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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4375, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873797

RESUMO

In the testis, interstitial macrophages are thought to be derived from the yolk sac during fetal development, and later replaced by bone marrow-derived macrophages. By contrast, the peritubular macrophages have been reported to emerge first in the postnatal testis and solely represent descendants of bone marrow-derived monocytes. Here, we define new monocyte and macrophage types in the fetal and postnatal testis using high-dimensional single-cell analyses. Our results show that interstitial macrophages have a dominant contribution from fetal liver-derived precursors, while peritubular macrophages are generated already at birth from embryonic precursors. We find that bone marrow-derived monocytes do not substantially contribute to the replenishment of the testicular macrophage pool even after systemic macrophage depletion. The presence of macrophages prenatally, but not postnatally, is necessary for normal spermatogenesis. Our multifaceted data thus challenge the current paradigms in testicular macrophage biology by delineating their differentiation, homeostasis and functions.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/fisiologia , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Diferenciação Celular , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Monócitos/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Espermatogênese/fisiologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4549, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917889

RESUMO

Arterial macrophages have different developmental origins, but the association of macrophage ontogeny with their phenotypes and functions in adulthood is still unclear. Here, we combine macrophage fate-mapping analysis with single-cell RNA sequencing to establish their cellular identity during homeostasis, and in response to angiotensin-II (AngII)-induced arterial inflammation. Yolk sac erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMP) contribute substantially to adventitial macrophages and give rise to a defined cluster of resident immune cells with homeostatic functions that is stable in adult mice, but declines in numbers during ageing and is not replenished by bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages. In response to AngII inflammation, increase in adventitial macrophages is driven by recruitment of BM monocytes, while EMP-derived macrophages proliferate locally and provide a distinct transcriptional response that is linked to tissue regeneration. Our findings thus contribute to the understanding of macrophage heterogeneity, and associate macrophage ontogeny with distinct functions in health and disease.


Assuntos
Artérias/citologia , Arterite/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Homeostase/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Angiotensina II/administração & dosagem , Angiotensina II/imunologia , Animais , Artérias/fisiologia , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Linhagem da Célula , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , RNA-Seq , Regeneração/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Quimeras de Transplante
3.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(7): 1431-1439, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748601

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to provide a culture for mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and peritoneal macrophages (PM) and to characterize their molecular and cellular biology. The cell number and purity from the primary culture were assessed by cell counter and flow cytometry, respectively. Morphological features were evaluated by inverted microscope. Phagocytosis by macrophages was detected by the neutral red dye uptake assay. Phenotypic markers were analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Our results show that the cell number was much higher from culture of BMDM than PM, while there was no significant difference regarding the percentage of F4/80+CD11b+ cells (98.30%±0.53% vs. 94.83%±1.42%; P>0.05). The proliferation rate of BMDM was significantly higher than PM in the presence of L929 cell conditioned medium, by using CCK-8 assay. However, PM appeared to adhere to the flask wall and extend earlier than BMDM. The phagocytosis capability of un-stimulated BMDM was significantly higher than PM, as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMDM, except the BMDM stimulated by low dose LPS (0.1 µg/mL). Furthermore, Tnfα expression was significantly higher in un-stimulated BMDM than PM, while Arg1 and Ym1 mRNA expression were significantly lower than PM. The expression difference was persistent if stimulated by LPS+IFN-γ or IL-4. Our data indicate that bone marrow can get larger amounts of macrophages than peritoneal cavity. However, it should be aware that the molecular and cellular characteristics were different between these two culture systems.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea , Macrófagos , Fagocitose , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/classificação , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Camundongos
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20235-20243, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753384

