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1.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 415, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and the patient survival rate remains unacceptably low. The anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody-based immune checkpoint inhibitors have been added to CRC treatment regimens, however, only a fraction of patients benefits. As an important co-stimulatory molecule, 4-1BB/CD137 is mainly expressed on the surface of immune cells including T and natural killer (NK) cells. Several agonistic molecules targeting 4-1BB have been clinically unsuccessful due to systemic toxicity or weak antitumor effects. We generated a humanized anti-4-1BB IgG4 antibody, HuB6, directed against a unique epitope and hypothesized that it would promote antitumor immunity with high safety. METHODS: The antigen binding specificity, affinity and activity of HuB6 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), biolayer interferometry (BLI) and flow cytometry. The antitumor effects were evaluated in humanized mice bearing syngeneic tumors, and possible toxicity was evaluated in humanized mice and cynomolgus monkeys. RESULTS: HuB6 showed high specificity and affinity for a binding epitope distinct from those of other known 4-1BB agonists, including utomilumab and urelumab, and induced CD8 + T, CD4 + T and NK cell stimulation dependent on Fcγ receptor (FcγR) crosslinking. HuB6 inhibited CRC tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner, and the antitumor effect was similar with urelumab and utomilumab in humanized mouse models of syngeneic CRC. Furthermore, HuB6 combined with an anti-PD-L1 antibody significantly inhibited CRC growth in vivo. Additionally, HuB6 induced antitumor immune memory in tumor model mice rechallenged with 4 × 106 tumor cells. Toxicology data for humanized 4-1BB mice and cynomolgus monkeys showed that HuB6 could be tolerated up to a 180 mg/kg dose without systemic toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that HuB6 should be a suitable candidate for further clinical development and a potential agent for CRC immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Membro 9 da Superfamília de Receptores de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral , Animais , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Epitopos , Imunoterapia , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Receptores de IgG
2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 870, 2022 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The difference between MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging)-R2* and T2 mapping sequences regarding their superiority in the detection of microstructural cartilage changes in knees with limited ROM (range of motion) was unknown. METHODS: Twenty male cynomolgus monkeys (mean age: 10.65 ± 0.97 years) underwent knee ROM evaluations and were divided into three groups: Group A (n = 10), with similar left and right knee ROM; Group B (n = 5), with left knee ROM superior to right; and Group C (n = 5), with left knee ROM inferior to right. Twenty-eight ROIs (regions of interest) in the cartilage of the lateral (L) and medial (M) femoral trochlea (FT), anterior (A)/central (C)/posterior (P) femoral condyle (FC) and tibial plateau (TP) of both knees were identified in each monkey. The corresponding ROI values in R2* and T2 mapping sequences were recorded for analysis. One-way ANOVA, Chi-square tests and Pearson's correlation analysis were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Among the total 1120 ROIs, significant differences in R2* values among the three groups existed in two ROIs: cartilage of the right MPTP (F = 5.216, P = 0.017) and left MAFC (F = 4.919, P = 0.021). However, the T2 mapping values of all ROIs were similar among the three groups. Microstructural cartilage changes occurred more frequently in the medial (40 ROIs) than in the lateral (0 ROIs) knee compartment (χ2 = 43.077, P < 0.001). The Group B cartilage R2* value of the right MPTP increased with the difference in bilateral knee ROM (r = 0.913, P = 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: In knees with limited ROM, MRI-R2* sequence is superior to T2 mapping in the detection of microstructural cartilage changes, which the medial knee compartment was more susceptible to. Cartilage R2* values tend to increase with the amount of knee ROM loss.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular , 1-Metil-4-Fenil-1,2,3,6-Tetra-Hidropiridina , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cartilagem Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Macaca fascicularis , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino
3.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(9): 97003, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The excitotoxic molecule, domoic acid (DA), is a marine algal toxin known to induce overt hippocampal neurotoxicity. Recent experimental and epidemiological studies suggest adverse neurological effects at exposure levels near the current regulatory limit (20 ppm, ∼0.075-0.1mg/kg). At these levels, cognitive effects occur in the absence of acute symptoms or evidence of neuronal death. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify adverse effects on the nervous system from prolonged, dietary DA exposure in adult, female Macaca fascicularis monkeys. METHODS: Monkeys were orally exposed to 0, 0.075, and 0.15mg/kg per day for an average of 14 months. Clinical blood counts, chemistry, and cytokine levels were analyzed in the blood. In-life magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessed volumetric and tractography differences in and between the hippocampus and thalamus. Histology of neurons and glia in the fornix, fimbria, internal capsule, thalamus, and hippocampus was evaluated. Hippocampal RNA sequencing was used to identify differentially expressed genes. Enrichment of gene networks for neuronal health, excitotoxicity, inflammation/glia, and myelin were assessed with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. RESULTS: Clinical blood counts, chemistry, and cytokine levels were not altered with DA exposure in nonhuman primates. Transcriptome analysis of the hippocampus yielded 748 differentially expressed genes (fold change≥1.5; p≤0.05), reflecting differences in a broad molecular profile of intermediate early genes (e.g., FOS, EGR) and genes related to myelin networks in DA animals. Between exposed and control animals, MR imaging showed comparable connectivity of the hippocampus and thalamus and histology showed no evidence of hypomyelination. Histological examination of the thalamus showed a larger microglia soma size and an extension of cell processes, but suggestions of a GFAP+astrocyte response showed no indication of astrocyte hypertrophy. DISCUSSION: In the absence of overt hippocampal excitotoxicity, chronic exposure of Macaca fascicularis monkeys to environmentally relevant levels of DA suggested a subtle shift in the molecular profile of the hippocampus and the microglia phenotype in the thalamus that was possibly reflective of an adaptive response due to prolonged DA exposure. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10923.


