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1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241918, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152047

RESUMO

The present study compares the immunogenic patterns of muscle larvae excretory-secretory proteins (ML E-S) from T. spiralis and T. britovi recognized by Trichinella-infected human sera. Samples were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with 2D-immunoblot and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS analysis, two ELISA procedures and a confirmatory 1D-immunoblot test. Sera were obtained from nine patients with a history of ingestion of raw or undercooked meat who presented typical clinical manifestations of trichinellosis and from eleven healthy people. Specific anti-Trichinella IgG antibodies were detected in all samples tested with the Home-ELISA kits, but in only four samples for the commercially-available kit. The 1D-immunoblot results indicated that all nine serum samples were positive for T. spiralis ML E-S antigens, expressed as the presence of specific bands. In contrast, eight of the serum samples with T. britovi E-S ML antigens were positive, with one serum sample taken from a patient at 33dpi (days post infection) being negative. To identify immunoreactive proteins that are specifically recognized by host antibodies, both species of ML E-S proteins were subjected to 2D-immunoblotting with human serum taken at 49 dpi. The sera recognized 22 protein spots for T. spiralis and 18 for T. britovi in 2D-immunoblot analysis. Their molecular weights (MW) ranged from 50 to 60 kDa. LC-MS/MS analysis identified both common and specifically-recognized immunoreactive proteins: transmembrane serine protease 9, serine protease, antigen targeted by protective antibodies and Actin-1 partial were shared for both Trichinella species; hypothetical protein T01_7775 and P49 antigen, partial those specific to T. spiralis; deoxyribonuclease-2-alpha and hypothetical protein T03_17187/T12_7360 were specific to T. britovi. Our results demonstrate the value of 2-DE and 2D-immunblot as versatile tools for pinpointing factors contributing to the parasite-host relationship by comparing the secretomes of different Trichinella species.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/imunologia , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Triquinelose/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/sangue , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Humanos , Larva/imunologia , Masculino , Carne/análise , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/sangue , Músculos/química , Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Trichinella/imunologia , Trichinella/patogenicidade , Trichinella spiralis/patogenicidade , Triquinelose/sangue
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 161(Pt A): 111700, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022492

RESUMO

Microplastics (plastics <5 mm) contamination is of worldwide concern and represents a threat to the environment, biota, and humans. Also, they are potential carriers of other contaminants, increasing their adverse effects. In this study, it was analyzed for the first time the chemical composition and abundance of microplastics (MPs) in the commercial shrimp Pleoticus muelleri. Fibers were the predominant plastics (mean: 1.31 fibers g-1 wet weight) in the abdominal muscle of the shrimps being black, the dominant colour. µ-Raman showed that fibers were composed of polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and cellulose. Also, weathering and topography of the fibers were analyzed through wide-field confocal microscopy. C, O, Si, Al, K, as well as Fe, Zn, S, Ba, Br, and Ti on the plastic surface were detected with SEM/EDS, indicating potential carriers of contaminants. CAPSULE: The shrimp Pleoticusmuelleri ingests fibers with different chemical elements adsorbed on the plastic surface.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Músculos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15179, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938983

RESUMO

Seventy-five wild tilapia samples from six rivers (ten sites) in Guangxi province were collected and analyzed for 53 organochlorine compounds. DDTs, endosulfan, and PCBs were the most dominant compounds found in this study. Tiandong County (TD) and Guigang City (GG) sites were found to be heavily contaminated with high levels of endosulfan (385-925 ng/g lw) and/or DDTs (20.1-422 ng/g lw). The diagnostic ratios indicated that the residues of DDTs and endosulfan in wild tilapia are associated with historical applications as well as the recent introduction of technical DDTs and endosulfan at some sampling sites. The correlation between total length, body mass, and organochlorines (OCs) was higher than the correlation between age and lipid content. There was no significant correlation between organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and lipid content. Therefore, for organisms, the feeding intensity (related to length and mass) of fish could better reflect degree of pollution than exposure time (age) of fish. The hazardous ratios for the 50th and 95th percentile data of OCPs and PCBs in fish were both below 1, suggesting that daily exposure to OCPs and PCBs yields a lifetime cancer risk lower than 1 in 10,000.