RESUMO

All cells require Mg2+ to replicate and proliferate. The macrophage protein Slc11a1 is proposed to protect mice from invading microbes by causing Mg2+ starvation in host tissues. However, the Mg2+ transporter MgtB enables the facultative intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to cause disease in mice harboring a functional Slc11a1 protein. Here, we report that, unexpectedly, the Salmonella small protein MgtR promotes MgtB degradation by the protease FtsH, which raises the question: How does Salmonella preserve MgtB to promote survival inside macrophages? We establish that the Salmonella small protein MgtU prevents MgtB proteolysis, even when MgtR is absent. Like MgtB, MgtU is necessary for survival in Slc11a1 +/+ macrophages, resistance to oxidative stress, and growth under Mg2+ limitation conditions. The Salmonella Mg2+ transporter MgtA is not protected by MgtU despite sharing 50% amino acid identity with MgtB and being degraded in an MgtR- and FtsH-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the mgtB, mgtR, and mgtU genes are part of the same transcript, providing a singular example of transcript-specifying proteins that promote and hinder degradation of the same target. Our findings demonstrate that small proteins can confer pathogen survival inside macrophages by altering the abundance of related transporters, thereby furthering homeostasis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Magnésio/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Linhagem Celular , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Plasmídeos/genética , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Virulência
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234916, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614882

RESUMO

A great deal of attention has been focused on nanoparticles for cancer therapy, with the promise of tumor-selective delivery. However, despite intense work in the field over many years, the biggest obstacle to this vision remains extremely low delivery efficiency of nanoparticles into tumors. Due to the cost, time, and impact on the animals for in vivo studies, the nanoparticle field predominantly uses cellular uptake assays as a proxy to predict in vivo outcomes. Extensive research has focused on decreasing macrophage uptake in vitro as a proxy to delay nanoparticle accumulation in the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS), mainly the liver and spleen, and thereby increase tumor accumulation. We have recently reported novel synthetic methods employing small molecule crosslinkers for the controlled assembly of small nanoparticles into larger aggregates and found that these nanoaggregates had remarkably high surface coverage and low cell uptake, even in macrophages. We further found that this extremely low cellular uptake could be recapitulated on solid gold nanoparticles by densely coating their surface with small molecules. Here we report our studies on the biodistribution and clearance of these materials in comparison to more conventional PEGylated gold nanoparticles. It was expected that the remarkably low macrophage uptake in vitro would translate to extended blood circulation time in vivo, but instead we found no correlation between either surface coverage or in vitro macrophage cell uptake and in vivo blood circulation. Gold nanoaggregates accumulate more rapidly and to a higher level in the liver compared to control gold nanoparticles. The lack of correlation between in vitro macrophage uptake and in vivo blood circulation suggests that the field must find other in vitro assays to use as a primary proxy for in vivo outcomes or use direct in vivo experimentation as a primary assay.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacocinética , Ouro/farmacocinética , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Polietilenoglicóis , Animais , Endocitose , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Ouro/administração & dosagem , Ouro/sangue , Meia-Vida , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas Metálicas/classificação , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Projetos Piloto , Células RAW 264.7 , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Baço/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107948, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698076

RESUMO

Immunomodulation is an emerging concept to combat infection in recent years. Immunomodulators like arabinosylated-lipoarabinomannan (Ara-LAM) and glycyrrhizic-acid (GA) possess anti-leishmanial property, whereas sodium-antimony-gluconate (SAG) is still considered as the first choice for chemotherapy against leishmaniasis. During infection, invasion of Leishmania donovani needs the potential requirement of Ca2+, which is further responsible for apoptosis in intracellular amastigotes. However, suppression of elevated intracellular calcium by the activation of plasma-membrane-calcium-ATPase (PMCA4) facilitates survival of L. donovani in the host. In the present study, SAG, Ara-LAM, and GA were found to evoke significant increase in intracellular Ca2+ in L. donovani infected macrophages by inhibiting PMCA4. Moreover, PMCA4 inhibition by TFP or PMCA4 siRNA elevated the level of PKCß, whereas calcium-independent upregulation of PKCζ remained unchanged in infected macrophages. Furthermore, application of immunomodulators in infected macrophages resulted in down-regulation of PKCζ, conversion of anti-inflammatory to pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of PMCA4. Plasma membrane-associated ceramide which is known to be elevated during leishmaniasis, triggered upregulation of PMCA4 via PKCζ activation. Interestingly, immunomodulators attenuated ceramide generation, which resulted into reduced PKCζ activation leading to the decreased PMCA expression in infected macrophages. Therefore, our study elucidated the efficacy of SAG, Ara-LAM, and GA in the reduction of parasite burden in macrophages by suppressing PMCA activation through inhibition of ceramide mediated upregulation of PKCζ.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/sangue , Membrana Celular/enzimologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/farmacologia , Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceramidas/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura Livres de Soro , Densitometria , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Citometria de Fluxo , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Ácido Glicirrízico/uso terapêutico , Imipramina/farmacologia , Immunoblotting , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Camundongos , RNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , RNA Interferente Pequeno/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transcrição Reversa , Transfecção
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233767, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531779

