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1.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 123-128, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687963

RESUMO

Microenvironment plays central role in the development of cervical precancerous and cancerous lesions. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) represents a group of precancerous lesions, divided into three degrees. We investigated the distribution of intraepithelial lymphocytes and macrophages in different grades of CIN. We analysed lymphocyte marker CD103, macrophage marker CD68 and proliferation marker Ki67 using standard immunohistochemistry. In addition, we investigated the distribution of lymphocytes using standard haematoxylin and eosin method. The results of our study indicated thatgrade I CIN which subsequently progressed into grade II CIN was characterised with low lymphocytic infiltration, low lympho-epithelial index and low lymphocyte proliferation index. Similar results were seen in cases of CINII which were later progressed into CINIII or in carcinoma. Therefore, we would like to recommend the analysis of microenvironment alterations in CIN lesions, in order to assess their progression potential.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/patologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/patologia , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Antígenos CD/análise , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Antígeno Ki-67/análise , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/metabolismo
2.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 136-141, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687966

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to identify the features of skeletal muscle macrophagocytic submicroscopic architectonics, the dynamics of transformations of organelles and intracellular membranes at different time after the simulated gunshot wound. The study involved 26 breeding rabbits. Gunshot wounds were inflicted from a Fort 12 pistol. Rabbits were removed from the experiment on the 30th and 60th day, after the application of wounds. Ultrathin sections, after contrasting with lead citrate, were examined under an EM-125 electron microscope at an accelerating voltage of 75 kV, with an increase of 42,000-72,000. Electronic microscopic studies of macrophagocyte organelles taken from the scar tissue of the wound channel on the thirtieth day after a gunshot wound revealed a large number of macrophage cells that are in a state of high functional activity, dystrophic and destructive changes of organelles with focal disruption of the membrane of the nucleus, mitochondria and the granular endoplasmatic reticulum reticulation. The course of catabolic processes caused by the presence in the wound channel of toxic components, destroyed myosymplasts and heavy metal ions of the damaging element. On the sixtieth day after a gunshot wound, the increased activity of macrophage cells remained, due to sluggish current processes of utilization of the destroyed ultrastructural components of myosymplasts and heavy metal ions from the damaging element.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/patologia , Cicatrização , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Animais , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Coelhos , Cicatrização/fisiologia
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7475-7488, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571859

RESUMO

Background: Wear particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis and the consequent aseptic loosening constitute the leading reasons for prosthesis failure and revision surgery. Several studies have demonstrated that the macrophage polarization state and immune response play critical roles in periprosthetic osteolysis and tissue repair, but the immunomodulatory role of lithium chloride (LiCl), which has a protective effect on wear particle-induced osteolysis by suppressing osteoclasts and attenuating inflammatory responses, has never been investigated. Methods: In this work, the immunomodulatory capability of LiCl on titanium (Ti) nanoparticle-stimulated transformation of macrophage phenotypes and the subsequent effect on osteogenic differentiation were investigated. We first speculated that LiCl attenuated Ti nanoparticle-stimulated inflammation responses by driving macrophage polarization and generating an immune micro-environment to improve osteogenesis. Furthermore, a metal nanoparticle-stimulated murine air pouch inflammatory model was applied to confirm this protective effect in vivo. Results: The results revealed that metal nanoparticles significantly activate M1 phenotype (proinflammatory macrophage) expression and increase proinflammatory cytokines secretions in vitro and in vivo, whereas LiCl drives macrophages to the M2 phenotype (anti-inflammatory macrophage) and increases the release of anti-inflammatory and bone-related cytokines. This improved the osteogenic differentiation capability of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs). In addition, we also provided evidence that LiCl inhibits the phosphorylation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways in wear particle-treated macrophages. Conclusion: LiCl has the immunomodulatory effects to alleviate Ti nanoparticle-mediated inflammatory reactions and enhance the osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs by driving macrophage polarization. Thus, LiCl may be an effective therapeutic alternative for preventing and treating wear debris-induced inflammatory osteolysis.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Cloreto de Lítio/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/farmacologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos
4.
Life Sci ; 237: 116949, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605712

