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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008179, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898132

RESUMO

Detection and segmentation of macrophage cells in fluorescence microscopy images is a challenging problem, mainly due to crowded cells, variation in shapes, and morphological complexity. We present a new deep learning approach for cell detection and segmentation that incorporates previously learned nucleus features. A novel fusion of feature pyramids for nucleus detection and segmentation with feature pyramids for cell detection and segmentation is used to improve performance on a microscopic image dataset created by us and provided for public use, containing both nucleus and cell signals. Our experimental results indicate that cell detection and segmentation performance significantly benefit from the fusion of previously learned nucleus features. The proposed feature pyramid fusion architecture clearly outperforms a state-of-the-art Mask R-CNN approach for cell detection and segmentation with relative mean average precision improvements of up to 23.88% and 23.17%, respectively.


Assuntos
Células Eucarióticas/citologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Biologia Computacional , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Macrófagos/citologia , Células THP-1
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 432-435, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935525

RESUMO

Macrophages are important members of innate immunity and play an extremely important role in the host defense against pathogenic infections, tumors, and allergic diseases. Macrophages have a high degree of plasticity, and may be polarized into classical activated macrophages (M1 macrophages) and alternative activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) under the stimulation of different environments. M1 macrophages are found to promote inflammatory responses, which facilitates the clearance of pathogens, while M2 macrophages may inhibit inflammatory responses, which facilitates the survival and reproduction of pathogens. This review summarizes the role of macrophage polarization in parasitic infections, so as to provide insights into the prevention and treatment of parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Ativação de Macrófagos , Doenças Parasitárias , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Doenças Parasitárias/imunologia
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6355-6372, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922006

RESUMO

Background: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs) are potent scavengers of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Their antioxidant properties make CeO2NPs promising therapeutic agents for bone diseases and bone tissue engineering. However, the effects of CeO2NPs on intracellular ROS production in osteoclasts (OCs) are still unclear. Numerous studies have reported that intracellular ROS are essential for osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of CeO2NPs on osteoclast differentiation and the potential underlying mechanisms. Methods: The bidirectional modulation of osteoclast differentiation by CeO2NPs was explored by different methods, such as fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blotting. The cytotoxic and proapoptotic effects of CeO2NPs were detected by cell counting kit (CCK-8) assay, TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and flow cytometry. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that although CeO2NPs were capable of scavenging ROS in acellular environments, they facilitated the production of ROS in the acidic cellular environment during receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)-dependent osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). CeO2NPs at lower concentrations (4.0 µg/mL to 8.0 µg/mL) promoted osteoclast formation, as shown by increased expression of Nfatc1 and C-Fos, F-actin ring formation and bone resorption. However, at higher concentrations (greater than 16.0 µg/mL), CeO2NPs inhibited osteoclast differentiation and promoted apoptosis of BMMs by reducing Bcl2 expression and increasing the expression of cleaved caspase-3, which may be due to the overproduction of ROS. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that CeO2NPs facilitate osteoclast formation at lower concentrations while inhibiting osteoclastogenesis in vitro by inducing the apoptosis of BMMs at higher concentrations by modulating cellular ROS levels.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Cério/química , Osteoclastos/citologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante RANK/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
J Biol Chem ; 295(41): 14040-14052, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763970

RESUMO

Coronaviruses have caused several zoonotic infections in the past two decades, leading to significant morbidity and mortality globally. Balanced regulation of cell death and inflammatory immune responses is essential to promote protection against coronavirus infection; however, the underlying mechanisms that control these processes remain to be resolved. Here we demonstrate that infection with the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and inflammatory cell death in the form of PANoptosis. Deleting NLRP3 inflammasome components or the downstream cell death executioner gasdermin D (GSDMD) led to an initial reduction in cell death followed by a robust increase in the incidence of caspase-8- and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-mediated inflammatory cell deathafter coronavirus infection. Additionally, loss of GSDMD promoted robust NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the amounts of some cytokines released during coronavirus infection were significantly altered in the absence of GSDMD. Altogether, our findings show that inflammatory cell death, PANoptosis, is induced by coronavirus infection and that impaired NLRP3 inflammasome function or pyroptosis can lead to negative consequences for the host. These findings may have important implications for studies of coronavirus-induced disease.