Assuntos
Ácido Caínico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Animais , Citocinas , Feminino , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , Macaca fascicularis , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade
4.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 647, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is an attractive animal model for the study of human disease and is extensively used in biomedical research. Cynomolgus macaques share behavioral, physiological, and genomic traits with humans and recapitulate human disease manifestations not observed in other animal species. To improve the use of the cynomolgus macaque model to investigate immune responses, we defined and characterized the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. RESULT: We identified and analyzed the alpha (TRA), beta (TRB), gamma (TRG), and delta (TRD) TCR loci of the cynomolgus macaque. The expressed repertoire was determined using 22 unique lung samples from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected cynomolgus macaques by single cell RNA sequencing. Expressed TCR alpha (TRAV) and beta (TRBV) variable region genes were enriched and identified using gene specific primers, which allowed their functional status to be determined. Analysis of the primers used for cynomolgus macaque TCR variable region gene enrichment showed they could also be used to amplify rhesus macaque (M. mulatta) variable region genes. CONCLUSION: The genomic organization of the cynomolgus macaque has great similarity with the rhesus macaque and they shared > 90% sequence similarity with the human TCR repertoire. The identification of the TCR repertoire facilitates analysis of T cell immunity in cynomolgus macaques.


Assuntos
Genoma , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Animais , Genômica , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis/genética , Macaca mulatta/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 915157, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911721

RESUMO

It has recently become clear that spatial organization contributes to cellular function and that expanding our knowledge on cellular organization is essential to further our understanding of processes in health and disease. Imaging mass cytometry enables high dimensional imaging of tissue while preserving spatial context and is therefore a suitable tool to unravel spatial relationships between cells. As availability of human tissue collected over the course of disease or infection is limited, preclinical models are a valuable source of such material. Non-human primate models are used for translational research as their anatomy, physiology and immune system closely resemble those of humans due to close evolutionary proximity. Tissue from non-human primate studies is often preserved large archives encompassing a range of conditions and organs. However, knowledge on antibody clones suitable for FFPE tissue of non-human primate origin is very limited. Here, we present an imaging mass cytometry panel development pipeline which enables the selection and incorporation of antibodies for imaging of non-human primate tissue. This has resulted in an 18-marker backbone panel which enables visualization of a broad range of leukocyte subsets in rhesus and cynomolgus macaque tissues. This high-dimensional imaging mass cytometry panel can be used to increase our knowledge of cellular organization within tissues and its effect on outcome of disease.