Assuntos
Extratos Celulares/química , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Músculos/química , Praguicidas/análise , Tilápia/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , China , Poluição Ambiental , Rios
4.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(5): 750-757, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970223

RESUMO

We summarized available data concerning contamination of the Czech part of the Elbe River by mercury and assessed the potential risks to humans connected with the consumption of contaminated fish. Total mercury concentrations were evaluated in dorsal muscle of chub (Squalius cephalus) and bream (Abramis brama) that were collected at 11 sampling sites in the period from 1991 to 2016. Significant differences among sites were found for both species. The highest contamination was observed near the non-ferrous Kovohute metal works at Celakovice and also downstream from the Spolana chemical plant at Neratovice. A significant decline in contamination with time (concentrations decreasing from 1.65 to 0.22 mg kg-1; p = 0.004) was revealed in chub downstream from the Spolana plant. Calculated hazard indices (HIs) were below 1, therefore, adverse health effects on the general Czech population connected with the consumption of fish from the Elbe River were not expected.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , República Tcheca , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Músculos/química , Medição de Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111182, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911370

RESUMO

As a lipophilic fungicide, pyraclostrobin is highly toxic to aquatic organisms, especially to fish. In recent years, research has mainly focused on the pyraclostrobin residue in fish tissues under chronic toxicity, but less is known about its distribution in fish tissues under acute toxicity conditions. In this study, the distribution of pyraclostrobin in fish tissues (blood, liver, muscle and gill) was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The purification effects of different purification materials [1) mixtures of PSA, C18 and MgSO4; 2) QuEChERS-PC; and 3) Oasis HLB SPE] were compared for the detection of pyraclostrobin in fish tissues. Finally, the quick and easy clean-up tool of the Oasis HLB SPE procedure was selected. Under optimum conditions, the linearities had a good relationship (determination coefficient R2 > 0.999). The mean recoveries of the analyte for all tested concentrations ranged from 86.94% to 108.81% with RSDs of 0.7%-4.9%. The pyraclostrobin residue amount was much different in fish tissues. Furthermore, the pyraclostrobin residue in different fish tissues increased initially and then decreased gradually. The concentrations in each tissue were initially ranked before 120 min in the following order: gill > liver > blood > muscle. These phenomena may be attributed to the stress response of fish under acute poisoning. This is the first study to document the distribution of pyraclostrobin in fish tissues under acute toxicity conditions, and it provides reference for the management of agrochemicals in terms of aquatic ecological risks.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Estrobilurinas/análise , Tilápia/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Músculos/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/toxicidade , Estrobilurinas/farmacocinética , Estrobilurinas/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Distribuição Tecidual , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
J Chromatogr A ; 1626: 461311, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797814

RESUMO

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a powerful tool for complex separations. The selectivity and sensitivity benefits from thermally modulated GC×GC were applied to the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Thermodynamic indices of 50 PCDD/Fs, including the 17 toxic 2378-substituted congeners, were collected and used to model one-dimensional and two-dimensional separations with the Rtx-Dioxin2 and Rxi-17SilMS capillary GC columns. Thermodynamic modeling was used to determine the optimal conditions to take advantage of the selectivity differences between the Rxi-17SilMS and Rtx-Dioxin2 to separate all PCDD/Fs congeners from the 2378-substituted compounds by GC×GC. The modeled elution order patterns closely matched the experimental elution order in 40 of the 45 tetrachlorinated through hexchlorinated compounds analyzed. The heptachlorinated and octachlorinated congeners were not included in the elution order modeling as they are readily resolved from other dioxin congeners. The Rxi-17SilMS crossed with the Rtx-Dioxin2 was able to separate all 2378-substituted compounds in a single separation in a fish matrix. Thirty-three additional PCDD/F congeners were added to the fish matrix that coelute with the 2378-substituted congeners. The Rxi-17SilMS crossed with the Rtx-Dioxin2 was able to fully resolve 11 of the 2378-substituted congeners with the other six congeners exhibiting coelutions with only one other congener.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análise , Músculos/química , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Músculos/metabolismo , Termodinâmica
7.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127742, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745738