Assuntos
Caspase 8/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Piroptose , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Necroptose , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo
5.
EBioMedicine ; 59: 102964, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861199

RESUMO

Mononuclear phagocytes are a widely distributed family of cells contributing to innate and adaptive immunity. Circulating monocytes and tissue macrophages participate in all stages of SARS COVID-19. They contribute to comorbidities predisposing to clinical infection, virus resistance and dissemination, and to host factors that determine disease severity, recovery and sequelae. Assays are available to detect viral infection and antibody responses, but no adequate tests have been developed to measure the activation level of monocytes and tissue macrophages, and the risk of progression to a fatal hyperinflammatory syndrome. Blood monocytes provide a window on the systemic immune response, from production to tissue recruitment, reflecting the impact of infection on the host. Ready availability of blood makes it possible to monitor severity and the risk of potentially lethal complications, by developing tests to assess the status of monocyte activation and its potential for further inflammatory dysregulation after recruitment to tissues and during recovery.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237795, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833989

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membrane-limited structures derived from outward budding of the plasma membrane or endosomal system that participate in cellular communication processes through the transport of bioactive molecules to recipient cells. To date, there are no published methodological works showing step-by-step the isolation, characterization and internalization of small EVs secreted by human primary macrophages derived from circulating monocytes (MDM-derived sEVs). Thus, here we aimed to provide an alternative protocol based on differential ultracentrifugation (dUC) to describe small EVs (sEVs) from these cells. Monocyte-derived macrophages were cultured in EV-free medium during 24, 48 or 72 h and, then, EVs were isolated from culture supernatants by (dUC). Macrophages secreted a large amount of sEVs in the first 24 h, with size ranging from 40-150 nm, peaking at 105 nm, as evaluated by nanoparticle tracking analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The markers Alix, CD63 and CD81 were detected by immunoblotting in EV samples, and the co-localization of CD63 and CD81 after sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation (S-DGUC) indicated the presence of sEVs from late endosomal origin. Confocal fluorescence revealed that the sEVs were internalized by primary macrophages after three hours of co-culture. The methodology here applied aims to contribute for enhancing reproducibility between the limited number of available protocols for the isolation and characterization of MDM-derived sEVs, thus providing basic knowledge in the area of EV methods that can be useful for those investigators working with sEVs released by human primary macrophages derived from circulating monocytes.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Buffy Coat/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Fracionamento Celular/métodos , Centrifugação com Gradiente de Concentração/métodos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Microscopia Intravital , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Monócitos/fisiologia , Cultura Primária de Células
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109220, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763245

RESUMO

The sepsis is considered as serious clinic-pathological condition related with high rate of morbidity and mortality in critical care settings. In the proposed study, the hydrazides derivatives N-(benzylidene)-2-((2-hydroxynaphthalen-1-yl)diazenyl)benzohydrazides (1-2) (NCHDH and NTHDH) were investigated against the LPS-induced sepsis in rodents. The NCHDH and NTHDH markedly improved the physiological sign and symptoms associated with the sepsis such as mortality, temperature, and clinical scoring compared to negative control group, which received only LPS (i.p.). The NCHDH and NTHDH also inhibited the production of the NO and MPO compared to the negative control. Furthermore, the treatment control improved the histological changes markedly of all the vital organs. Additionally, the Masson's trichrome and PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) staining also showed improvement in the NCHDH and NTHDH treated group in contrast to LPS-induced group. The antioxidants were enhanced by the intervention of the NCHDH and NTHDH and the level of the MDA and POD were attenuated marginally compared to the LPS-induced group. The hematology study showed marked improvement and the reversal of the LPS-induced changes in blood composition compared to the negative control. The synthetic function of the liver and kidney were preserved in the NCHDH and NTHDH treated group compared to the LPS-induced group. The NCHDH and NTHDH markedly enhanced the Nrf2, HO-1 (Heme oxygenase-1), while attenuated the Keap1 and TRPV1 expression level as compared to LPS treated group. Furthermore, the NCHDH and NTHDH treatment showed marked increased in the mRNA expression level of the HSP70/90 proteins compared to the negative control.