RESUMO

AIMS: New-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequently observed following acute stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the brain-stellate ganglion-atrium network on AF vulnerability in a canine model with acute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six dogs were randomly divided into the sham-operated group (n = 6), acute stroke (AS) group (n = 7), stellate ganglion ablation (SGA) group (n = 6) and clodronate liposome (CL) group (n = 7). In the sham-operated group, dogs received craniotomy without MCAO. Cerebral ischemic model was established in AS dogs by right MCAO. Right MCAO along with SGA and CL injection into the atrium was performed in SGA and CL dogs, respectively. After 3 days, atrial electrophysiology, neural activity, and the phenotype and function of macrophages in the atrium were studied in all the dogs. KEY FINDINGS: Higher AF inducibility (24.4 ±â€¯4.4% versus 4.4 ±â€¯2.2%, P < 0.05) and AF duration (15.7 ±â€¯3.8 s versus 2.6 ±â€¯1.1 s, P < 0.05) were observed in the AS group compared with the sham-operated group, and were associated with increased left stellate ganglion activity, higher macrophage infiltration and higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in the atrium. SGA or CL injection sharply suppressed AF inducibility (5.5 ±â€¯2.7% versus 24.4 ±â€¯4.4%; 5.3 ±â€¯3.2% versus 24.4 ±â€¯4.4%, both P < 0.05) and AF duration (2.9 ±â€¯1.2 s versus 15.7 ±â€¯3.8 s; 3.6 ±â€¯1.0 s versus 15.7 ±â€¯3.8 s, both P < 0.05) in canines with acute stroke. SIGNIFICANCE: A brain-stellate ganglion-atrium network may increase AF vulnerability through macrophage activation after acute stroke.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiopatologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Gânglio Estrelado/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Cães
5.
Life Sci ; 237: 116915, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610207

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of the study was to determine whether ß-caryophyllene (BCP) exerts a neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by inhibiting microglial activation and modulating their polarization via the TLR4 pathway. MAIN METHODS: Wild-type (WT) and TLR4 knockout (KO) C57BL/6J mice were subjected to cerebral I/R injury and neurologic dysfunction, cerebral infarct volume, brain edema, microglia activation and polarization, and TLR4 expression were determined. In vitro, primary microglia were stimulated with LPS and IFN-γ or IL-4 to induce polarization of microglia toward M1 or M2 phenotypes. KEY FINDINGS: BCP reduced cerebral infarct volume, brain edema, and neurologic deficits in WT mice after I/R. The optimal dose of BCP, 72 mg/kg body weight, inhibited microglial activation and reduced the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6 by microglia of WT mice. BCP inhibited the level of TLR4 in WT mice, and partially reduced neurologic deficits, infarct volume, and brain edema in TLR4 KO mice. Importantly, BCP reduced the number of activated M1-type microglia and increased the number of M2-type microglia in the ipsilateral cortex of both WT and TLR4 KO mice. In vitro, BCP decreased the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines induced by LPS plus IFN-γ, downregulated the level of TLR4 protein, and polarized microglia towards the M2 phenotype. SIGNIFICANCES: The decrease in TLR4 activity mediated, at least in part, the anti-inflammatory effects of BCP and its ability to shift microglia polarization from the M1 to M2 phenotype.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/fisiologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Microglia/imunologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17311, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574860

RESUMO

Immune infiltration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is closely associated with the patients' prognosis. However, previous studies have not interpreted the difference of infiltrating immune cells in NPC.We comprehensively analyzed the tumor-infiltrating immune cells present in NPC for the first time, which was based on a scientific deconvolution algorithm (CIBERSORT) and the gene expression data of GSE64634. The fractions of 22 immune cells were assessed to reveal the associations between normal samples and NPC samples.Profiles of immune infiltration vary significantly between normal samples and NPC samples, and the variation could characterize the individual differences. NPC samples contained a higher proportion for M1 macrophages, whereas memory B cells and CD4 memory resting T cells were relatively lower.Our data suggest that the differences in the infiltrating immune cells in NPC and these differences would probably facilitate patient consultation and individualized treatment.