Assuntos
Citometria por Imagem , Sistema Imunitário , Animais , Imunofenotipagem , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta
6.
J Virol ; 96(16): e0072822, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924920

RESUMO

The 1918 H1N1 influenza pandemic was among the most severe in history, taking the lives of approximately 50 million people worldwide, and novel prophylactic vaccines are urgently needed to prevent another pandemic. Given that macaques are physiologically relevant preclinical models of human immunology that have advanced the clinical treatment of infectious diseases, a lethal pandemic influenza challenge model would provide a stringent platform for testing new influenza vaccine concepts. To this end, we infected rhesus macaques and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques with highly pathogenic 1918 H1N1 influenza virus and assessed pathogenesis and disease severity. Despite infection with a high dose of 1918 influenza delivered via multiple routes, rhesus macaques demonstrated minimal signs of disease, with only intermittent viral shedding. Cynomolgus macaques infected via intrabronchial instillation demonstrated mild symptoms, with disease severity depending on the infection dose. Cynomolgus macaques infected with a high dose of 1918 influenza delivered via multiple routes experienced moderate disease characterized by consistent viral shedding, pulmonary infiltrates, and elevated inflammatory cytokine levels. However, 1918 influenza was uniformly nonlethal in these two species, demonstrating that this isolate is insufficiently pathogenic in rhesus and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques to support testing novel prophylactic influenza approaches where protection from severe disease combined with a lethal outcome is desired as a highly stringent indication of vaccine efficacy. IMPORTANCE The world remains at risk of an influenza pandemic, and the development of new therapeutic and preventative modalities is critically important for minimizing human death and suffering during the next influenza pandemic. Animal models are central to the development of new therapies and vaccine approaches. In particular, nonhuman primates like rhesus and cynomolgus macaques are highly relevant preclinical models given their physiological and immunological similarities to humans. Unfortunately, there remains a scarcity of macaque models of pandemic influenza with which to test novel antiviral modalities. Here, we demonstrate that even at the highest doses tested, 1918 influenza was not lethal in these two macaque species, suggesting that they are not ideal for the development and testing of novel pandemic influenza-specific vaccines and therapies. Therefore, other physiologically relevant nonhuman primate models of pandemic influenza are needed.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Animais , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta
7.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2104153, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35916739

RESUMO

An in-house antibody generation campaign identified a diverse, high affinity set of anti-interleukin-11 (IL-11) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to enable successful development of novel, custom ultra-sensitive target engagement assays for detection of "free" (unbound to the dosed anti-IL-11 therapeutic mAb) and "total" (free and mAb-IL-11 complexed form) IL-11 in preclinical species and human. Antibody hits from distinct epitope communities were screened on various platforms, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Meso Scale Discovery, Simoa HD-1 and Simoa Planar Array (SP-X), and used for assay development and sensitivity optimization. The ultra-sensitive SP-X format achieved a lower limit of quantitation of 0.006 pg/mL, enabling the first reported baseline levels of IL-11 in healthy control plasma determined by custom bioanalytical assays. These newly established baseline levels supported mechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling in mouse, cynomolgus monkey, and human for a greater understanding of preclinical study design and in vivo dynamic interaction of soluble IL-11 with an anti-IL-11 antibody therapeutic candidate. Modeling and simulation also helped refine the utility of assays with respect to their potential use as target engagement biomarkers in the clinic.Abbreviations IL-11: Interleukin-11, TE: Target engagement, PK/PD: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic, mAb: Monoclonal antibody, NHP: Non-human primate, IgG: Immunoglobulin G, Cyno: Cynomolgulus monkey, GFR: Glomerular filtration rate, BQL: Below quantitation levels, DRM: Disease relevant model, kDa: kilodaltons, SPR: Surface plasmon resonance, pSTAT3: phosphorylated STAT3, IL-11R: Interleukin-11 receptor, TPP: Target product protein, LLOQ: Lower limit of quantitation, RLU: Relative light units.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais , Imunoglobulina G , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos
8.
Cell Rep ; 40(9): 111285, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044859