RESUMO

The study examines the levels of total mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) in the muscle tissue of 12 commercially important fish species (n = 717) from 48 locations in the eastern Adriatic Sea, as a function of fish species, size and habitat. Risks and benefits of fish consumption regarding Hg and Se in children (7 years) and women of reproductive age (30 years) were also evaluated. All samples but one were compliant with the European regulatory limit for Hg in fish muscle. Concentrations (µg g-1 ww) of Hg (range: 0.014-1.37) and Se (range: 0.184-1.12) and Se:Hg molar ratios in fish were associated with habitat type. Demersal species had the highest Hg and the lowest Se concentrations, while pelagic species had the lowest Hg concentrations, highest Se concentrations and Se:Hg molar ratios. All species had Se:Hg molar ratios above 1 (range: 1.4-66.9) and a selenium health benefit value (HBVSe) above zero (range: 3.3-9.3), indicating Se excess after Hg sequestration. The intake of two meals per week of small pelagic-neritic and bento-pelagic fish is estimated to be a valuable source of essential Se, and does not pose a risk from toxic Hg exposure in children and women during the vulnerable reproductive period. Due to the low Hg and favorable Se:Hg molar ratio and HBVSe index, small pelagic species offer a good risk to benefit ratio of fish consumption and could be considered an optimal choice in these sensitive subpopulations.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Medição de Risco , Selênio/análise , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127536, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683018

RESUMO

There is an acute deficit of data on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and mercury (Hg) in the open waters of Lake Victoria, East Africa, relative to nearshore areas. We analyzed stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C), PFASs and Hg in Nile Perch and Nile Tilapia muscle and liver samples from nearshore and open lake locations from the Ugandan part of the lake. The δ15N values of Nile Perch muscle indicated a higher trophic level for samples from the open lake than from nearshore locations. Averages of ∑PFAS concentrations in Nile Perch muscle and liver (0.44 and 1.75 ng/g ww, respectively) were significantly higher than in Nile Tilapia (0.24 and 0.50 ng/g ww, respectively). ∑PFAS concentrations in muscle of open lake Nile Perch were significantly higher than for nearshore samples. A similar observation was made for total mercury concentrations in muscle (THg_Muscle) of Nile Perch. THg was dominated by methyl mercury (MeHg+, 22-124 ng/g ww) and mercuric mercury (Hg2+,

Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , África Oriental , Animais , Fluorcarbonetos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lagos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Músculos/química , Percas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
9.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127183, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497841

RESUMO

Here, we evaluate maternal offloading of 16 trace elements (Essential: Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn; Nonessential: Al, As, Ba, Cd, Hg, Pb, Tl and U) and determine mother-offspring isotopic fractionation of δ13C and δ15N in muscle and liver tissue of four pregnant Mustelus higmani and 18 associated embryos sampled from the Amazon Coast of Brazil. Embryo muscle tissue had significantly higher concentrations of most trace elements when compared to mothers, with the exception of Hg. Embryo liver accumulated more nonessential elements than muscle (n = 7 vs. 0, respectively), while the Se:Hg molar ratio was >1 in liver and muscle of both mothers and embryos. Livers of embryos were moderately enriched in δ13C and δ15N when compared to that of their mother. Negative correlations were observed between embryo body length and δ13C and trace elements concentrations. We conclude that mothers offload a large portion of all essential elements and Al, As and Pb to their young and that the isotopic fractionation of embryos reflects maternal diet and habitat occupied, with δ13C diluted with embryonic growth. We also show that muscle and liver accumulate trace elements at different rates relative to the body length of embryos. The Se:Hg molar ratio suggests that Se could play a protective role against Hg toxicity during early stages of M. higmani embryonic development.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Músculos/metabolismo , Tubarões/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Feminino , Isótopos , Fígado/química , Mercúrio , Músculos/química , Gravidez , Oligoelementos/análise
10.
J Fish Biol ; 97(3): 720-733, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515489

RESUMO

Successful captive broodstock development of clupeid fish, hilsa, is one of the major challenges for the artificial propagation of this economically valued fish. The present study provides novel insights into the pond-reared captive broodstock development of hilsa using artificial feed. In the present study, wild collected hilsa fry (weight 1.35 ± 0.13 g, length 53.84 ± 0.95 mm) were reared in grow-out ponds for 6 months followed by maintaining them as broodstock in other ponds using formulated feed in both cases. After 6 months of pond rearing, the average body weight and length of fish were 66.76 ± 4.53 g and 184.75 ± 3.65 mm, respectively. In broodstock ponds, hilsa subadults fed with formulated feed (crude protein 41.06%) ensured significant advancement in ovarian maturity with gonado somatic index of 9.09%, enhanced secondary yolk stage oocytes of 91.66% and enlargement of oocyte diameters up to 570 µm. The broodstock reached somatic growth such as average body weight and average body length of 383.80 ± 27.38 g and 339.33 ± 9.68 mm, respectively, with a condition factor of 1.06 ± 0.15. Gut content analysis revealed the better acceptability of the artificial feed. Lipid profiling of muscle and ovary during gonadal maturation revealed mobilization of fat from muscle to ovary and selective retention of some fatty acids (i.e., C14:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:6 and C20:4) in the ovary, which might help in gonadal maturation. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Successful rearing of wild-caught hilsa juvenile in captive condition using formulated feed showed its potential as aquaculture species in low saline conditions. Advance stage of maturation in low saline captive conditions showed the possibility for induced breeding of hilsa, a high priced anadromous fish. Mobilization of fat from muscle to ovary and selective retention of some fatty acids in the ovary showed the scope of dietary manipulation for broodstock development of hilsa.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Águas Salinas , Animais , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Músculos/química , Ovário/química
11.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127311, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540547

