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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1563-1570, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927998

RESUMO

Ethanamizuril(N-{4-[4-(3,5-dioxo-4,5-dihydro-3H-[1,2,4]triazin-2-yl)-2-methyl-phenoxy]-phenyl}-acetamide, EZL) is a new anticoccidiosis compound and belongs to the class of triazines. In this study, the metabolism, distribution, and excretion of EZL were evaluated in chickens after administration of EZL at a single dosage. According to the relevant drug biotransformation rules, the exact molecular mass detection, the fragmentation characteristics, and the retention times, a total of five metabolites were identified in vivo in chickens, including two phase I metabolites and three phase II conjugated metabolites. The major metabolic pathways of EZL in chickens were deacetylation, hydroxylation, and glucuronidation. Regarding 14C-tissue residues after administration, kidney was considered to be the target tissue, as 14C-tissue residues could be detected at 240 h postdose. DeacetylEZL (M3) was the main metabolite, accounting for 68.65% and 25.62% of 14C in kidney at 6 and 24 h, respectively. In heart, muscle, skin+fat, and lung tissues, EZL was the main radioactive substance accounting for 94.88%, 97.32%, 96.23%, and 91.3% of 14C, respectively. In the liver, EZL and M3 were 20.76% and 54.65% of 14C, respectively. In chicken tissues the ratio of M5 was too low to be quantitated and it was mainly detected in chicken fecal and bile samples. In chicken excreta, EZL, M3, and glucuronidation of EZL (M5) accounted for 7.02%, 12.33%, and 10.32% of the dose, respectively and were eliminated primarily. This study presents the first detection of EZL metabolites, which is helpful for further understanding of the metabolic mechanism and in vivo intermediate processes of EZL. The results of this study will be good bases for better understanding EZL's anticoccidiosis mechanism and will serve as a helpful reference for assessing the risks to animals and humans.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/farmacocinética , Triazinas/farmacocinética , Animais , Biotransformação , Galinhas , Coccidiostáticos/administração & dosagem , Coccidiostáticos/metabolismo , Hidroxilação , Rim/química , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/química , Pulmão/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Triazinas/metabolismo
2.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113452, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706763

RESUMO

Tasmanian recreational fishers have reported the presence of dark pigmentations in the usually white fillets of southern sand flathead (Platycephalus bassensis), a phenomenon known as muscle melanisation. Based on histology, it is suggested that eumelanin and pheomelanin are involved in the occurrence of the phenomenon. A gross melanisation scoring system was validated through a comparison with an image analysis technique, that quantified the percentage surface area of the fillets affected by muscle melanisation. The occurrence of muscle melanisation was most severe in fish inhabiting Deceitful Cove, Tamar Estuary. This indicated that muscle melanisation in P. bassensis may be caused by yet to be identified site specific factors. No significant relationships were evident between the percentage surface area of melanised muscle with condition index, age, sex, maturation stage, fish weight, fish length and size of melano-macrophage centres in the liver or spleen. Overall, this study has provided critical information that will frame the direction and focus of future P. bassensis muscle melanisation research.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Perciformes/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Austrália , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Peixes/fisiologia , Fígado/química , Músculos/química , Areia , Tasmânia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1643-1652, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silver barb (Puntius gonionotus) is a medium-sized carp that is promising for freshwater aquaculture in Asia. This study's aim was to investigate the ideal dietary α-linolenic acid (ALA): linoleic acid (LA) ratio for maximizing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) synthesis and their deposition in the muscle of silver barb, as that of fish oil based control diet. RESULT: Fish (with an initial body weight of 11.07 ± 0.12 g) were fed for 60 days with five experimental iso-proteinous, iso-lipidic, and iso-caloric diets, supplemented with linseed oil and peanut oil at varying levels to obtain ALA:LA ratios of 0.35, 0.51, 0.91, 2.04, 2.66. A control diet was prepared by supplementing fish oil. The dietary ALA:LA ratio did not influence the growth performance of fish. With increased dietary ALA:LA ratios, LA content decreased and ALA content increased in the muscle and liver of silver barb. The n-3 LC-PUFA level in muscle and liver was not influenced by feeding different ratios of ALA:LA, whereas n-6 LC-PUFA was decreased in the muscle and increased in the liver with increased dietary ALA:LA ratios. Increasing dietary ALA:LA ratio increased the Δ6fad and elovl5mRNA expression in the liver, muscle, brain, and intestinal tissues of silver barbs. CONCLUSION: Silver barb possess the ability to elongate and desaturate ALA and LA to their end products EPA and DHA. The highest level expression of Δ6 fad and elovl5 mRNA at the dietary ALA:LA ratio of 2.66 suggests greater affinity of these enzymes towards ALA than LA in silver barb. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/genética , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cyprinidae/sangue , Cyprinidae/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo
4.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113487, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679876

