, their distinct regulatory features confer them distinct metabolic functions that are strongly related to the roles of glycogen in different tissues. Here, we provide an overview of the functions, the regulations and the structures of GPs in the brain and their relation to the specific roles of glycogen in astrocytes and neurons. We also discuss novel findings concerning the specific regulations of bGP by oxidative stress, and the potential of these enzymes as therapeutic targets in the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/enzimologia , Glicogênio Fosforilase/química , Glicogênio Fosforilase/metabolismo , Glicogênio , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoenzimas/química , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/enzimologia , Músculos/metabolismo
14.
J Frailty Aging ; 8(4): 162-168, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical frailty is a clinical syndrome associated with aging and manifesting as slowness, weakness, reduced physical activity, weight loss, and/or exhaustion. Frail older adults often report that their major problem is "low energy", and there is indirect evidence to support the hypothesis that frailty is a syndrome of dysregulated energetics. We hypothesized that altered cellular energy production underlies compromised response to stressors in the frail. METHODS: We conducted a pilot study to assess muscle energetics in response to a mild isometric exercise challenge in women (n=30) ages 84-93 years. The frailty status was assessed by a validated physical frailty instrument. Localized phosphorus (P31) magnetic resonance spectroscopy with a 1.5T magnet was used to assess the kinetics of Phosphocreatine recovery in the tibialis anterior muscle following maximal isometric contraction for 30 seconds. RESULTS: Phosphocreatine recovery following exertion, age-adjusted, was slowest in the frail group (mean=189 sec; 95%CI: 150,228) compared to pre-frail (mean=152 sec; 95%CI: 107,197) and nonfrail subjects (mean=132 sec; 95%CI: 40,224). The pre-frail and frail groups had 20 sec (95%CI: -49,89) and 57 sec (95%CI: -31,147) slower phosphocreatine recovery, respectively, than the non-frail. This response was paralleled by dysregulation in glucose recovery in response to oral glucose tolerance test in women from the same study population. CONCLUSIONS: Impaired muscle energetics and energy metabolism might be implicated in the physical frailty syndrome.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Fosfocreatina/metabolismo , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569359

RESUMO

Calcium ions (Ca2+) influx to mitochondrial matrix is crucial for the life of a cell. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter (mtCU) is a protein complex which consists of the pore-forming subunit (MCU) and several regulatory subunits. MtCU is the main contributor to inward Ca2+ currents through the inner mitochondrial membrane. Extensive investigations of mtCU involvement into normal and pathological molecular pathways started from the moment of discovery of its molecular components. A crucial role of mtCU in the control of these pathways is now recognized in both health and disease. In particular, impairments of mtCU function have been demonstrated for cardiovascular and skeletal muscle-associated pathologies. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on mtCU structure, regulation, and function in different types of muscle tissues in health and disease.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio/química , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Músculos/metabolismo , Animais , Cálcio/química , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34584-34593, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650477

RESUMO

The pollution of the environment by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is one of the most important raised concerns. Therefore, the current investigation was devoted to measuring the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), elemental mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in muscle tissue of farmed rainbow trout (n = 30) as well as their feed (n = 15) and water (n = 15) samples collected from farms (Hamadan Province, Iran) by the aid of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Also, the associated risk for human and biomagnification factor (BMF) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) for PTEs in the fish muscle through feed and water were calculated. The mean concentration of Pb, Cd, Hg, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Cu in rainbow trout muscle was reported as 0.056 ± 0.040 µg g-1 wet weight,

Assuntos
Músculos/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Aquicultura , Cádmio , Cobre , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Ferro , Mercúrio/análise , Músculos/química , Níquel , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4827, 2019 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645592

RESUMO

Macroautophagy, a key player in protein quality control, is proposed to be systematically impaired in distinct tissues and causes coordinated disruption of protein homeostasis and ageing throughout the body. Although tissue-specific changes in autophagy and ageing have been extensively explored, the mechanism underlying the inter-tissue regulation of autophagy with ageing is poorly understood. Here, we show that a secreted microRNA, mir-83/miR-29, controls the age-related decrease in macroautophagy across tissues in Caenorhabditis elegans. Upregulated in the intestine by hsf-1/HSF1 with age, mir-83 is transported across tissues potentially via extracellular vesicles and disrupts macroautophagy by suppressing CUP-5/MCOLN, a vital autophagy regulator, autonomously in the intestine as well as non-autonomously in body wall muscle. Mutating mir-83 thereby enhances macroautophagy in different tissues, promoting protein homeostasis and longevity. These findings thus identify a microRNA-based mechanism to coordinate the decreasing macroautophagy in various tissues with age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109753, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604159