Assuntos
Hidrazinas/farmacologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Sepse/etiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Hidrazinas/química , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/mortalidade , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4311, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855420

RESUMO

Pulmonary disease increases the risk of developing abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). However, the mechanism underlying the pathological dialogue between the lungs and aorta is undefined. Here, we find that inflicting acute lung injury (ALI) to mice doubles their incidence of AAA and accelerates macrophage-driven proteolytic damage of the aortic wall. ALI-induced HMGB1 leaks and is captured by arterial macrophages thereby altering their mitochondrial metabolism through RIPK3. RIPK3 promotes mitochondrial fission leading to elevated oxidative stress via DRP1. This triggers MMP12 to lyse arterial matrix, thereby stimulating AAA. Administration of recombinant HMGB1 to WT, but not Ripk3-/- mice, recapitulates ALI-induced proteolytic collapse of arterial architecture. Deletion of RIPK3 in myeloid cells, DRP1 or MMP12 suppression in ALI-inflicted mice repress arterial stress and brake MMP12 release by transmural macrophages thereby maintaining a strengthened arterial framework refractory to AAA. Our results establish an inter-organ circuitry that alerts arterial macrophages to regulate vascular remodeling.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/complicações , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Aorta Abdominal/citologia , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/etiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/prevenção & controle , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dinaminas/antagonistas & inibidores , Dinaminas/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/citologia , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/genética , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Regulação para Cima
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(13)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629817

RESUMO

By attaching to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein on lung and intestinal cells, Sudden Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) can cause respiratory and homeostatic difficulties leading to sepsis. The progression from acute respiratory failure to sepsis has been correlated with the release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). Lack of effective conventional treatment of this septic state has spiked an interest in alternative medicine. This review of herbal extracts has identified multiple candidates which can target the release of HMGB1 and potentially reduce mortality by preventing progression from respiratory distress to sepsis. Some of the identified mixtures have also been shown to interfere with viral attachment. Due to the wide variability in chemical superstructure of the components of assorted herbal extracts, common motifs have been identified. Looking at the most active compounds in each extract it becomes evident that as a group, phenolic compounds have a broad enzyme inhibiting function. They have been shown to act against the priming of SARS-CoV-2 attachment proteins by host and viral enzymes, and the release of HMGB1 by host immune cells. An argument for the value in a nonspecific inhibitory action has been drawn. Hopefully these findings can drive future drug development and clinical procedures.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia , Sepse/patologia , Proteína HMGB1/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/virologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Exsudatos de Plantas/química , Exsudatos de Plantas/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Insuficiência Respiratória/metabolismo , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Sepse/metabolismo , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658196

RESUMO

Microglia and central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating macrophages, collectively called CNS mononuclear phagocytes (CNS-MPs), play central roles in neurological diseases including neurodegeneration and stroke. CNS-MPs are involved in phagocytic clearance of pathological proteins, debris and neuronal synapses, each with distinct underlying molecular pathways. Characterizing these phagocytic properties can provide a functional readout that compliments molecular profiling of microglia using traditional flow cytometry, transcriptomics and proteomics approaches. Phagocytic profiling of microglia has relied on microscopic visualization and in vitro cultures of mouse neonatal microglia. The former approach suffers from limited sampling while the latter approach is inherently poorly reflective of the true in vivo state of adult CNS-MPs. This paper describes optimized protocols to phenotype phagocytic properties of acutely-isolated mouse CNS-MPs by flow cytometry. CNS-MPs are acutely isolated from adult mouse brain using mechanical dissociation followed by density gradient centrifugation, incubated with fluorescent microspheres or fluorescent Aß fibrils, washed, and then labeled with panels of antibodies against surface markers (CD11b, CD45). Using this approach, it is possible to compare phagocytic properties of brain-resident microglia with CNS-infiltrating macrophages and then assess the effect of aging and disease pathology on these phagocytic phenotypes. This rapid method also holds potential to functionally phenotype acutely-isolated human CNS-MPs from post-mortem or surgical brain specimens. Additionally, specific mechanisms of phagocytosis by CNS-MP subsets can be investigated by inhibiting select phagocytic pathways.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/citologia , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Macrófagos/citologia , Microglia/imunologia , Fagocitose , Adulto , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Humanos , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701962