RESUMO

Halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (HPAH) concentrations in tissues from three tuna species Thunnus albacares (yellowfin tuna), Katsuwonus pelamis (skipjack tuna), and Auxis thazard (frigate tuna) were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography Orbitrap mass spectrometry. The tuna samples were collected from the Indian Ocean. The instrument conditions gave high mass accuracy at 0.9 m/z isolation width of the mass filter and a mass error of <±1.0 ppm for many HPAHs. A total of 29 of the 30 targets chlorinated PAHs (ClPAHs) and 20 of the 21 targets brominated PAHs (BrPAHs) were detected in the tuna muscle samples. The mean total ClPAH, BrPAH and PAH concentrations for tuna were 127.2, 156.6 and 682.8 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. The mean total ClPAH and BrPAH concentrations (ng/g lipid weight) in the tuna were considerably lower than that of PAH concentrations. The mean total ClPAH, BrPAH and PAH concentrations in T. albacares respectively were 185.8, 249.2 and 784.1 ng/g lipid weight, irrespective of the body sizes. The mean total ClPAH, BrPAH and PAH concentrations in K. pelamis respectively were 45.1, 24.8 and 555.6 ng/g lipid weight. The mean total ClPAH, BrPAH and PAH concentrations in A. thazard respectively were 34.09, 4.73 and 433.24 ng/g lipid weight. The total ClPAH concentrations and body weights significantly positively correlated for T. albacares. The mean total ClPAH concentration in white muscles was significantly higher (p < 0.05) for large than for small T. albacares. This suggests ClPAHs could bioaccumulate in T. albacares, possibly because they are poorly metabolized. The chlorinated phenanthrene and pyrene concentrations indicated tuna accumulate these compounds increasingly effectively as the tuna grow. This was the first time large numbers of HPAHs were found in biological samples. HPAHs may adversely affect the health of humans consuming tuna.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Atum/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Halogenação , Oceano Índico , Músculos/química , Fenantrenos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1136-1146, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31820954

RESUMO

This work investigated the influence of enzymatic tenderization on digestibility changes of beef semimembranosus proteins using peptidomics methods. Hydrolysis by proteinase K and bromelain elevated the average bitterness index of identified peptides by generating high-Q values peptides (1714-1790 Cal/mol), including KDLFDPIIQ, LIDDHFLFDKPVSPL, and QLIDDHFLFDKPVSPLLL. Proteolysis during enzymatic tenderization acted as a "pre-digestion" step and significantly elevated the degree of hydrolysis of beef protein (by 4.5-17.3%) in subsequent simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Peptidomics analysis of digests revealed large variations in the peptide composition, which was positively correlated with the degree of proteolysis during enzymatic tenderization. Enzymatic tenderization with proteinase K- (for 0.5 h) or bromelain-treated samples largely increased the survival rate (by 65.5 or 82.8%) of peptides during simulated digestion, possibly because of the "secondary enzyme-substrate interaction" effect. This work could provide a new sight into the possible influence of enzymatic tenderization on meat nutrition.