RESUMO

During mammalian embryogenesis, spatial regulation of gene expression and cell signaling are functionally coupled with lineage specification, patterning of tissue progenitors, and germ layer morphogenesis. While the mouse model has been instrumental for understanding mammalian development, comparatively little is known about human and non-human primate gastrulation due to the restriction of both technical and ethical issues. Here, we present a spatial and temporal survey of the molecular dynamics of cell types populating the non-human primate embryos during gastrulation. We reconstructed three-dimensional digital models from serial sections of cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) gastrulating embryos at 1-day temporal resolution from E17 to E21. Spatial transcriptomics identifies gene expression profiles unique to the germ layers. Cross-species comparison reveals a developmental coordinate of germ layer segregation between mouse and primates, and species-specific transcription programs during gastrulation. These findings offer insights into evolutionarily conserved and divergent processes during mammalian gastrulation.


Assuntos
Embrião de Mamíferos , Camadas Germinativas , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Gastrulação/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Camadas Germinativas/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis , Mamíferos/genética , Camundongos , Transcriptoma
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5108, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36042198

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exemplified that rigorous evaluation in large animal models is key for translation from promising in vitro results to successful clinical implementation. Among the drugs that have been largely tested in clinical trials but failed so far to bring clear evidence of clinical efficacy is favipiravir, a nucleoside analogue with large spectrum activity against several RNA viruses in vitro and in small animal models. Here, we evaluate the antiviral activity of favipiravir against Zika or SARS-CoV-2 virus in cynomolgus macaques. In both models, high doses of favipiravir are initiated before infection and viral kinetics are evaluated during 7 to 15 days after infection. Favipiravir leads to a statistically significant reduction in plasma Zika viral load compared to untreated animals. However, favipiravir has no effects on SARS-CoV-2 viral kinetics, and 4 treated animals have to be euthanized due to rapid clinical deterioration, suggesting a potential role of favipiravir in disease worsening in SARS-CoV-2 infected animals. To summarize, favipiravir has an antiviral activity against Zika virus but not against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the cynomolgus macaque model. Our results support the clinical evaluation of favipiravir against Zika virus but they advocate against its use against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Amidas , Animais , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Pandemias , Primatas , Pirazinas , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecção por Zika virus/tratamento farmacológico
10.
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36016363

RESUMO

For over two decades, researchers have sought to improve smallpox vaccines and also develop therapies to ensure protection against smallpox or smallpox-like disease. The 2022 human monkeypox pandemic is a reminder that these efforts should persist. Advancing such therapies have involved animal models primarily using surrogate viruses such as monkeypox virus. The intravenous monkeypox model in macaques produces a disease that is clinically similar to the lesional phase of fulminant human monkeypox or smallpox. Two criticisms of the model have been the unnatural route of virus administration and the high dose required to induce severe disease. Here, we purified monkeypox virus with the goal of lowering the challenge dose by removing cellular and viral contaminants within the inoculum. We found that there are advantages to using unpurified material for intravenous exposures.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Vacina Antivariólica , Varíola , Vírus da Varíola , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Varíola dos Macacos/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14111, 2022 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35982155

RESUMO

The frequency of CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) T cells is highly associated with a variety of diseases. Recently, we used high-throughput single-cell RNA sequencing to show that circulating DP T cells in cynomolgus monkeys comprise nine heterogeneous populations. To better understand the characteristics of DP T cells, we analyzed 7601 cells from a rhesus monkey and detected 14,459 genes. Rhesus monkey DP T cells comprised heterogeneous populations (naïve, Treg-, Tfh-, CCR9+ Th-, Th17-, Th2-, Eomes+ Tr1-, CTL-, PLZF+ innate- and Eomes+ innate-like cells) with multiple potential functions. We also identified two new subsets using aggregated scRNA-seq datasets from the rhesus and the cynomolgus monkey: CCR9+ Th-like cells expressing ICAM2 and ITGA1, and PLZF+ innate-like cells that display innate-associated gene signatures such as ZBTB16, TYROBP, MAP3K8, and KLRB1. Trajectory inference of cell differentiation status showed that most DP T cells in the rhesus monkey were found in the mid-to-late pseudotime, whereas DP T cells from the cynomolgus monkey were found in early pseudotime. This suggests that DP T cells in rhesus monkeys may exhibit more diverse differentiation states than those in cynomolgus monkeys. Thus, scRNA-seq and trajectory inference identified a more diverse subset of the circulating DP T cells than originally thought.