RESUMO

Nitrite is a common toxic substance in culture systems of Litopenaeus vannamei, and the stress may disturb hemocyanin synthesis and energy metabolism and result in shrimp death. In the present study, nitrite at concentrations of 0 (control), 3.3 (46.2 NO2-N mg/L), 6.6 (92.4) and 9.9 mM (138.6) was used to evaluate the responses of hemocyanin level and energy metabolism in L. vannamei (5.80 ±â€¯0.44 cm, 1.88 ±â€¯0.38 g) for 96 h. The mortality rate at 96 h increased with nitrite concentration (50% at 9.9 mM, 40% at 6.6 mM, 30% at 3.3 mM, and 10% at 0 mM). In general, HIF-1α and hemocyanin mRNA expression in the nitrite stress groups was upregulated from 6 to 12 h and downregulated from 24 to 96 h. In the hemolymph, nitrite levels were significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner, and exposure to nitrite stress significantly decreased the oxyhemocyanin content from 24 to 96 h. The glucose and lactate levels in the hemolymph in the nitrite stress groups were higher than those in the control group from 12 to 96 h. Compared with the control group, the shrimp in the nitrite stress groups exhibited decreased glycogen concentrations in the hepatopancreas. The triglyceride (TG) levels in the nitrite stress groups were all higher than those in the control group from 48 to 96 h. The hexokinase (HK) activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle increased in the nitrite stress groups from 48 to 96 h. In general, nitrite stress enhanced the activities of pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in muscle from 24 to 96 h. In addition, nitrite stress decreased the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) from 24 to 96 h in the hepatopancreas and muscle. This study indicates that exposure to nitrite stress can enhance the accumulation of nitrite in the hemolymph and then reduce oxygenation and hemocyanin synthesis, leading to tissue hypoxia and thereby resulting in accelerated anaerobic metabolism and the inhibition of aerobic metabolism. The effects of nitrite stress on hemocyanin synthesis and energy metabolism may be one of the reasons for the mortality of L. vannamei in culture systems.


Assuntos
Anaerobiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemocianinas/metabolismo , Nitritos/toxicidade , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Aquicultura , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
19.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 7872-7881, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a kind of abnormal mineralized bone which usually occurs in muscle, tendon, or ligament. There are currently no effective drugs for the treatment and prevention of HO. Developing effective drugs that can inhibit HO is of profound significance and would provide new strategies for clinical treatment of this disease. The present investigation evaluated the inhibitory effect of tamoxifen against HO. MATERIAL AND METHODS Using an Achilles tendon trauma-induced HO female mice model, we screened different doses of tamoxifen (1, 3, and 9 mg/kg) in mice to determine the optimal dosage on the inhibition of the HO formation. The curative effect of tamoxifen was also illustrated at different HO progression stages including inflammation, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and HO maturation. RESULTS Heterotopic bone was formed with typical endochondral ossification in Achilles tendons 6 weeks after surgery and continued to enlarge up to 12 weeks. The formation of HO was significantly inhibited with the treatment of tamoxifen at the dosage of 9 mg/kg, whereas 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg did not reduce HO bone volume remarkably. The progression of HO was both attenuated by tamoxifen from Day 1 and Week 4 post-surgery, whereas no inhibitory effect was shown at the osteogenesis and maturation stages treated with tamoxifen. CONCLUSIONS Tamoxifen exerts an inhibitory effect on the heterotopic bone progression at inflammation and chondrogenesis stages, with the TGF-ß signaling pathway suppressed following the increase in estrogen receptor alpha activity.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ossificação Heterotópica/tratamento farmacológico , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , China , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculos/metabolismo , Ossificação Heterotópica/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamoxifeno/metabolismo , Traumatismos dos Tendões/tratamento farmacológico
20.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 743, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The distribution and deposition of fat tissue in different parts of the body are the key factors affecting the carcass quality and meat flavour of chickens. Intramuscular fat (IMF) content is an important factor associated with meat quality, while abdominal fat (AbF) is regarded as one of the main factors affecting poultry slaughter efficiency. To investigate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and molecular regulatory mechanisms related to adipogenic differentiation between IMF- and AbF-derived preadipocytes, we analysed the mRNA expression profiles in preadipocytes (0d, Pre-) and adipocytes (10d, Ad-) from IMF and AbF of Gushi chickens. RESULTS: AbF-derived preadipocytes exhibited a higher adipogenic differentiation ability (96.4% + 0.6) than IMF-derived preadipocytes (86.0% + 0.4) (p < 0.01). By Ribo-Zero RNA sequencing, we obtained 4403 (2055 upregulated and 2348 downregulated) and 4693 (2797 upregulated and 1896 downregulated) DEGs between preadipocytes and adipocytes in the IMF and Ad groups, respectively. For IMF-derived preadipocyte differentiation, pathways related to the PPAR signalling pathway, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion pathway were significantly enriched. For AbF-derived preadipocyte differentiation, the steroid biosynthesis pathways, calcium signaling pathway and ECM-receptor interaction pathway were significantly enriched. A large number of DEGs related to lipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism and preadipocyte differentiation, such as PPARG, ACSBG2, FABP4, FASN, APOA1 and INSIG1, were identified in our study. CONCLUSION: This study revealed large transcriptomic differences between IMF- and AbF-derived preadipocyte differentiation. A large number of DEGs and transcription factors that were closely related to fatty acid metabolism, lipid metabolism and preadipocyte differentiation were identified in the present study. Additionally, the microenvironment of IMF- and AbF-derived preadipocyte may play a significant role in adipogenic differentiation. This study provides valuable evidence to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying adipogenesis and fat deposition in chickens.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/citologia , Adipogenia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Músculos/citologia , Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Galinhas , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Músculos/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
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