RESUMO

The bioaccumulation of mercury (Hg) in the food chain may pose a threat to human health. The risk of dietary Hg intake is mostly caused by the consumption of fish and seafood, therefore the knowledge on the exposure from land animal products is limited. In our article, we summarized the results of analyses of Hg in muscle tissue and liver of different livestock and game animals obtained during ten years of official monitoring that was carried out in Poland from 2009 to 2018. The majority of the results in muscle tissue were below the limits of quantification (LOQs). The mean Hg concentrations in muscle tissue ranged from 0.6 to 5.6 µg kg-1 of wet weight and the mean liver Hg concentrations were within the range of 0.8-16.4 µg kg-1 of wet weight, with lowest levels in chickens and highest in wild boars. The results revealed decreasing trends in liver Hg in cattle and cervids over the years, which was congruous with decreasing emission of Hg in Europe. Our results showed that the consumption of meat and liver of livestock and game animals in Poland may be considered to be safe for human health, which was confirmed by the low number of noncompliant samples relative to the applicable legal limits, as well as by estimated dietary exposure.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Gado , Carne/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas , Exposição Dietética/análise , Europa (Continente) , Peixes , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Fígado/química , Músculos/química , Polônia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
12.
Food Chem ; 331: 127267, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590263

RESUMO

This study determines the levels of total mercury in muscle tissue from 268 reared Atlantic bluefin tuna in the Mediterranean Sea, detects variations on mercury concentrations in relation to biological parameters and rearing period and evaluates the health risk posed by fish consumption taking into consideration the size, age and rearing period. A total of 30 pooled samples were analyzed. The total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.49 to 1.60 mg/kg w.w. and showed a significant positive relationship with the size and age. It was found that the longer the rearing period, the lower the mercury concentration. The total Hg exceeded the maximum level defined by the European Commission Decision in a proportion of 40.0%. Since the value of Target Hazard Quotient was higher than 1 in all different groups (medium, large, 6 months and 18 months reared specimens), the maximum possible safe weekly consumption (400 g) is suggested.


Assuntos
Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Atum , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Aquicultura , Exposição Dietética , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Músculos/química , Medição de Risco , Atum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 740: 139894, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562984

RESUMO

The development of multitarget and/or suspect screening methods for the analysis of xenobiotics in fish samples is compulsory due to the lack of works in the literature where a deep evaluation of the variables affecting extraction and clean-up steps is performed. The aim of the present work was to optimize and validate a multitarget (180 compounds) method for the analysis of priority and emerging xenobiotics in fish muscle using focused ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction. From the different extraction solvents studied, a single extraction in cold acetonitrile rendered the best consensus results in terms of absolute recoveries and the number of target compounds extracted. Matrix effect was minimized using commercially available Captiva ND-Lipid filters, which provided clean extracts and satisfactory repeatability compared to other approaches. Absolute recoveries were corrected using matrix-matched calibration and apparent recoveries in the 43%-105%, 73%-131% and 78%-128% ranges were obtained at low (20 ng g-1), medium (100 ng g-1), and high (200 ng g-1) spiking levels, respectively. A 60% of the xenobiotics showed limits of identification lower than 20 ng g-1. The developed method was successfully applied to the quantification and suspect screening of samples bought in a local market (hake, gilt-head bream, sea bass and prawn) and fished (thicklip grey mullet) at the Urdaibai estuary (north of Spain). Food additives, antiparasitic drugs and PFOS were quantified at ng g-1 level. Moreover, the targeted method was extended to the suspect screening, revealing the presence of plastic related products (caprolactam, phthalates, polyethylenglycols), pharmaceutical products (albendazole, mebendazole, valpromide) and pesticides or insect repellents (icaridin, myristyl sulfate, nootkatone). Therefore, FUSLE in cold acetonitrile combined with Captiva ND-Lipid filters and liquid chromatography tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-q-Orbitrap) were successfully applied to both multitarget quantitative analysis and suspect screening of approx. 17,800 compounds.