RESUMO

Phthiocerol dimycocerosates (PDIMs) are a class of mycobacterial lipids that promote virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum. It has recently been shown that PDIMs work in concert with the M. tuberculosis Type VII secretion system ESX-1 to permeabilize the phagosomal membranes of infected macrophages. As the zebrafish-M. marinum model of infection has revealed the critical role of PDIM at the host-pathogen interface, we set to determine if PDIMs contributed to phagosomal permeabilization in M. marinum. Using an ΔmmpL7 mutant defective in PDIM transport, we find the PDIM-ESX-1 interaction to be conserved in an M. marinum macrophage infection model. However, we find PDIM and ESX-1 mutants differ in their degree of defect, with the PDIM mutant retaining more membrane damaging activity. Using an in vitro hemolysis assay-a common surrogate for cytolytic activity, we find that PDIM and ESX-1 differ in their contributions: the ESX-1 mutant loses hemolytic activity while PDIM retains it. Our observations confirm the involvement of PDIMs in phagosomal permeabilization in M. marinum infection and suggest that PDIM enhances the membrane disrupting activity of pathogenic mycobacteria and indicates that the role they play in damaging phagosomal and red blood cell membranes may differ.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Mycobacterium marinum/metabolismo , Fagossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium marinum/fisiologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagossomos/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235717, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658905

RESUMO

Vernonia amygdalina (VA) has been reported to have antioxidant potential; however, its DNA protection and anti-inflammatory properties remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether aqueous (WEVAL) and alcoholic (EEVAL) VA extracts exert similar antioxidant, DNA protection and anti-inflammatory effects and attempted to explore the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects. These results demonstrated that WEVAL had greater polyphenolic and flavonoid contents, as well as a stronger reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging and DNA protective activity. Moreover, both extracts reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of COX-II, iNOS, pro-inflammatory factors, including NO, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-10. Compared with WEVAL, EEVAL was a more potent inflammatory inhibitor. Both extracts similarly inhibited LPS-induced MAPK (p38) and NF-κB expression. Our findings indicate that WEVAL and EEVAL have diverse antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. WEVAL had a stronger antioxidant and DNA protection activity; contrastingly, EEVAL had a stronger anti-inflammatory ability. The anti-inflammatory activity involves reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines through NF-κB down-regulation and MAPK inhibition. These results demonstrated that production of WEVAL and EEVAL from VA leaves may provide a safe and efficacious source of pharmaceutical applications, with antioxidant, DNA protective and anti-inflammation activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Vernonia/química , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658933