RESUMO

Functional and anatomical connection between the liver and the spleen is most clearly manifested in various pathological conditions of the liver (cirrhosis, hepatitis). The mechanisms of the interaction between the two organs are still poorly understood, as there have been practically no studies on the influence exerted by the spleen on the normal liver. Mature male Sprague-Dawley rats of 250-260 g body weight, 3 months old, were splenectomized. The highest numbers of Ki67+ hepatocytes in the liver of splenectomized rats were observed at 24 h after the surgery, simultaneously with the highest index of Ki67-positive hepatocytes. After surgical removal of the spleen, expression of certain genes in the liver tissues increased. A number of genes were upregulated in the liver at a single time point of 24 h, including Ccne1, Egf, Tnfa, Il6, Hgf, Met, Tgfb1r2 and Nos2. The expression of Ccnd1, Tgfb1, Tgfb1r1 and Il10 in the liver was upregulated over the course of 3 days after splenectomy. Monitoring of the liver macrophage populations in splenectomized animals revealed a statistically significant increase in the proportion of CD68-positive cells in the liver (as compared with sham-operated controls) detectable at 24 h and 48 h after the surgery. The difference in the liver content of CD68-positive cells between splenectomized and sham-operated animals evened out by day 3 after the surgery. No alterations in the liver content of CD163-positive cells were observed in the experiments. A decrease in the proportion of CD206-positive liver macrophages was observed at 48 h after splenectomy. The splenectomy-induced hepatocyte proliferation is described by us for the first time. Mechanistically, the effect is apparently induced by the removal of spleen as a major source of Tgfb1 (hepatocyte growth inhibitor) and subsequently supported by activation of proliferation factor-encoding genes in the liver.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Esplenectomia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Hepatócitos/fisiologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transcriptoma , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
8.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 655-661, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514124

RESUMO

Three-dimensional organization of the genome is important for transcriptional regulation1-7. In mammals, CTCF and the cohesin complex create submegabase structures with elevated internal chromatin contact frequencies, called topologically associating domains (TADs)8-12. Although TADs can contribute to transcriptional regulation, ablation of TAD organization by disrupting CTCF or the cohesin complex causes modest gene expression changes13-16. In contrast, CTCF is required for cell cycle regulation17, embryonic development and formation of various adult cell types18. To uncouple the role of CTCF in cell-state transitions and cell proliferation, we studied the effect of CTCF depletion during the conversion of human leukemic B cells into macrophages with minimal cell division. CTCF depletion disrupts TAD organization but not cell transdifferentiation. In contrast, CTCF depletion in induced macrophages impairs the full-blown upregulation of inflammatory genes after exposure to endotoxin. Our results demonstrate that CTCF-dependent genome topology is not strictly required for a functional cell-fate conversion but facilitates a rapid and efficient response to an external stimulus.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Mielopoese/fisiologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação/metabolismo , Fator de Ligação a CCCTC/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Cromatina/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Mielopoese/genética , Conformação Proteica
9.
Life Sci ; 256: 117989, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32565250