Assuntos
Análise de Célula Única , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta
12.
Adv Pharmacol ; 95: 329-364, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953160

RESUMO

Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis, an Old World monkey) are widely used in drug development because of their genetic and physiological similarities to humans, and this trend has continued with the use of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus, a New World monkey). Information on the major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP, P450) enzymes of these primate species indicates that multiple forms of their P450 enzymes have generally similar substrate selectivities to those of human P450 enzymes; however, some differences in isoform, activity, and substrate specificity account for limited species differences in drug oxidative metabolism. This review provides information on the P450 enzymes of cynomolgus macaques and marmosets, including cDNA, tissue expression, substrate specificity, and genetic variants, along with age differences and induction. Typical examples of important P450s to be considered in drug metabolism studies include cynomolgus CYP2C19, which is expressed abundantly in liver and metabolizes numerous drugs. Moreover, genetic variants of cynomolgus CYP2C19 affect the individual pharmacokinetic data of drugs such as R-warfarin. These findings provide a foundation for understanding each P450 enzyme and the individual pharmacokinetic and toxicological results in cynomolgus macaques and marmosets as preclinical models. In addition, the effects of induction on some drug clearances mediated by P450 enzymes are also described. In summary, this review describes genetic and acquired individual differences in cynomolgus and marmoset P450 enzymes involved in drug oxidation that may be associated with pharmacological and/or toxicological effects.


Assuntos
Callithrix , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Animais , Callithrix/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Macaca fascicularis/metabolismo
13.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(9): 1207-1218.e7, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981532

RESUMO

Strain 68-1 rhesus cytomegalovirus expressing simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) antigens (RhCMV/SIV) primes MHC-E-restricted CD8+ T cells that control SIV replication in 50%-60% of the vaccinated rhesus macaques. Whether this unconventional SIV-specific immunity and protection is unique to rhesus macaques or RhCMV or is intrinsic to CMV remains unknown. Here, using cynomolgus CMV vectors expressing SIV antigens (CyCMV/SIV) and Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, we demonstrate that the induction of MHC-E-restricted CD8+ T cells requires matching CMV to its host species. RhCMV does not elicit MHC-E-restricted CD8+ T cells in cynomolgus macaques. However, cynomolgus macaques vaccinated with species-matched 68-1-like CyCMV/SIV mounted MHC-E-restricted CD8+ T cells, and half of the vaccinees stringently controlled SIV post-challenge. Protected animals manifested a vaccine-induced IL-15 transcriptomic signature that is associated with efficacy in rhesus macaques. These findings demonstrate that the ability of species-matched CMV vectors to elicit MHC-E-restricted CD8+ T cells that are required for anti-SIV efficacy is conserved in nonhuman primates, and these data support the development of HCMV/HIV for a prophylactic HIV vaccine.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra a AIDS , Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Vacinas contra Citomegalovirus , Vacinas contra a SAIDS , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Citomegalovirus/genética , Interleucina-15 , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta
14.
EMBO J ; 41(18): e110815, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912849

RESUMO

In vitro oogenesis is key to elucidating the mechanism of human female germ-cell development and its anomalies. Accordingly, pluripotent stem cells have been induced into primordial germ cell-like cells and into oogonia with epigenetic reprogramming, yet further reconstitutions remain a challenge. Here, we demonstrate ex vivo reconstitution of fetal oocyte development in both humans and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). With an optimized culture of fetal ovary reaggregates over three months, human and monkey oogonia enter and complete the first meiotic prophase to differentiate into diplotene oocytes that form primordial follicles, the source for oogenesis in adults. The cytological and transcriptomic progressions of fetal oocyte development in vitro closely recapitulate those in vivo. A comparison of single-cell transcriptomes among humans, monkeys, and mice unravels primate-specific and conserved programs driving fetal oocyte development, the former including a distinct transcriptomic transformation upon oogonia-to-oocyte transition and the latter including two active X chromosomes with little X-chromosome upregulation. Our study provides a critical step forward for realizing human in vitro oogenesis and uncovers salient characteristics of fetal oocyte development in primates.


