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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5679-5685, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) has been reported to have an impact on prognosis in different tumor entities. Little is known about CTC morphology and heterogeneity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a multicenter setting, pre-therapeutic peripheral blood specimens were drawn from patients with non-metastatic esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). CTCs were captured by size-based filtration (ScreenCell®), subsequently Giemsa-stained and evaluated by two trained readers. The isolated cells were categorized in groups based on morphologic criteria. RESULTS: Small and large single CTCs, as well as CTC-clusters, were observed in 69.2% (n=81) of the 117 specimens; small CTCs were observed most frequently (59%; n=69), followed by large CTCs (40%; n=47) and circulating cancer-associated macrophage-like cells (CAMLs; 34.2%, n=40). Clusters were rather rare (12%; n=14). CTC/CAML were heterogeneous in the cohort, but also within one specimen. Neither the presence of the CTC subtypes/CAMLs nor the exact cell count were associated with the primary clinical TNM stage. CONCLUSION: Morphologically heterogenic CTCs and CAMLs are present in patients with non-metastatic, non-pretreated EAC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias Esofágicas/sangue , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Contagem de Células , Separação Celular , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Prognóstico
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3866, 2020 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737287

RESUMO

Upon severe head injury (HI), blood vessels of the meninges and brain parenchyma are inevitably damaged. While limited vascular regeneration of the injured brain has been studied extensively, our understanding of meningeal vascular regeneration following head injury is quite limited. Here, we identify key pathways governing meningeal vascular regeneration following HI. Rapid and complete vascular regeneration in the meninges is predominantly driven by VEGFR2 signaling. Substantial increase of VEGFR2 is observed in both human patients and mouse models of HI, and endothelial cell-specific deletion of Vegfr2 in the latter inhibits meningeal vascular regeneration. We further identify the facilitating, stabilizing and arresting roles of Tie2, PDGFRß and Dll4 signaling, respectively, in meningeal vascular regeneration. Prolonged inhibition of this angiogenic process following HI compromises immunological and stromal integrity of the injured meninges. These findings establish a molecular framework for meningeal vascular regeneration after HI, and may guide development of wound healing therapeutics.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Regeneração/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/metabolismo , Vasos Sanguíneos/patologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/metabolismo , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Meninges/lesões , Meninges/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Receptor beta de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptor TIE-2/genética , Receptor TIE-2/metabolismo , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Cicatrização/genética
3.
Curr Med Sci ; 40(4): 618-624, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767259

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV2 is characterized by a remarkable variation in clinical severity ranging from a mild illness to a fatal multi-organ disease. Understanding the dysregulated human immune responses in the fatal subjects is critical for management of COVID-19 patients and the pandemic. In this study, we examined the immune cell compositions in the lung tissues and hilar lymph nodes using immunohistochemistry on 6 deceased COVID-19 patients and 4 focal organizing pneumonia (FOP) patients who underwent lung surgery and served as controls. We found a dominant presence of macrophages and a general deficiency of T cells and B cells in the lung tissues from deceased COVID-19 patients. In contrast to the FOP patients, Tfh cells and germinal center formation were largely absent in the draining hilar lymph nodes in the deceased COVID-19 patients. This was correlated with reduced IgM and IgG levels compared to convalescent COVID-19 patients. In summary, our data highlight a defect of germinal center structure in deceased COVID-19 patients leading to an impaired humoral immunity. Understanding the mechanisms of this deficiency will be one of the key points for the management of this epidemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Centro Germinativo/patologia , Humanos , Linfopenia/imunologia , Linfopenia/mortalidade , Linfopenia/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008823, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845931