Assuntos
Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Adulto , Algoritmos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , China , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/classificação , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/imunologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/imunologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/patologia , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(12): 3005-3019, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in predicting the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. This is especially so because the prognostic significance and clinicopathological relevance of different subtypes of TAMs in the immune microenvironment of CRC have not yet been established. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinicopathological and prognostic value of pan-macrophages, M1-macrophages or M2-macrophages in patients with CRC. METHODS: Comprehensive searched on the Medline/PubMed, Web of Science (WoS) and Google Scholar databases was conducted to identify relevant studies published up to April 2019. The association between overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) or disease-free survival (DFS) and TAMs was analysed by meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3749 patients from 17 studies were included. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) indicated that high-density pan-macrophages improved OS (HR 0.67, P = 0.02). The pooled HR for M2-macrophages showed that high M2-macrophages infiltration was significantly associated with shorter OS (HR 2.93, P < 0.0001) and DFS (HR 2.04, P = 0.02). The pooled odds ratios (ORs) revealed that high-density TAMs was associated with high CD8+ T cell infiltration (OR 2.04, P = 0.007), no distant metastasis (NDM) (OR 0.38, P < 0.0001), microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) (OR 0.38, P = 0.001), no lymph node metastasis (NLNM) (OR 0.54, P = 0.0002) and non-mucinous cancer (OR 0.39, P < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike other solid tumours, high-density CD68+ macrophage infiltration can be a good prognostic marker for CRC. However, when macrophages act as targets of combination therapy in CRC treatment, this might be more effective for CRC patients with high CD8+ T cell infiltrate, NDM, MSI-H, NLNM and non-mucinous cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Animais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
8.
Toxicol Lett ; 317: 120-129, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580884

RESUMO

PEGylation is considered a safe mechanism to enhance the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of biotherapeutics. Previous studies using PEGylation as a PK enhancement tool have reported benign PEG-related vacuolation in multiple tissues. This paper establishes a threshold for PEG burden beyond which there are alterations in tissue architecture that could potentially lead to dysfunction. As part of the nonclinical safety assessment of Compound A, a 12 kDa protein conjugated to a 40 kDa branched PEG molecule, monkeys were dosed subcutaneously twice weekly for 3 months at protein doses resulting in weekly PEG doses of 8, 24, 120, or 160 mg/kg. Consistent with previous reports with PEGylated biomolecules, Compound A administration resulted in intracellular vacuoles attributed to the PEG moiety in macrophages in numerous tissues and epithelial cells in the choroid plexus and kidney. Vacuolation occurred at all doses with dose-dependent severity and no evidence of recovery up to 2 months after dosing cessation. The vacuolation was considered nonadverse at PEG doses ≤120 mg/kg/week. However, at 160 mg/kg/week PEG, the vacuolation in choroid plexus, pituitary gland, kidney, and choroid of the eye was considered adverse due to significant alterations of tissue architecture that raised concern for the possibility of compromised tissue function. To our knowledge, this is the first report of potentially adverse cellular consequences of PEG accumulation in tissues other than kidney. Furthermore, the lack of reversibility of vacuolation coupled with the lack of a biomarker for intracellular PEG accumulation highlights a potential risk that should be weighed against the benefits of PK/PD enhancement for long-term administration of PEGylated compounds at high doses.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polietilenoglicóis/toxicidade , Proteínas/toxicidade , Vacúolos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Composição de Medicamentos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Injeções Subcutâneas , Macaca fascicularis , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Vacúolos/patologia
9.
Chemosphere ; 220: 993-1002, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543100

RESUMO

Biodiesel or renewable diesel fuels are alternative fuels produced from vegetable oil and animal tallow that are being considered to help reduce the use of petroleum-based fuels and emissions of air pollutants including greenhouse gases. Here, we analyzed the gene expression of inflammatory marker responses and the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) enzyme after exposure to diesel and biodiesel emission samples generated from an in-use heavy-duty diesel vehicle. Particulate emission samples from petroleum-based California Air Resource Board (CARB)-certified ultralow sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD), biodiesel, and renewable hydro-treated diesel all induced inflammatory markers such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX)-2 and interleukin (IL)-8 in human U937-derived macrophages and the expression of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1. Furthermore, the results indicate that the particle emissions from CARB ULSD and the alternative diesel fuel blends activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induce CYP1A1 in a dose- and AhR-dependent manner which was supported by the AhR luciferase reporter assay and gel shift analysis. Based on a per mile emissions with the model year 2000 heavy duty vehicle tested, the effects of the alternative diesel fuel blends emissions on the expression on inflammatory markers like IL-8 and COX-2 tend to be lower than emission samples derived from CARB ULSD fuel. The results will help to assess the potential benefits and toxicity from biofuel use as alternative fuels in modern technology diesel engines.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/fisiologia , Biocombustíveis/toxicidade , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Gasolina/toxicidade , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/fisiologia , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Animais , Biocombustíveis/análise , Gasolina/análise , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Emissões de Veículos/análise
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 106-116, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306743