Assuntos
Peixes , Músculos/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Xenobióticos/análise , Animais , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espanha
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(27): 33649-33657, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358755

RESUMO

It has been emphasized that seafood consumers may have a higher risk of mercury (Hg) exposure. Nevertheless, the co-occurrence of selenium (Se) in organisms may affect the toxicity and bioavailability of Hg. In this work, we aim to demonstrate the possible role of Se as a potential protective element against Hg in muscle and liver tissues of three demersal deep-sea fish species: common mora Mora moro, birdbeak dogfish Deania calcea, and smooth lanternshark Etmopterus pusillus. Comparing species, the birdbeak dogfish D. calcea showed the highest Hg concentrations, the lowest Se levels, the lowest mean Se:Hg molar ratio, a negative HBV-Se index, and no correlation between total length. On the other hand, smooth lanternshark E. pusillus showed the lowest Hg concentrations, the highest Se concentrations, the highest mean Se:Hg molar ratio, a positive HBV-Se index, and a significant positive correlation between total length and Se concentrations in muscle. Comparing tissues, the common mora Mora moro seems to accumulate more Hg and Se in liver than shark species D. calcea and E. pusillus that showed to accumulate Hg and Se preferentially in muscle. Our results indicate that these three species for having Hg concentrations near and above the EU regulatory thresholds and for presenting low Se:Hg ratios, and negative (or low positive) HBV-Se index may pose a real risk of Hg toxicity for the consumer.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Selênio , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Peixes , Músculos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401761

RESUMO

The southern king crab (SKC) Lithodes santolla is an important commercial species in southern South America. Fishing pressure has caused the deterioration of its stocks. Currently, culture techniques are being developed for producing SKC juveniles to enhance the natural population and to recover the fishing stock. Therefore, it is necessary to know about physiology, energetic and nutritional requirements for SKC maintenance in hatchery. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the biochemical and physiological changes in the midgut gland, muscle and hemolymph of juveniles, pre-adults and adults of wild SKC. The energetic reserves, digestive enzymes activity, amino acid profile and energy were quantified in twelve juveniles, ten pre-adult, and ten adult crabs. Juveniles showed high glycogen and low lipids in the midgut gland, and low proteins and low lactate in muscle. In the hemolymph, juveniles had high lipids. Pre-adults had high glycogen and lipids in the midgut gland, and both high protein and lactate in muscle. In the hemolymph, pre-adults had high lipids. Adults had low glycogen and high lipids in midgut gland, and both high proteins and high lactate in muscle. In hemolymph, adults had high glucose and lactate. Juveniles and pre-adults had high proteinase activity, whereas adults had high lipase activity. Major essential amino acids of SKC were arginine, methionine, and tryptophan, and the non-essential amino acids were glycine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid. On another hand, SKC had similar energy in the midgut gland and muscle, regardless of the ontogenetic stage. Moreover, we demonstrated that the biochemical energy calculation underestimates the actual measured values by a calorimeter. Thus, our results help to understand the physiological changes, energetic and nutritional requirements of L. santolla, and this study is a baseline for research on diet formulation for maintaining this species under culture conditions.


Assuntos
Anomuros/fisiologia , Aquicultura/métodos , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Optogenética/métodos , Aminoácidos/análise , Ração Animal , Animais , Anomuros/citologia , Anomuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Hemolinfa , Masculino , Músculos/química
16.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(1): 147-155, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270210

RESUMO

Mercury is a heavy metal that has caused concern regarding the health of fish and of those who consume them. In this research, the concentrations of mercury in the muscle tissues of zander and European perch from Anzali were measured using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS). The average concentrations of mercury in the muscle of the zander and European perch were 244 and 105 µg/kg dry weight, respectively. A nonsignificant positive correlation between morphological parameters and mercury values was observed for both species (P > 0.05). The concentrations of mercury accumulated in the two fish species were lower than the values recorded in most similar studies, and were below the permissible limit provided by the National Iranian Standards Organization, FAO, WHO, US EPA, EC, and US FDA. In addition, the HQ value was less than one. Therefore, in general, this research indicates that exposure to mercury does not threaten the health of these species and their consumers.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Músculos/química , Percas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Mar Cáspio , Irã (Geográfico) , Espectrofotometria Atômica
17.
Food Chem ; 324: 126886, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344351