Assuntos
Meiose , Oogênese , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Oócitos , Oogênese/fisiologia , Ovário
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 954121, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903092

RESUMO

Although tremendous effort has been exerted to elucidate the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 cases, the detailed mechanism of moderate cases, which accounts for 90% of all patients, remains unclear yet, partly limited by lacking the biopsy tissues. Here, we established the COVID-19 infection model in cynomolgus macaques (CMs), monitored the clinical and pathological features, and analyzed underlying pathogenic mechanisms at early infection stage by performing proteomic and metabolomic profiling of lung tissues and sera samples from COVID-19 CMs models. Our data demonstrated that innate immune response, neutrophile and platelet activation were mainly dysregulated in COVID-19 CMs. The symptom of neutrophilia, lymphopenia and massive "cytokines storm", main features of severe COVID-19 patients, were greatly weakened in most of the challenged CMs, which are more semblable as moderate patients. Thus, COVID-19 model in CMs is rational to understand the pathogenesis of moderate COVID-19 and may be a candidate model to assess the safety and efficacy of therapeutics and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Proteômica
16.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35891482

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the route of administration on the immunogenicity and efficacy of a combined western, eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis (WEVEE) virus-like replicon particle (VRP) vaccine in cynomolgus macaques. The vaccine consisted of equal amounts of WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV VRPs. Thirty-three animals were randomly assigned to five treatment or control groups. Animals were vaccinated with two doses of WEVEE VRPs or the control 28 days apart. Blood was collected 28 days following primary vaccination and 21 days following boost vaccination for analysis of the immune response to the WEVEE VRP vaccine. NHPs were challenged by aerosol 28 or 29 days following second vaccination with WEEV CBA87. Vaccination with two doses of WEVEE VRP was immunogenic and resulted in neutralizing antibody responses specific for VEEV, EEEV and WEEV. None of the vaccinated animals met euthanasia criteria following aerosol exposure to WEEV CBA87. However, one NHP control (total of 11 controls) met euthanasia criteria after infection with WEEV CBA87. Statistically significant differences in median fever hours were noted in control NHPs compared to vaccinated NHPs, providing a quantitative measure of infection and efficacy of the vaccine against a WEEV challenge. Alterations in lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils were observed. Lymphopenia was observed in control NHPs.


Assuntos
Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana , Encefalomielite Equina Venezuelana , Vacinas Virais , Aerossóis , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Vírus da Encefalite Equina Venezuelana/genética , Encefalomielite Equina Venezuelana/prevenção & controle , Cavalos , Macaca fascicularis , Replicon
17.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889809

RESUMO

Dietary composition is associated with the differential prevalence of psychiatric disorders; the Western diet confers increased risk, while the Mediterranean diet appears to reduce risk. In nonhuman primates, anxiety-like behaviors and social isolation have been linked to both Western diet consumption and increased inflammatory disease risk, and recent evidence suggests that diet composition may affect immune system function in part through its effects on behavior. This is particularly important in the context of the global COVID-19 pandemic in which social isolation has been associated with disease. Here, we examined the effects of Western- and Mediterranean-like diets on social behavior in a randomized, 34-month preclinical trial in middle-aged female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Diet induced rapid and persistent changes in a suite of behaviors. After just three months of experimental diet consumption, a composite measure of diet-altered behavior (DAB) significantly differed between the two diets (p = 0.014) and remained different throughout the 24-month experimental observation period (p = 2.2 × 10-8). Monkeys fed the Western diet spent more time alone (FDR = 4.4 × 10-5) and displayed more anxiety behavior (FDR = 0.048), whereas monkeys fed the Mediterranean diet spent more time resting (FDR = 0.0013), attentive (FDR = 0.017), and in body contact with groupmates (FDR = 4.1 × 10-8). These differences were largely due to changes in behavior of animals fed the Mediterranean diet, while Western-diet-fed-animals exhibited similar behaviors compared to the eight-month baseline period, during which all monkeys consumed a common laboratory diet. These observations provide experimental support in a nonhuman primate model, demonstrating a potential therapeutic benefit of the Mediterranean diet consumption to reduce social isolation and anxiety and thus mitigate social isolation-associated disorders that often accompany illness and disability.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta Mediterrânea , Animais , Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Pandemias , Isolamento Social
18.
Acta Histochem ; 124(6): 151927, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792494