RESUMO

Chronic low-level lead exposure alters cognitive function in young children however the mechanisms mediating these deficits in the brain are not known. Previous studies in our laboratory showed that early lead exposure reduced the number of microglial cells in hippocampus/dentate gyrus of C57BL/6 J mice. In the current study, C-C chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC II) were examined to investigate whether these neuroimmune factors which are known to trigger cell migration and antigen presentation, were altered by early chronic lead exposure. Thirty-six C57BL/6 J male mice were exposed to 0 ppm (controls, n = 12), 30 ppm (low-dose, n = 12), or 430 ppm (higher-dose, n = 12) of lead acetate via dams' milk from postnatal day (PND) 0 to 28. Flow cytometry was used to quantify cell types and cell surface expression of MHC II and CCR7 in hippocampal and whole brain microglia. Non-parametric independent samples median tests were used to test for statistically significant differences between groups. As compared to controls, CCR7 in hippocampal microglia was decreased in the low-dose group, measured as geometric mean fluorescence intensity (GMFI); in the higher-dose group CCR7+MHC II- hippocampal microglia were decreased. Further analyses revealed that the higher-dose group had decreased percentage of CCR7+MHC II- hippocampal macrophages as compared to controls but increased MHC II levels in CCR7+MHC II+ hippocampal macrophages as compared to controls. It was also noted that lead exposure disrupted the balance of MHC II and/or CCR7 in lead exposed animals. Reduced CCR7 in hippocampal microglia might alter the neuroimmune environment in hippocampi of lead exposed animals. Additional studies are needed to test this possibility.


Assuntos
Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo na Infância/etiologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organometálicos/toxicidade , Receptores CCR7/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Lactação , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo na Infância/metabolismo , Intoxicação do Sistema Nervoso por Chumbo na Infância/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/metabolismo , Microglia/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Life Sci ; 233: 116696, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351969

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore the mechanism of how LSD1 regulates autophagy and the correlation between LSD1 and Ox-LDL-induced inflammation. MAIN METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were used during the whole study. Firstly, the effect of Ox-LDL-stimulation on LSD1 expression was detected. Through loss-of-function assay, the associations between LSD1 interference and SESN2 expression, autophagy, NLRP3 inflammasome and inflammatory cytokines were explored. Finally, the function of LSD1 exerted on activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway was detected using western blotting assay. KEY FINDINGS: The expression of LSD1 was significantly elevated in Ox-LDL-treated RAW264.7 cells. Inhibition of LSD1 promoted autophagy, inhibited inflammation and activated NLRP3 inflammasome. SESN2 was elevated by LSD1 inhibition, and thus activate the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway. What' more, Knockdown of SESN2 or deactivate the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway partly reversed the effect of LSD1 inhibition on autophagy. SIGNIFICANCE: Our present study drew the finding that the knockdown of LSD1 meliorated Ox-LDL-stimulated NLRP3 activation and inflammation through promoting autophagy via SESN2-mediated PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/efeitos adversos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Histona Desmetilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
13.
J Dermatol ; 46(8): 734-738, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180149

RESUMO

We report two cases of aplasia cutis congenita associated with hair collar signs and hemangioma simplex in their parietal regions. A hair collar sign and a hemangioma are known to suggest the possibility of underlying neural tube defects. However, no obvious bone defects or heterotopic neural tissue were observed in the imaging and histopathological examinations. Nevertheless, some pathological observations similar in both cases suggested abnormalities in the process of ectodermal fusion. A flat epidermis and a lack of appendages were recognized. Both cases also exhibited the presence of melanocytes in a portion of the superficial dermal layer. An increase in the number of macrophages was observed in the dermal area with neither elastic fibers nor normal collagen fibers. The peripheral hair follicles grew horizontally.