RESUMO

AIMS: The beneficial effects of cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) activation have been verified in various tissue repair processes. Our recent study revealed CB2R activation promotes myogenesis partly through Nrf2 signaling in a mouse skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury model. Other relevant mechanisms need to be further elucidated. Macrophages orchestrate tissue regeneration mainly by changing their phenotype and function. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CB2R in IR-induced skeletal muscle regeneration, focusing on its impact on macrophage polarization and the consequences on myogenesis. MAIN METHODS: The effects of CB2R on skeletal muscle regeneration, and the macrophage infiltration and M1/M2 polarization were tested with the IR injury model in wild type (WT) and CB2R knockout (CB2R-KO) mice. The effect of CB2R on peritoneal macrophage polarization, and its impact on the myoblasts differentiation was evaluated by co-culture experiments in vitro. KEY FINDINGS: The present study revealed the myofiber regeneration was hindered in the CB2R-KO mice. The infiltration of M1 macrophages and relevant markers' protein expression were enhanced in the CB2R-KO mice, while that of M2 macrophages was decreased compared with the WT mice. The in vitro studies further demonstrated that the absence of CB2R promoted M1 polarization while inhibited M2 polarization. The promoted M1 polarization and retarded M2 polarization in CB2R-KO macrophages hindered myoblasts differentiation. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, these results suggested CB2R plays a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle regeneration partly by regulating macrophage M1/M2 polarization after IR injury in mice.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/deficiência , Regeneração/fisiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea
10.
Mol Immunol ; 123: 1-6, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380279

RESUMO

The repertoire of dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes and macrophages in adult humans is diverse and we are appreciating this to a greater extent as high throughput methods, such a single-cell RNA sequencing, become widely adopted and scalable. This powerful lens of analysis is also beginning to shed light on prenatal immunology, allowing us to chart the emergence, tissue distribution and developmental regulation of DCs, monocytes and macrophages during early human life. In this review, we will integrate recent insights from studies of the developing immune system into our understanding of adult DC, monocyte and macrophage organization, illustrating where insights from early life both affirm and challenge current understanding.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/citologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Monócitos/citologia , Mielopoese/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Monócitos/fisiologia , Gravidez
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(19): 10476-10483, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354992

RESUMO

Cholesterol-laden macrophage foam cells are a hallmark of atherosclerosis. For that reason, cholesterol metabolism in macrophages has attracted considerable scrutiny, particularly the mechanisms by which macrophages unload surplus cholesterol (a process referred to as "cholesterol efflux"). Many studies of cholesterol efflux in macrophages have focused on the role of ABC transporters in moving cholesterol onto high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), but other mechanisms for cholesterol efflux likely exist. We hypothesized that macrophages have the capacity to unload cholesterol directly onto adjacent cells. To test this hypothesis, we used methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MßCD) to load mouse peritoneal macrophages with [13C]cholesterol. We then plated the macrophages (in the absence of serum or HDL) onto smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that had been metabolically labeled with [15N]choline. After incubating the cells overnight in the absence of HDL or serum, we visualized 13C and 15N distribution by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). We observed substantial 13C enrichment in SMCs that were adjacent to [13C]cholesterol-loaded macrophages-including in cytosolic lipid droplets of SMCs. In follow-up studies, we depleted "accessible cholesterol" from the plasma membrane of [13C]cholesterol-loaded macrophages with MßCD before plating the macrophages onto the SMCs. After an overnight incubation, we again observed substantial 13C enrichment in the SMCs adjacent to macrophages. Thus, macrophages transfer cholesterol to adjacent cells in the absence of serum or HDL. We suspect that macrophages within tissues transfer cholesterol to adjacent cells, thereby contributing to the ability to unload surplus cholesterol.


Assuntos
Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Cassete de Ligação de ATP/fisiologia , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Transporte Biológico , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Soro/metabolismo , beta-Ciclodextrinas/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232432, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365067

RESUMO

CR3 and CR4, the leukocyte specific ß2-integrins, involved in cellular adherence, migration and phagocytosis, are often assumed to have similar functions. Previously however, we proved that under physiological conditions CR4 is dominant in the adhesion to fibrinogen of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and dendritic cells (MDDCs). Here, using inflammatory conditions, we provide further evidence that the expression and function of CR3 and CR4 are not identical in these cell types. We found that LPS treatment changes their expression differently on MDMs and MDDCs, suggesting a cell type specific regulation. Using mAb24, specific for the high affinity conformation of CD18, we proved that the activation and recycling of ß2-integrins is significantly enhanced upon LPS treatment. Adherence to fibrinogen was assessed by two fundamentally different approaches: a classical adhesion assay and a computer-controlled micropipette, capable of measuring adhesion strength. While both receptors participated in adhesion, we demonstrated that CR4 exerts a dominant role in the strong attachment of MDDCs. Studying the formation of podosomes we found that MDMs retain podosome formation after LPS activation, whereas MDDCs lose this ability, resulting in a significantly reduced adhesion force and an altered cellular distribution of CR3 and CR4. Our results suggest that inflammatory conditions reshape differentially the expression and role of CR3 and CR4 in macrophages and dendritic cells.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Integrina alfaXbeta2/imunologia , Antígeno de Macrófago 1/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Podossomos/imunologia , Anticorpos Bloqueadores/imunologia , Antígenos CD18/imunologia , Adesão Celular/imunologia , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Células Dendríticas/patologia , Células Dendríticas/fisiologia , Fibrinogênio/imunologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Inflamação/patologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Fagocitose/imunologia , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Podossomos/patologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233012, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469878