RESUMO

The attenuation of hyper-inflammation in sepsis with the administration of anti-inflammatory macrophages is an interesting adjuvant therapy for sepsis. Because the induction of anti-inflammatory macrophages by microRNA (miR), a regulator of mRNA, has been mentioned, the exploration on miR-induced anti-inflammatory macrophages was performed. The over-expression of miR-223 and miR-146a in RAW264.7 induced M2 macrophage-polarization (anti-inflammatory macrophages) as evaluated by the enhanced expression of Arginase-1 and Fizz. However, miR-223 over-expressed cells demonstrated the more potent anti-inflammatory property against LPS stimulation as lesser iNOS expression, lower supernatant IL-6 and higher supernatant IL-10 compared with miR-146a over-expressed cells. Interestingly, LPS stimulation in miR-223 over-expressed cells, compared with LPS-stimulated control cells, demonstrated lower activity of glycolysis pathway and higher mitochondrial respiration, as evaluated by the extracellular flux analysis, and also down-regulated HIF-1α, an important enzyme of glycolysis pathway. In addition, the administration of miR-223 over-expressed macrophages with IL-4 pre-conditioning, but not IL-4 stimulated control cells, attenuated sepsis severity in LPS injected mice as evaluated by serum creatinine, liver enzymes, lung histology and serum cytokines. In conclusion, miR-223 interfered with the glycolysis pathway through the down-regulation of HIF-1α, resulting in the anti-inflammatory status. The over-expression of miR-223 in macrophages prevented the conversion into M1 macrophage polarization after LPS stimulation. The administration of miR-223 over-expressed macrophages, with IL-4 preconditioning, attenuated sepsis severity in LPS model. Hence, a proof of concept in the induction of anti-inflammatory macrophages through the cell-energy interference for sepsis treatment was proposed as a basis of cell-based therapy in sepsis.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Glicólise , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos/transplante , MicroRNAs/genética , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sepse/induzido quimicamente , Sepse/metabolismo , Sepse/patologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3521, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665556

RESUMO

Microtubules (MTs) mediate mitosis, directional signaling, and are therapeutic targets in cancer. Yet in vivo analysis of cancer cell MT behavior within the tumor microenvironment remains challenging. Here we developed an imaging pipeline using plus-end tip tracking and intravital microscopy to quantify MT dynamics in live xenograft tumor models. Among analyzed features, cancer cells in vivo displayed higher coherent orientation of MT dynamics along their cell major axes compared with 2D in vitro cultures, and distinct from 3D collagen gel cultures. This in vivo MT phenotype was reproduced in vitro when cells were co-cultured with IL4-polarized MΦ. MΦ depletion, MT disruption, targeted kinase inhibition, and altered MΦ polarization via IL10R blockade all reduced MT coherence and/or tumor cell elongation. We show that MT coherence is a defining feature for in vivo tumor cell dynamics and migration, modulated by local signaling from pro-tumor macrophages.


Assuntos
Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Celular/genética , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Movimento Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Mitose/genética , Mitose/fisiologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Células RAW 264.7
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4625-4637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636622

RESUMO

Purpose: Besides the tumor cells themselves, solid tumors are comprised of numerous cell types including infiltrating immune cells such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). TAMs are vital stromal components of host immune system and play a critical role in the development of cancer. TAMs can be divided into two subtypes: M1 tumor-suppressive macrophage and M2 tumor-supportive macrophage. To better address the observations of TAMs functional performance, we describe an in vitro system that mimics the populations of TAMs infiltrated into the tumor mass by using our disintegrable supramolecular gelatin (DSG) hydrogels, which are physically crosslinked by host-guest complexations. Materials and Methods: The host-guest interaction was adopted between the aromatic groups of gelatin and the photocrosslinkable acrylated ß-cyclodextrins (Ac-ß-CDs) to form the DSG hydrogels. The convenient macrophage/endometrial cancer cells heterospheroid 3D model was set up by DSG hydrogels. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were developed to evaluate the efficiencies of inducers on the macrophages. The ELISA and oxygen saturation assays were performed to measure the secretion of VEGF and consumption of oxygen of tumor and/or macrophages, respectively. To determine the antitumor effects of M2 reprogrammed macrophages in vitro and in vivo, migration assay and tumor xenograft model were used, respectively. Results: The host-guest complexations of DSG hydrogels were controllably broken efficiently by soaking into the solution of competitive guest monomers 1-adamantanamine hydrochloride. The DSG hydrogels help IFN-γ reprogram the M2 to M1 and then decrease the tumor/M2 reprogrammed macrophage cells heterospheroid secretion of VEGF and increase the relative oxygen saturation. Significantly, the co-cultural tumor/M2 reprogrammed group from the disintegrated DSG hydrogels reduced the migration of cancer cells in vitro and the tumor growth in vivo. Conclusion: We obtain a TAMs/tumor microenvironment-responsive 3D model based on the novel DSG hydrogels, and will be of utility in cancer therapy and drug discovery.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Gelatina/química , Hidrogéis/química , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/transplante , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Feminino , Gelatina/farmacocinética , Humanos , Hidrogéis/farmacocinética , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
16.
Virology ; 548: 6-16, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530809