Assuntos
Bromelaínas/química , Endopeptidase K/química , Papaína/química , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Biocatálise , Bovinos , Digestão , Combinação de Medicamentos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Músculos/química , Músculos/metabolismo , Sódio na Dieta
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 119-128, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T-2 toxin (T-2) is a potent mycotoxin and a common contaminant of aquatic animal feed, posing a serious risk to health and aquatic animals. We investigated the effect of T-2 on shrimp muscle proteins using proteomics and conventional biochemical methods. Shrimp were fed a diet containing T-2 at 0-12.2 mg kg-1 for 20 days, and changes to the muscle protein composition, ATPase activities, and the sulfhydryl (SH) content and hydrophobicity of actomyosin (AM) were determined. A proteomics study of the proteins was conducted with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). RESULTS: Exposure to T-2 markedly affected the muscle protein composition of shrimp in a concentration-responsive manner that displayed a diphasic effect. At a low T-2 concentration (1.2 mg kg-1 ), the levels of three major muscle proteins (myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic, and stroma) increased but at higher concentrations they declined progressively. T-2 exposure also led to a breakdown of muscle proteins as evidenced by increases in alkali-soluble protein and the surface hydrophobicity (SoANS) of AM. Thirty differentially expressed proteins were detected, 12 of which showed a concentration-response relationship with T-2 exposure. Among them, 11 homologous proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (MS), with several being key enzymes in energy metabolism. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that T-2 exposure at medium to high concentrations could significantly affect the protein composition and quality of shrimp muscle, and potentially some of its key metabolisms. One of the arginine kinases (spot 27) was particularly responsive to T-2 and could potentially be used as a biomarker protein for T-2 intoxication by shrimp. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/química , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/química , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
7.
Food Chem ; 305: 125508, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622806

RESUMO

Fish is one of the most common elicitors of food-allergic reactions worldwide. These reactions are triggered by the calcium-binding muscle protein ß-parvalbumin, which was shown to have reduced immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding capacity upon calcium depletion. This work aimed to reduce gilthead seabream allergenicity using diets supplemented with a calcium chelator. Three experimental feeds were tested, differing in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) supplementation, and its effects on muscle and parvalbumin's IgE-reactivity were analyzed. Chromatographic determination of EDTA showed no accumulation in the muscle and sensory results demonstrated that the lowest concentration did not affect fish quality as edible fish. Proteomics revealed one protein related to muscle contraction with significantly different relative abundance. Immunoblot assays performed with fish-allergic patients sera indicated a 50% reduction in IgE-reactivity upon EDTA presence. These preliminary results provide the basis for the further development of a non-GMO approach to modulate fish allergenicity and improve safety of aquaculture fish.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Aquicultura , Ácido Edético/análise , Peixes/imunologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Músculos/química , Proteômica , Animais , Peixes/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Parvalbuminas/imunologia , Alimentos Marinhos
8.
Food Chem ; 311: 125966, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862567

RESUMO

A hapten of sulfabenzamide was first synthesized to generate a monoclonal antibody that simultaneously recognized 32 sulfonamides. The computational simulation showed that the 3D conformation, molecular bend angle, molecular volume, electronic charge of core structure of these drugs all showed influences on the antibody binding. The antibody was combined with a heterologous enzyme-labeled hapten to develop a direct competitive chemiluminescence enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for determination of the 32 sulfonamides in chicken muscle sample. The CRs of the optimized method for these drugs were in the range of 7.3%-1778%, and the IC50 values were in the range of 0.038-11.2 ng/g. The limits of detection for detection of these drugs in chicken were in the range of 0.03-26 ng/g. Their recoveries from the standards fortified blank chicken samples were in the range of 60.8%-97.1%. Therefore, this method could be used as a useful tool for routine screening sulfonamides residues in meat.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Imunoensaio/métodos , Músculos/química , Sulfonamidas/análise , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Haptenos/química , Medições Luminescentes , Músculos/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/química , Sulfonamidas/imunologia
9.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124767, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518925