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate preservative effects of ethyl lauroyl arginate hydrochloride (LAE) on microbiota, quality, and physiochemical changes of container-cultured largemouth bass fillets stored at 4 °C. The results showed LAE treatment was effective in reducing bacterial growth and attenuating physiochemical changes (flesh color, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptides, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), ammonia concentration, and biogenic amines) of bass fillets, while had relatively weak effect on the degradation of ATP-related compounds. As a result, LAE treatment retarded the deterioration of sensory attributes, and thus prolonged the shelf-life of largemouth bass fillets for 4 days. In addition, LAE treatment decreased the relative abundance of Pseudomonas in bass fillets, and thus changed the microbial composition. Moreover, correlation analysis between physiochemical changes and bacterial genera showed that Pseudomonas was well correlated with TCA-soluble peptides, TVB-N, ammonia, putrescine and histamine, while Aeromonas tended to have strong potentials in producing ammonia and cadaverine.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Bass/microbiologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/química , Amônia/análise , Animais , Arginina/farmacologia , Bass/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Músculos/metabolismo , Músculos/microbiologia , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 104(6): 721-722, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346758

RESUMO

Several articles published in the field of ecotoxicology and environmental risk assessment have failed to adequately use fish muscle cholinesterases as biomarkers. This letter seeks to underline the importance of developing and applying correct protocols for the extraction of these enzymes from the tissues of these animals.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/análise , Ecotoxicologia/economia , Biomarcadores Ambientais/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Músculos/química , Animais , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Músculos/enzimologia , Medição de Risco
19.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1462-1469, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347552

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to confirm inosine monophosphate (IMP) generation and to clarify the decomposition pathway of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) by investigating the properties of AMP, IMP, and adenosine (AdR) decomposition enzymes in Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis). The results showed that IMP accumulated due to AMP decomposition via endogenous enzymes in scallops stored at both 4 °C and 20 °C. The AMP decomposition rate was highest in the supernatant of homogenized scallop adductor muscle, followed by the suspended solution and precipitate, while IMP could not be decomposed in scallop. The results indicated that the activity of AdR deaminase was very high, and this enzyme was involved in an intracellular process in scallop. Moreover, 1 min of heating exerted little influence on the AMP and AdR decomposition rates, while 5 min of heating induced enzyme denaturation. The IMP generation rate increased dramatically in scallop crude enzyme solution containing 5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). This suggests that the major pathway of AMP decomposition might change with variations in metal ion concentrations in Japanese scallop. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: IMP generation in Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) caused by endogenous enzymes was confirmed. IMP is very important for the umami taste (a pleasant savory taste) of aquatic products. As IMP accumulation might be achieved by changing the concentration of divalent metal ions and no IMP 5'-nucleotidase activity was detected in scallop, a suitable process to produce good flavor scallops with high IMP contents might be developed.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análise , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Músculos/química , Pectinidae/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Inosina Monofosfato/química , Japão , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Paladar
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21000-21012, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253697

RESUMO

The levels of trace elements (As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni, Cu, Mn and Zn) in commercially important fish species sampled from fish markets of Adelaide, Australia; canned fish from South Australian supermarkets; and fish markets of West Bengal, India were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave digestion. Mercury was determined by using triple quadrupole ICP-MS. The accuracy of the methods was assessed with a certified standard reference material (NRCC-DORM-3 dogfish protein), and the results were compared with values reported in the literature. The results indicated considerable variations in the accumulation of trace elements among the fish species. The relationship between species with respect to trace element concentrations was examined using cluster analysis, which showed Indian fish species forming distinct groups from the others. Other than As in sardines, whiting and snapper and Hg in swordfish and snapper, the trace element concentrations were within permissible limits recommended by various standards. Based on the estimated daily intake (EDI), fish samples analysed in this study can be considered safe for human consumption as per the recommended daily dietary allowance limit fixed by various agencies. Continuous monitoring and assessments of fish metal(loid) content are needed to generate more data and safeguard human health.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Austrália , Peixes , Humanos , Índia , Músculos/química
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