RESUMO

Leukocyte migration is controlled by a membrane-based chemosensory pathway on the leading edge pseudopod that guides cell movement up attractant gradients during the innate immune and inflammatory responses. This study employed single cell and population imaging to investigate drug-induced perturbations of leading edge pseudopod morphology in cultured, polarized RAW macrophages. The drugs tested included representative therapeutics (acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, acetaminophen) as well as control drugs (PDGF, Gö6976, wortmannin). Notably, slow addition of any of the four therapeutics to cultured macrophages, mimicking the slowly increasing plasma concentration reported for standard oral dosage in patients, yielded no detectable change in pseudopod morphology. This finding is consistent with the well established clinical safety of these drugs. However, rapid drug addition to cultured macrophages revealed four distinct classes of effects on the leading edge pseudopod: (i) non-perturbing drug exposures yielded no detectable change in pseudopod morphology (acetylsalicylic acid, diclofenac); (ii) adaptive exposures yielded temporary collapse of the extended pseudopod and its signature PI(3,4,5)P3 lipid signal followed by slow recovery of extended pseudopod morphology (ibuprofen, acetaminophen); (iii) disruptive exposures yielded long-term pseudopod collapse (Gö6976, wortmannin); and (iv) activating exposures yielded pseudopod expansion (PDGF). The novel observation of adaptive exposures leads us to hypothesize that rapid addition of an adaptive drug overwhelms an intrinsic or extrinsic adaptation system yielding temporary collapse followed by adaptive recovery, while slow addition enables gradual adaptation to counteract the drug perturbation in real time. Overall, the results illustrate an approach that may help identify therapeutic drugs that temporarily inhibit the leading edge pseudopod during extreme inflammation events, and toxic drugs that yield long term inhibition of the pseudopod with negative consequences for innate immunity. Future studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms of drug-induced pseudopod collapse, as well as the mechanisms of adaptation and recovery following some inhibitory drug exposures.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetaminofen/farmacologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Aspirina/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Diclofenaco/farmacologia , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/farmacologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Pseudópodes/fisiologia , Pseudópodes/ultraestrutura , Células RAW 264.7 , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo
14.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(8): 1838-1853, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification is a cardiovascular risk factor and accelerated in diabetes mellitus. Previous work has established a role for calcification-prone extracellular vesicles in promoting vascular calcification. However, the mechanisms by which diabetes mellitus provokes cardiovascular events remain incompletely understood. Our goal was to identify that increased S100A9 promotes the release of calcification-prone extracellular vesicles from human macrophages in diabetes mellitus. Approach and Results: Human primary macrophages exposed to high glucose (25 mmol/L) increased S100A9 secretion and the expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) protein. Recombinant S100A9 induced the expression of proinflammatory and osteogenic factors, as well as the number of extracellular vesicles with high calcific potential (alkaline phosphatase activity, P<0.001) in macrophages. Treatment with a RAGE antagonist or silencing with S100A9 siRNA in macrophages abolished these responses, suggesting that stimulation of the S100A9-RAGE axis by hyperglycemia favors a procalcific environment. We further showed that an imbalance between Nrf-2 (nuclear factor 2 erythroid related factor 2) and NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) pathways contributes to macrophage activation and promotes a procalcific environment. In addition, streptozotocin-induced diabetic Apoe-/-S100a9-/- mice and mice treated with S100a9 siRNA encapsulated in macrophage-targeted lipid nanoparticles showed decreased inflammation and microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques, as gauged by molecular imaging and comprehensive histological analysis. In human carotid plaques, comparative proteomics in patients with diabetes mellitus and histological analysis showed that the S100A9-RAGE axis associates with osteogenic activity and the formation of microcalcification. CONCLUSIONS: Under hyperglycemic conditions, macrophages release calcific extracellular vesicles through mechanisms involving the S100A9-RAGE axis, thus contributing to the formation of microcalcification within atherosclerotic plaques.