RESUMO

Gastric carcinoma (GC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancy characterized by early metastasis. Unlike that of cellular micro(mi)RNAs, the role of viral miRNAs in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis in cancers has not been fully investigated. In this study, we elucidated the involvement of miR-BART11, an EBV-encoded viral miRNA, in the EMT and metastasis of GC cells. EBV-miR-BART11 upregulation can lead to downregulation of forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1) in both tissues and cell lines of gastric carcinoma. Downregulation of FOXP1 might trigger the secretion of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, and 1L-10 in cancer cells, resulting in poor survival of GC patients. We found that the observed EMT phenotypes resulted from the EBV-miR-BART11 overexpression-induced FOXP1 downregulation, which impacted the expression of the EMT-transcription factors E-cadherin and snail. We further demonstrated that conditioned medium-derived tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promoted phenotypic changes and expression of EMT-related molecules in GC cells. Additionally, EMT changes were significantly promoted in GC cells cultured in conditioned medium from TAMs infected with EBV-miR-BART11-containing lentivirus. On the contrary, GC cells cultured in conditioned medium from TAMs infected with FOXP1-carrying lentivirus showed little or no EMT change. Taken together, our results suggest that EBV-encoded viral miRNA BART11 downregulates the FOXP1 transcription factor, and promotes EMT by directly influencing gastric tumor cells or indirectly affecting the tumor microenvironment, which might, in turn, accelerate cancer invasion and metastasis, thereby affecting the survival and prognosis of patients.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 4/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/metabolismo , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/virologia
17.
Cells ; 9(6)2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526950

RESUMO

Feline coronavirus is a highly contagious virus potentially resulting in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), while the pathogenesis of FIP remains not well understood, particularly in the events leading to the disease. A predominant theory is that the pathogenic FIPV arises from a mutation, so that it could replicate not only in enterocytes of the intestines but also in monocytes, subsequently systemically transporting the virus. The immune status and genetics of affected cats certainly play an important role in the pathogenesis. Considering the importance of genetics and host immune responses in viral infections, the goal of this study was to elucidate host gene expression in macrophages using RNA sequencing. Macrophages from healthy male cats infected with FIPV 79-1146 ex vivo displayed a differential host gene expression. Despite the virus uptake, aligned viral reads did not increase from 2 to 17 h. The overlap of host gene expression among macrophages from different cats was limited, even though viral transcripts were detected in the cells. Interestingly, some of the downregulated genes in all macrophages were involved in immune signaling, while some upregulated genes common for all cats were found to be inhibiting immune activation. Our results highlight individual host responses playing an important role, consistent with the fact that few cats develop feline infectious peritonitis despite a common presence of enteric FCoV.


Assuntos
Coronavirus Felino/imunologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/imunologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Animais , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Coronavirus Felino/genética , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata/genética , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Monócitos/citologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma/genética
18.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568235