RESUMO

The present study analyzed the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus and its food sources for metal and fatty acid concentrations in order to determine spatial and temporal differences. Metals such as copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in gills and iron (Fe) and Zn in sediments were the most significant explaining factors for spatial differentiations (degree of contamination), while for fatty acids, it was C14:0, C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0 in A. purpuratus' muscle and in its food sources, which explained more temporal differences (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect). Gills, digestive gland and intestine were the tissues where metal accumulation was the highest in A. purpuratus. Cd in digestive gland was always high, up to ∼250-fold higher than in other tissues, as previously reported in other bioindicator species for metal pollution. Fatty acids were good biomarkers when annual comparisons were performed, while metals when locations were compared. ENSO 2017 played an important role to disentangle A. purpuratus' biological conditions and food sources. A. purpuratus from Paracas locations mostly showed higher metal concentrations in gills and digestive glands, and lower fatty acid concentrations in muscle than those from Sechura and Illescas Reserved Zone.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Pectinidae/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Cobre/análise , Cobre/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Brânquias/química , Ferro/análise , Ferro/farmacocinética , Manganês/análise , Manganês/farmacocinética , Músculos/química , Pectinidae/metabolismo , Peru , Frutos do Mar/análise , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Distribuição Tecidual , Zinco/análise , Zinco/farmacocinética
10.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124785, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726533

RESUMO

The concentrations of total and proportions of organic mercury were measured in tissues of 355 individuals of 8 species of Southern Ocean squid (Alluroteuthis antarcticus, Bathyteuthis abyssicola, Filippovia knipovitchi, Galiteuthis glacialis, Gonatus antarcticus, Kondakovia longimana, Psychroteuthis glacialis and Slosarczykovia circumantarctica). Squid were caught around South Georgia (Scotia Sea) during 5 cruises, between the austral summers of 2006/07 to 2016/17 to evaluate temporal changes in bioaccumulation and tissue partitioning. Total mercury concentrations varied between 4 ng g-1 and 804 ng g-1 among all tissues. Net accumulation of mercury in muscle with size was observed in A. antarcticus, B. abyssicola and P. glacialis, but no relationship was found for S. circumantarctica and lower concentrations were observed in larger individuals of G. glacialis. Muscle tissues had the highest mercury concentrations in the majority of species, except for F. knipovitchi for which the digestive gland contained highest concentrations. In terms of the percentage of organic mercury in the tissues, muscle always contained the highest values (67%-97%), followed by the digestive gland (22%-38%). Lowest organic mercury percentages were found consistently in the gills (9%-19%), suggesting only low levels of incorporation through the dissolved pathway and/or a limited redistribution of dietary organic mercury towards this tissue. Overall, results are indicative of a decreasing trend of mercury concentrations in the majority of analysed species over the last decade. As cephalopods are an important Southern Ocean trophic link between primary consumers and top predators, these changes suggest decreasing mercury levels in lower trophic levels and an alleviation of the mercury burden on higher predators that consume squid.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Músculos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Ilhas , Oceanos e Mares , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 302: 124623, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408774

RESUMO

To monitor the illegal use of olaquindox in animals, a monoclonal antibody-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor method has been developed to detect 3-methyl-quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid, the marker residues of olaquindox, in swine tissues. The limit of detection was 1.4 µg kg-1 in swine muscle and 2.7 µg kg-1 in swine liver, which are lower than the EU recommended concentration (10 µg kg-1). The recoveries were from 82% to 104.6%, with coefficients of variation of less than 12.2%. Good correlations between SPR and HPLC results (r = 0.9806, muscle; r = 0.9698, liver) and between SPR and ic-ELISA results (r = 0.9918, muscle; r = 0.9873, liver) were observed in the affected tissues, which demonstrated the reliability of the SPR method. This method would be a rapid and reliable tool for the screening of the residues of olaquindox in the edible tissues of animals.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/metabolismo , Quinoxalinas/análise , Quinoxalinas/metabolismo , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície , Animais , Limite de Detecção , Fígado/química , Músculos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suínos
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 101-108, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789143