Assuntos
Calgranulina B/fisiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/etiologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/fisiologia , Calcificação Vascular/etiologia , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Placa Aterosclerótica/etiologia
15.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(20): 4081-4091, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405721

RESUMO

In most vertebrates, the yolk sac (YS) represents the very first tissue where blood cells are detected. Therefore, it was thought for a long time that it generated all the blood cells present in the embryo. This model was challenged using different animal models, and we now know that YS hematopoietic precursors are mostly transient although their contribution to the adult system cannot be excluded. In this review, we aim at properly define the different waves of blood progenitors that are produced by the YS and address the fate of each of them. Indeed, in the last decade, many evidences have emphasized the role of the YS in the emergence of several myeloid tissue-resident adult subsets. We will focus on the development of microglia, the resident macrophages in the central nervous system, and try to untangle the recent controversy about their origin.


Assuntos
Hematopoese/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Saco Vitelino/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Microglia/fisiologia , Células Mieloides/fisiologia
16.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(5): 546-558, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341550

RESUMO

Macrophages are diverse immune cells that reside in all tissues. Although macrophages have been implicated in mammary-gland function, their diversity has not been fully addressed. By exploiting high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and flow cytometry, we identified a unique population of tissue-resident ductal macrophages that form a contiguous network between the luminal and basal layers of the epithelial tree throughout postnatal development. Ductal macrophages are long lived and constantly survey the epithelium through dendrite movement, revealed via advanced intravital imaging. Although initially originating from embryonic precursors, ductal macrophages derive from circulating monocytes as they expand during puberty. Moreover, they undergo proliferation in pregnancy to maintain complete coverage of the epithelium in lactation, when they are poised to phagocytose milk-producing cells post-lactation and facilitate remodelling. Interestingly, ductal macrophages strongly resemble mammary tumour macrophages and form a network that pervades the tumour. Thus, the mammary epithelium programs specialized resident macrophages in both physiological and tumorigenic contexts.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Epitélio/fisiologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/fisiologia , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Gravidez
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(17): 9466-9476, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295886

RESUMO

Peripheral nerves contain axons and their enwrapping glia cells named Schwann cells (SCs) that are either myelinating (mySCs) or nonmyelinating (nmSCs). Our understanding of other cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) remains limited. Here, we provide an unbiased single cell transcriptomic characterization of the nondiseased rodent PNS. We identified and independently confirmed markers of previously underappreciated nmSCs and nerve-associated fibroblasts. We also found and characterized two distinct populations of nerve-resident homeostatic myeloid cells that transcriptionally differed from central nervous system microglia. In a model of chronic autoimmune neuritis, homeostatic myeloid cells were outnumbered by infiltrating lymphocytes which modulated the local cell-cell interactome and induced a specific transcriptional response in glia cells. This response was partially shared between the peripheral and central nervous system glia, indicating common immunological features across different parts of the nervous system. Our study thus identifies subtypes and cell-type markers of PNS cells and a partially conserved autoimmunity module induced in glia cells.


Assuntos
Neurônios/fisiologia , Nervos Periféricos/citologia , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Comunicação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Camundongos , Ratos
18.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(5): 676-689, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284604