RESUMO

The neuroinflammatory state of the central nervous system (CNS) plays a key role in physiological and pathological conditions. Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, and sometimes the infiltrating bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), regulate the inflammatory profile of their microenvironment in the CNS. It is now accepted that the extracellular vesicle (EV) populations from immune cells act as immune mediators. Thus, their collection and isolation are important to identify their contents but also evaluate their biological effects on recipient cells. The present data highlight chronological requirements for EV isolation from microglia cells or blood macrophages including the ultracentrifugation and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) steps. A non-targeted proteomic analysis permitted the validation of protein signatures as EV markers and characterized the biologically active EV contents. Microglia-derived EVs were also functionally used on primary culture of neurons to assess their importance as immune mediators in the neurite outgrowth. The results showed that microglia-derived EVs contribute to facilitate the neurite outgrowth in vitro. In parallel, blood macrophage-derived EVs were functionally used as immune mediators in spheroid cultures of C6 glioma cells, the results showing that these EVs control the glioma cell invasion in vitro. This report highlights the possibility to evaluate the EV-mediated immune cell functions but also understand the molecular bases of such a communication. This deciphering could promote the use of natural vesicles and/or the in vitro preparation of therapeutic vesicles in order to mimic immune properties in the microenvironment of CNS pathologies.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/citologia , Animais , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Microglia/citologia , Proteômica , Ratos , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
Nature ; 582(7813): 571-576, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499656

RESUMO

Macrophages are the first cells of the nascent immune system to emerge during embryonic development. In mice, embryonic macrophages infiltrate developing organs, where they differentiate symbiotically into tissue-resident macrophages (TRMs)1. However, our understanding of the origins and specialization of macrophages in human embryos is limited. Here we isolated CD45+ haematopoietic cells from human embryos at Carnegie stages 11 to 23 and subjected them to transcriptomic profiling by single-cell RNA sequencing, followed by functional characterization of a population of CD45+CD34+CD44+ yolk sac-derived myeloid-biased progenitors (YSMPs) by single-cell culture. We also mapped macrophage heterogeneity across multiple anatomical sites and identified diverse subsets, including various types of embryonic TRM (in the head, liver, lung and skin). We further traced the specification trajectories of TRMs from either yolk sac-derived primitive macrophages or YSMP-derived embryonic liver monocytes using both transcriptomic and developmental staging information, with a focus on microglia. Finally, we evaluated the molecular similarities between embryonic TRMs and their adult counterparts. Our data represent a comprehensive characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of early macrophage development during human embryogenesis, providing a reference for future studies of the development and function of human TRMs.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/citologia , Análise de Célula Única , Linhagem da Célula , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Cabeça , Hematopoese , Humanos , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/embriologia , Pulmão/citologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Microglia/citologia , Células Progenitoras Mieloides/citologia , RNA-Seq , Pele/citologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Transcriptoma , Saco Vitelino/citologia
20.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(6): 635-9, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment on the cardiac ejection fraction (EF), the number of macrophages in spleen and heart, and the expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) in myocardium in mice with acute myocardial ischemia, and to explore the possible mechanism of EA pretreatment on promoting myocardial protection. METHODS: A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into a control group, a model group and an EA pretreatment group, 10 rats in each group. The acute myocardial ischemia model was established by ligating the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery in the model group and EA pretreatment group, while threading but no ligating at left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery was applied in the control group. In the EA pretreatment group, mice were intervented with EA at bilateral "Neiguan" (PC 6), disperse-dense wave, frequency of 2 Hz/15 Hz, intensity of 2 mA; each EA treatment last for 20 min, once a day, and 3-day treatment was given before model establishment. The EF value was evaluated by ultrasonic cardiogram; the number of macrophages in spleen and heart was measured by flow cytometry; the expression level of NLRP3 and IL-1ß in myocardium was measured by Western blot. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the EF value was decreased in the model group (P<0.001), the number of macrophages in the heart and spleen was increased (P<0.001), and the expression level of NLRP3 and IL-1ß in the myocardium was increased (P<0.001, P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the EF value was increased in the EA pretreatment group (P<0.01), the number of macrophages in the heart and spleen was decreased (P<0.01), and the expression level of NLRP3 and IL-1ß in the myocardium was decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: EA pretreatment could reduce the number of macrophages in spleen and heart, down-regulate the expression of NLRP3 and IL-1ß in myocardial tissue in mice with acute myocardial ischemia, which could relieve the local inflammatory response and achieve the myocardial protective effect.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Coração/fisiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Animais , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Isquemia Miocárdica/imunologia , Miocárdio , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Baço
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