RESUMO

This is the first report to assay the heavy metal accumulation in Blue Swimmer Crab in the northern Bay of Bengal. The present study finds that copper (Cu) concentration though has been the highest compared to the other metals, particularly in the gill. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) have high affinity to be concentrated in Hepatopancreas all through the year. All the metal concentrations were higher during monsoon season (comparatively low salinity) than non-monsoon (high salinity) in the different body parts of Blue swimmer crab i.e. the inverse relationship between accumulation of heavy metals and sea water salinity has been shown. Present study revealed that salinity having the role to accumulate metal in different body parts of Blue Swimmer Crab. In future, microcosm experiments should be done to test the effect of frequent fluctuations of ambient salinity, such as is usual in different seasons in the present study area.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/farmacocinética , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , Baías , Braquiúros/efeitos dos fármacos , Braquiúros/metabolismo , Brânquias/química , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/química , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Índia , Metais Pesados/análise , Músculos/química , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Salinidade , Estações do Ano , Distribuição Tecidual , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 264-283, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789162

RESUMO

Metal contamination in fish is a concern worldwide, including in the Arabian/Persian Gulf region. This review summarizes the findings from 55 papers about metal concentrations in Gulf fish. Metal concentrations in muscle tissue were screened against the most recent maximum allowable levels (MALs) for fish in international commerce. We identified metals, fish species, and locations where concentrations exceeded the MALs. For some metals, recent MALs have been set to lower concentrations as more toxicological data have become available. Mean fish tissue concentrations exceeded the MAL in 13% (arsenic), 76% (cadmium), 56% (lead), and 10% (mercury) of species means. We identified 13 fish species with the potential to serve as bioindicators of metal contamination for use in four Gulf habitats: pelagic, benthopelagic, demersal, and coral reefs. Recommendations are provided for a regional approach to improve consistency of sampling, data analysis and reporting of metal concentrations in Gulf fish.


Assuntos
Peixes , Metais/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos , Oceano Índico , Músculos/química
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 143: 81-91, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789170

RESUMO

The Atlantic Goliath Grouper Epinephelus itajara is currently a protected species in the southeastern United States waters of the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico and is considered vulnerable throughout its geographic range. In this study, I evaluated mercury concentrations in their tissues (muscle, liver), which revealed high concentrations (µg/g ww) of mercury (mean ±â€¯SE) in liver (6.18 ±â€¯0.86) and muscle (1.12 ±â€¯0.06) tissue that increased with size and age. Mercury concentrations were highest in fish caught off Florida's Atlantic coast, but varied on a finer regional scale. Mercury concentrations in muscle tissue were generally greater near urbanized areas with known mercury sources and environmental conditions appropriate for higher methylation rates. This suggests that management should consider improving the water quality in these areas to reduce the risk of health effects to human consumers and to the fish themselves.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fatores Etários , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Tamanho Corporal , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Florida , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Golfo do México , Humanos , Fígado/química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Músculos/química , Urbanização
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 700, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667668