RESUMO

While CNS microglia have been extensively studied, relatively little is known about macrophages populating the peripheral nervous system. Here we performed ontogenic, transcriptomic and spatial characterization of sciatic nerve macrophages (snMacs). Using multiple fate-mapping systems, we show that snMacs do not derive from the early embryonic precursors colonizing the CNS, but originate primarily from late embryonic precursors and become replaced by bone-marrow-derived macrophages over time. Using single-cell transcriptomics, we identified a tissue-specific core signature of snMacs and two spatially separated snMacs: Relmα+Mgl1+ snMacs in the epineurium and Relmα-Mgl1- snMacs in the endoneurium. Globally, snMacs lack most of the core signature genes of microglia, with only the endoneurial subset expressing a restricted number of these genes. In response to nerve injury, the two resident snMac populations respond differently. Moreover, and unlike in the CNS, monocyte-derived macrophages that develop during injury can engraft efficiently in the pool of resident peripheral nervous system macrophages.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Nervo Isquiático/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Compressão Nervosa , Transcriptoma
19.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(6): 1491-1509, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Galectin-3 (formerly known as Mac-2), encoded by the LGALS3 gene, is proposed to regulate macrophage adhesion, chemotaxis, and apoptosis. We investigated the role of galectin-3 in determining the inflammatory profile of macrophages and composition of atherosclerotic plaques. Approach and Results: We observed increased accumulation of galectin-3-negative macrophages within advanced human, rabbit, and mouse plaques compared with early lesions. Interestingly, statin treatment reduced galectin-3-negative macrophage accrual in advanced plaques within hypercholesterolemic (apolipoprotein E deficient) Apoe-/- mice. Accordingly, compared with Lgals3+/+:Apoe-/- mice, Lgals3-/-:Apoe-/- mice displayed altered plaque composition through increased macrophage:smooth muscle cell ratio, reduced collagen content, and increased necrotic core area, characteristics of advanced plaques in humans. Additionally, macrophages from Lgals3-/- mice exhibited increased invasive capacity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, loss of galectin-3 in vitro and in vivo was associated with increased expression of proinflammatory genes including MMP (matrix metalloproteinase)-12, CCL2 (chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 2), PTGS2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2), and IL (interleukin)-6, alongside reduced TGF (transforming growth factor)-ß1 expression and consequent SMAD signaling. Moreover, we found that MMP12 cleaves macrophage cell-surface galectin-3 resulting in the appearance of a 22-kDa fragment, whereas plasma levels of galectin-3 were reduced in Mmp12-/-:Apoe-/- mice, highlighting a novel mechanism where MMP12-dependent cleavage of galectin-3 promotes proinflammatory macrophage polarization. Moreover, galectin-3-positive macrophages were more abundant within plaques of Mmp12-/-:Apoe-/- mice compared with Mmp12+/+:Apoe-/- animals. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a prominent protective role for galectin-3 in regulating macrophage polarization and invasive capacity and, therefore, delaying plaque progression.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Galectina 3/fisiologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Feminino , Galectina 3/análise , Galectina 3/deficiência , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/química , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
20.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(6): e153-e165, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295422

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Macrophages have been described in calcific aortic valve disease, but it is unclear if they promote or counteract calcification. We aimed to determine how macrophages are involved in calcification using the Notch1+/- model of calcific aortic valve disease. Approach and Results: Macrophages in wild-type and Notch1+/- murine aortic valves were characterized by flow cytometry. Macrophages in Notch1+/- aortic valves had increased expression of MHCII (major histocompatibility complex II). We then used bone marrow transplants to test if differences in Notch1+/- macrophages drive disease. Notch1+/- mice had increased valve thickness, macrophage infiltration, and proinflammatory macrophage maturation regardless of transplanted bone marrow genotype. In vitro approaches confirm that Notch1+/- aortic valve cells promote macrophage invasion as quantified by migration index and proinflammatory phenotypes as quantified by Ly6C and CCR2 positivity independent of macrophage genotype. Finally, we found that macrophage interaction with aortic valve cells promotes osteogenic, but not dystrophic, calcification and decreases abundance of the STAT3ß isoform. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that Notch1+/- aortic valve disease involves increased macrophage recruitment and maturation driven by altered aortic valve cell secretion, and that increased macrophage recruitment promotes osteogenic calcification and alters STAT3 splicing. Further investigation of STAT3 and macrophage-driven inflammation as therapeutic targets in calcific aortic valve disease is warranted.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/patologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/fisiologia , Animais , Valva Aórtica/imunologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/imunologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Calcinose/imunologia , Calcinose/fisiopatologia , Movimento Celular , Óxidos S-Cíclicos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/química , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Osteogênese , Receptor Notch1/análise , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/fisiologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética
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