Assuntos
Displasia Ectodérmica/diagnóstico , Hemangioma/diagnóstico , Macrófagos/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/diagnóstico , Dermoscopia , Displasia Ectodérmica/complicações , Displasia Ectodérmica/patologia , Feminino , Folículo Piloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Folículo Piloso/patologia , Hemangioma/complicações , Hemangioma/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Melanócitos , Couro Cabeludo , Pele/citologia , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
14.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 19(15): 1350-1362, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215380

RESUMO

Macrophages are essential for supporting tissue homeostasis, regulating immune response, and promoting tumor progression. Due to its heterogeneity, macrophages have different phenotypes and functions in various tissues and diseases. It is becoming clear that epigenetic modification playing an essential role in determining the biological behavior of cells. In particular, changes of DNA methylation, histone methylation and acetylation regulated by the corresponding epigenetic enzymes, can directly control macrophages differentiation and change their functions under different conditions. In addition, epigenetic enzymes also have become anti-tumor targets, such as HDAC, LSD1, DNMT, and so on. In this review, we presented an overview of the latest progress in the study of macrophages phenotype and function regulated by epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, to better understand how epigenetic modification controls macrophages phenotype and function in inflammation-associated diseases, and the application prospect in anti-tumor.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética/genética , Histonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Metilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
15.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(6): 989-998, 2019 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154748

RESUMO

Autophagy is crucial for immune defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Mtb can evade host immune attack and survival within macrophages by manipulating the autophagic process. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are involved in regulating vital genes during Mtb infection. The precise role of miRNAs in autophagy with the exits of Mtb remains largely unknown. In this study, we found miR-1958, a new miRNA that could regulate autophagy by interacting with 3'UTR of autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5). In addition, Mtb infection triggered miR-1958 expression in RAW264.7 cells. What's more, miR- 1958 overexpression blocked autophagic flux by impairing the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. Overexpression of miR-1958 reduced Atg5 expression and LC3 puncta while inhibition of miR-1958 brought an increase of Atg5 and LC3 puncta; the opposite results were observed in detection of p62. The survival of Mtb in RAW264.7 cells transfected with mimic of miR-1958 was enhanced. Taken together, our research demonstrated that a novel miR-1958 could inhibit autophagy by interacting with Atg5 and favored intracellular Mtb survival in RAW264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/genética , Autofagia/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/fisiologia , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Células RAW 264.7
16.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2507-2519, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215741

RESUMO

Abnormal tumor microenvironment and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are important features of tumor metastasis. However, it remains unknown how signals can form complicated networks to regulate the sustainability of the EMT process. The aim of our study is to explore the possible interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor cells in the EMT process mediated by microRNA (miR)-362-3p. In this study, we found that by releasing TGF-ß, M2 macrophages mediate binding of Smad2/3 to miR-362-3p promoter, leading to overexpression of miR-362-3p. MicroRNA-362-3p maintains EMT by regulating CD82, one of the most important members of the family of tetraspanins. Our finding suggests that miR-362-3p can serve as a core factor mediating cross-talk between the TGF-ß pathway in tumor-associated macrophages and tetraspanins in tumor cells, and thus facilitates the EMT process.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Proteína Kangai-1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Tetraspaninas/metabolismo
17.
Cancer Sci ; 110(8): 2368-2377, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222863

RESUMO

Macrophages are essential inflammatory cells which regulate the features of immune reactions within tumors. Many studies have reported their regulatory roles in immunity through cytokines and cell signaling. However, relatively few studies have focused on their metabolic features and mechanisms. We aimed to determine the signaling pathway regulating cell metabolism and the mechanism related to the regulation of human tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in gastric cancer (GC). Tumor-infiltrated macrophages were isolated from human GC tissues using magnetic beads, gene transcription was determined by real-time PCR, protein expression was monitored using western blots, metabolites were determined using HPLC, and transcriptional regulation was analyzed by the luciferase-based reporter gene system. A significant decrease in microRNA (miR)-30c and an increase in regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1) were detected in human GC TAMs, the transcription of miR-30c was negatively correlated with REDD1. MicroRNA-30c expression was suppressed by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α activation and related to decreased mTOR activity as well as glycolysis in human GC TAMs. Hypoxia-regulated miR-30c downregulated REDD-1 expression by targeting its 3'UTR. Overexpression of miR-30c or restored mTOR activity in macrophages with miR-30cLow expression promoted M1 macrophage differentiation and function in TAMs. Therefore, hypoxia in the human GC microenvironment suppressed the expression of miR-30c, and decreased mTOR activity as well as glycolysis in GC TAMs, thus inhibiting M1 differentiation and function. These results provide a novel metabolic strategy for tumor microenvironment-based therapy.