RESUMO

The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the muscle, liver, spleen and kidney tissue of two fish species was studied using an optimised diatomaceous earth assisted modified QuEChERS extraction method. Five-year-old free-ranging male African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and 5-year-old male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sampled from the Hartbeespoort Dam in South Africa were used for method development. Acetonitrile extraction produced more precise recoveries than hexane extraction. Fluorene and naphthalene were the most abundant PAHs detected in the majority of fish tissues analysed. PAH bioaccumulation in 5-year-old carp and 5-year-old catfish was in the order muscle > kidney > liver > spleen and liver > muscle > kidney > spleen, respectively. PCBs were mostly detected in carp spleen and kidney. Two-year-old carp were analysed to determine PCB and PAH bioaccumulation trends. The differences in ∑16PAH concentrations between the four organs tested were all statistically insignificant for the 3 fish tested (p > 0.05). All other organs with the exception of 5-year-old carp spleen and 5-year-old carp kidney recorded total 31 PCB concentrations (∑31PCB) < 25 ng g-1. Only 5-year-old carp spleen (∑31PCB of 592 ng g-1) and 5-year-old carp kidney (∑31PCB of 561 ng g-1) had significant differences (p < 0.05) from the spleen and kidney in 5-year-old catfish and 2-year-old carp. Whilst the carp and catfish sampled can be considered low PCB risk foods, 5-year-old carp muscle can be considered to be a high PAH risk food, with a benzo(a)pyrene concentration of 7 µg g-1, based on the EU Commission Regulation 2005/208/EC pertaining to the maximum permissible benzo(a)pyrene level in fresh fish muscle.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculos/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , África do Sul
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34584-34593, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650477

RESUMO

The pollution of the environment by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is one of the most important raised concerns. Therefore, the current investigation was devoted to measuring the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), elemental mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in muscle tissue of farmed rainbow trout (n = 30) as well as their feed (n = 15) and water (n = 15) samples collected from farms (Hamadan Province, Iran) by the aid of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Also, the associated risk for human and biomagnification factor (BMF) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) for PTEs in the fish muscle through feed and water were calculated. The mean concentration of Pb, Cd, Hg, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Cu in rainbow trout muscle was reported as 0.056 ± 0.040 µg g-1 wet weight,

Assuntos
Músculos/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Aquicultura , Cádmio , Cobre , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendas , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Ferro , Mercúrio/análise , Músculos/química , Níquel , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Zinco
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109775, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614299

RESUMO

This study aimed at developing a simple and accurate method for determination of emerging chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Cl-PAHs) in fish by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Fish samples were extracted by improved accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method. Matrix effects were observed, and matrix-matched calibration was verified with good intra-day and inter day precisions (lower than 16.1% and 15.1% respectively). Method detection limits were 0.10-5.62 ng g-1 (dry weight) with satisfactory linearity, and recoveries ranged from 50% to 150%, with relative standard deviation values less than 18.5% at different concentration levels. This improved ASE method was proved to be suitable for analyzing Cl-PAHs in fish samples, with good analytical selectivity, linearity, recovery and precision. Furthermore, the composition analysis revealed that chlorinated compounds of phenanthrene, pyrene and acenaphthene were dominated in Cl-PAHs contaminants. The correlationship between the pollution of Cl-PAHs and their corresponding parent structures in fish samples was also analyzed in detail.


Assuntos
Peixes , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Isótopos , Limite de Detecção , Músculos/química , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Solventes/química
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535930

RESUMO

Lincomycin is the first antimicrobial agent described for the lincosamide class and it is commonly used for the treatment of infectious enteric and respiratory diseases in poultry. Maximum residue limits (MRLs) in edible tissues have been established for this antimicrobial, however, no regulation has been proposed yet for by-products that are not intended for direct human consumption. Feathers are a by-product from poultry farming that might be used as an ingredient for diets fed to other farm animal species. The presence of antimicrobial residues in them is not monitored in spite of the fact that several studies have proved that they can persist in feathers. Currently though, no evidence has been presented regarding the behaviour of lincomycin in this matrix. Hence, this work intended to assess the depletion of lincomycin residues in feathers of birds treated with therapeutic doses and compare them with those detected in muscle and liver samples. Samples were collected for several days after ceasing treatment from a group of broiler chickens treated with a 25% lincomycin formulation. Methanol and Florisil® columns were used to extract and retain the analyte, and samples were analysed using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (API 5500, AB SCIEX™). On day 1 after ceasing treatment, average concentrations of lincomycin detected in feather samples reached up to 8582 µg kg-1 and by day 16, these had only declined by 63%, to an average of 3138 µg kg-1. Lincomycin residues were detected in feathers at every sampling point, even after they were not detectable in edible tissues. Depletion time was 98 days for feathers, considering the LOQ established for the methodology as cut-off value for the calculations. Data showed that lincomycin is highly persistent in feathers, which may result in this matrix becoming a re-entry route for its residues into the food chain.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Lincomicina/análise , Fígado/química , Músculos/química , Animais , Galinhas , Plumas/química
19.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113039, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521994