RESUMO

Induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) can be reprogrammed from somatic cells and have shown potentials in treatment of various neurological diseases/disorders. Obtaining iNSCs of nonhuman primates serves as an important bridge for clinical translation using iNSCs. In the current study, cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were reprogrammed into iNSCs by transduction of non-integrative Sendai virus encoding transgenes OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and C-MYC. The obtained iNSCs showed characteristics of normal neural stem cells (NSCs) and could differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, iNSCs could give rise to dopaminergic neural cells in vitro, which showed safety and efficacy after transplantation into the striatum of an immunodeficient mouse Parkinson's disease (PD) model.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neurais , Doença de Parkinson , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos , Macaca fascicularis , Camundongos , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Doença de Parkinson/terapia
19.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 224: 106982, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Disc degeneration has long been associated with excessive mechanical loading or acute disc injury. Our goal is to perform a shock load on the functional units of the cynomolgus monkey intervertebral disc and analyze the degree of degeneration of the intervertebral disc through image analysis and comprehensive analysis. The organ model establishes a standard organ culture model and a non-invasive biomechanical evaluation protocol close to the early degeneration of the human intervertebral disc. METHODS: After modeling, the cynomolgus monkey intervertebral discs were collected and loaded into the dynamic mechanical culture system. The physiological group was loaded with 10% high compressive deformation load for one second, the injury group was punctured with annulus fibrosus, the model group was loaded with 20-50% high compressive deformation, and the nutritional components were a high-glucose group and low-glucose group. After day 3 (short term) and day 10 (long term), samples were collected to analyze cell viability, histomorphology, image analysis for imaging and biomechanical changes. RESULTS: Both the injury group and the 30-50% strain model group showed signs of early degeneration, including decreased instantaneous compressive stiffness, percent change in gray value, decreased cell viability, AF fissure, and percent increase in dynamic elastic modulus. The glucose-restricted group also showed signs of early disc degeneration in long-term cultures. CONCLUSION: This study shows that a single shock load can induce early degeneration of healthy cynomolgus monkey intervertebral discs, and 30% strain may be the nociceptive threshold for early degeneration of healthy intervertebral discs. More importantly, a non-invasive biomechanical evaluation scheme of Percentage change in dynamic modulus of elasticity is established, which solves the key scientific problem of how to non-invasively, quantitatively and sensitively detect the development process of early intervertebral disc degeneration and its degree of degeneration in an in vitro organ model.


Assuntos
Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral , Disco Intervertebral , Animais , Módulo de Elasticidade , Glucose , Humanos , Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Macaca fascicularis
20.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4069, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831300

RESUMO

Non-human primates are attractive laboratory animal models that accurately reflect both developmental and pathological features of humans. Here we present a compendium of cell types across multiple organs in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) using both single-cell chromatin accessibility and RNA sequencing data. The integrated cell map enables in-depth dissection and comparison of molecular dynamics, cell-type compositions and cellular heterogeneity across multiple tissues and organs. Using single-cell transcriptomic data, we infer pseudotime cell trajectories and cell-cell communications to uncover key molecular signatures underlying their cellular processes. Furthermore, we identify various cell-specific cis-regulatory elements and construct organ-specific gene regulatory networks at the single-cell level. Finally, we perform comparative analyses of single-cell landscapes among mouse, monkey and human. We show that cynomolgus monkey has strikingly higher degree of similarities in terms of immune-associated gene expression patterns and cellular communications to human than mouse. Taken together, our study provides a valuable resource for non-human primate cell biology.


Assuntos
Transcriptoma , Animais , Macaca fascicularis/genética , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Transcriptoma/genética
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