Assuntos
Glicólise/genética , Hipóxia/genética , Macrófagos/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Hipóxia/patologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
18.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 48(2): 250-254, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175684

RESUMO

Histoplasmosis is one of the most common systemic fungal diseases in cats from the United States. It commonly causes respiratory or disseminated disease and is often associated with one or more cytopenias. Here, we describe 32 cats in which a Histoplasma-like fungal infection was associated with concurrent hemophagia in at least one sample site, commonly spleen, bone marrow, liver, and/or lymph node. The degree of hemophagia was characterized as moderate or marked in the majority of cases, and in all cases, there was a predominance of phagocytized mature erythrocytes. A few cases also had macrophages with phagocytized erythroid precursors, platelets, and/or neutrophils. Complete blood count results were available for 25 cats, and cytopenias were common (20/25), including solitary anemia (10), anemia and thrombocytopenia (5), solitary neutropenia (2), pancytopenia (2), and anemia and neutropenia (1). Bone marrow samples were only available in a small subset of cases, preventing the further assessment of the causes of the cytopenias. Hemophagocytosis has been previously reported in cats with neoplastic diseases and a cat with calicivirus infection, and likely occurs with other conditions as well, such as hemorrhage or hemolysis. Results of this report suggest that systemic fungal disease is an additional differential to consider when there is hemophagia in a feline cytology sample.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Histoplasmose/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/veterinária , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/veterinária , Medula Óssea/patologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Eritrócitos/patologia , Feminino , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Histoplasmose/microbiologia , Histoplasmose/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/patologia , Fagocitose , Baço/patologia
19.
Anticancer Res ; 39(6): 2767-2775, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Colorectal adenoma is well known as a precursor lesion of colorectal adenocarcinoma (ADC). We recently reported the significance of CD204 (+) tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), a vital component of the tumor microenvironment, in the carcinoma development of gastric adenoma. The aim of the present study was to clarify the roles of TAM in the malignant transformation of colorectal adenoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We immunohistochemically assessed the TAM number in 88 tubular or tubulovillous adenomas that were classified into L (low-grade adenomas) or H (high-grade adenomas). RESULTS: Larger adenoma size, higher frequency of villous structure, loss of proliferation polarity, p53 expression, larger TAM numbers and larger microvessel density (MVD) were detected in Group H than in Group L adenomas. Positive relations were observed between TAM and MVD, proliferation polarity and the expression of p53. CONCLUSION: CD204 (+) TAM is a novel component in the malignant transformation of colorectal adenoma.


Assuntos
Adenoma/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Adenoma/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Polaridade Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carga Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral , Regulação para Cima
20.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067702

RESUMO

PM2.5 is particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less. Airway macrophages are the key players regulating PM2.5-induced inflammation. High molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) has previously been shown to exert protective effects on PM2.5-induced acute lung injury and inflammation. However, little is known about the detailed mechanism. In this study, we aimed to determine whether HMW-HA alleviates PM2.5-induced pulmonary inflammation by modulating macrophage polarization. The levels of M1 biomarkers TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, CXCL1, CXCL2, NOS2 and CD86, as well as M2 biomarkers IL-10, MRC1, and Arg-1 produced by macrophages were measured by ELISA, qPCR, and flow cytometry. In addition, the amount of M1 macrophages in lung tissues was examined by immunofluorescence of CD68 and NOS2. We observed a decline in PM2.5-induced M1 polarization both in macrophages and lung tissues when HMW-HA was administered simultaneously. Meanwhile, western blot analysis revealed that PM2.5-induced JNK and p38 phosphorylation was suppressed by HMW-HA. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies showed that co-stimulation with HMW-HA and PM2.5 promoted the expression and release of IL-10, but exhibited limited effects on the transcription of MRC1 and ARG1. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that HMW-HA ameliorates PM2.5-induced lung inflammation by repressing M1 polarization through JNK and p38 pathways and promoting the production of pro-resolving cytokine IL-10.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Interleucina-10/genética , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/genética , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Animais , Arginase/genética , Biomarcadores , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Peso Molecular , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/genética , Pneumonia/patologia , Ratos
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