RESUMO

Although the poultry production sector plays a key role in sustaining the majority of animal protein demand in Egypt, the deleterious effects of widespread antibiotic resistance on health and environment are currently not well recognized. Litter and dropping samples from broiler and layer poultry farms as well as, tilapia samples from the Nile River and aquaculture farms were collected from Upper Egypt. Samples were extracted and examined for tetracycline residues [tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and doxycycline (DC)] using HPLC. In addition, tetracycline resistance genes [tet (M), tet (W), tet (Q) and tet (G)] were screened from pooled intestinal contents collected from twelve broiler farms in Upper Egypt. The antibiotic resistance genes results revealed that tet (W) was confirmed to be expressed in all intestinal samples. In contrast, tet (Q) and tet (M) were detected only in 42% and 17% of the samples, respectively. CTC and OTC were the antimicrobial compounds with the highest concentrations in poultry litter and droppings, with concentrations of 6.05 and 2.47 µg g-1 (CTC) and 5.9 and 1.33 µg g-1 (OTC), respectively. However, the concentrations of DC were significantly higher than those of the other compounds in both aquaculture and Nile River tilapia. The tetracycline residue levels in aquaculture tilapia were significantly higher than those in Nile River tilapia. The hazard quotients (HQs) exceeded 1 for OTC, CTC and DC, which highlights the great risk of using broiler litter to fertilize agricultural land. Moreover, the presence of DC and CTC indicates that consumption of aquaculture tilapia poses a considerable health risk. Therefore, poultry litter or droppings containing tetracycline residues and tet resistance determinants used for aquaculture or as farmland fertilizers could be major sources of antibiotic resistance in fish, humans and environment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência a Tetraciclina/genética , Tetraciclina/análise , Tilápia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Ecologia , Egito , Fazendas , Fertilizantes , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Esterco/análise , Esterco/microbiologia , Músculos/química , Aves Domésticas , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33466-33477, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522399

RESUMO

The freshwater polyculture pond culturing occupied an important position in the aquaculture industry. Accumulation of trace metals was investigated in water, sediments, and fish (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idellus) from typical polyculture ponds in Chengdu, China. The results showed most of the pond water in Chengdu were safe for fish cultivation. The Cd and Cr concentrations in sediment samples from sites S3, S4, and S9 which were near the industrial park and road with a high traffic volume were higher than those of the other sites. Cu, Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, and Pb in sediments were unpolluted, while Cd was unpolluted to moderately polluted due to anthropogenic activities. Cu, Cd, and Pb in fish pond sediment of Chengdu had higher potential mobility under normal environmental circumstances. The trace metal concentrations in liver of three fish species were all higher than those in muscle tissues. The order of bioaccumulation factor (BAF) values for trace metals was Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn > Cd > Ni > 20. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cr in the muscle of three fish species were all below the local and international maximum permissible levels. The target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) of trace metals in aquaculture fish ponds in Chengdu were lower than 1, which indicated that the consumption of grass, crucian, and common carp cultivated in the aquaculture ponds of Chengdu pose no health risk to the residents.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Bioacumulação , Carpas/metabolismo , China , Água Doce , Sedimentos Geológicos , Carpa Dourada , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Tanques , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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