RESUMO

The cellular prion protein, PrPC, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored-membrane glycoprotein expressed most abundantly in neuronal and to a lesser extent in non-neuronal cells. Its conformational conversion into the amyloidogenic isoform in neurons is a key pathogenic event in prion diseases, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in animals. However, the normal functions of PrPC remain largely unknown, particularly in non-neuronal cells. Here we show that stimulation of PrPC with anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) protected mice from lethal infection with influenza A viruses (IAVs), with abundant accumulation of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages with activated Src family kinases (SFKs) in infected lungs. A SFK inhibitor dasatinib inhibited M2 macrophage accumulation in IAV-infected lungs after treatment with anti-PrP mAbs and abolished the anti-PrP mAb-induced protective activity against lethal influenza infection in mice. We also show that stimulation of PrPC with anti-PrP mAbs induced M2 polarization in peritoneal macrophages through SFK activation in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that PrPC could activate SFK in macrophages and induce macrophage polarization to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype after stimulation with anti-PrP mAbs, thereby eliciting protective activity against lethal infection with IAVs in mice after treatment with anti-PrP mAbs. These results also highlight PrPC as a novel therapeutic target for IAV infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/metabolismo , Pulmão , Macrófagos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Proteínas PrPC/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos/farmacologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Proteínas PrPC/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases da Família src/genética , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo
5.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3165-3180, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789534

RESUMO

Parasitic diseases affect more than one billion people worldwide, and most of them are chronic conditions in which the treatment and prevention are difficult. The appearance of granulomas, defined as organized and compact structures of macrophages and other immune cells, during various parasitic diseases is frequent, since these structures will only form when individual immune cells do not control the invading agent. Th2-typering various parasitic diseases are frequent, since these structures will only form when individual immune cells do not control the invading agent. The characterization of granulomas in different parasitic diseases, as well as recent findings in this field, is discussed in this review, in order to understand the significance of the granuloma and its modulation in the host-parasite interaction and in the immune, pathological, and parasitological aspects of this interaction. The parasitic granulomatous diseases granulomatous amebic encephalitis, toxoplasmosis, leishmaniasis, neurocysticercosis, and schistosomiasis mansoni are discussed as well as the mechanistic and dynamical aspects of the infectious granulomas.


Assuntos
Granuloma/imunologia , Granuloma/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neurocisticercose/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Animais , Granuloma/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/patologia , Neurocisticercose/patologia , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/patologia , Taenia solium/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/patologia
6.
Chem Biol Interact ; 330: 109232, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860822

RESUMO

Currently, whether nod-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation contributes to neuropathy induced by 2,5-Hexanedione (HD), the toxic metabolite of n-hexane, remains unknown. In this study, we found that HD intoxication elevated NLRP3 expression, caspase-1 activation and interleukin-1ß production in sciatic nerve of rats, indicating activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. The increased cleavage of gasdermin D (GSDMD) protein, an important mediator of pyroptosis, and axon degeneration were also observed in sciatic nerves of HD-intoxicated rats. Interestingly, glybenclamide, a widely used inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome, significantly reduced NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which was associated with decreased GSDMD cleavage and axon degeneration as well as improved motor performance of HD-intoxicated rats. Subsequently, we found that inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome by glybenclamide attenuated macrophage infiltration, activation and M1 polarization in sciatic nerves of HD-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and increased glutathione (GSH) level and total anti-oxidative capacity were also observed in sciatic nerves of rats treated with combined glybenclamide and HD compared with HD alone group. Altogether, our findings suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to HD-induced neurotoxicity by enhancing macrophage infiltration and activation as well as oxidative stress, providing a novel mechanism of neuropathy induced by this neurotoxicant.


Assuntos
Hexanonas/toxicidade , Macrófagos/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/farmacologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glibureto/farmacologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Ligação a Fosfato/metabolismo , Piroptose , Ratos , Nervo Isquiático/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/patologia
7.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(5): e2130, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656939

RESUMO

The SARS-Cov-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus composed of 16 non-structural proteins (NSP 1-16) with specific roles in the replication of coronaviruses. NSP3 has the property to block host innate immune response and to promote cytokine expression. NSP5 can inhibit interferon (IFN) signalling and NSP16 prevents MAD5 recognition, depressing the innate immunity. Dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages are the first cell lineage against viruses' infections. The IFN type I is the danger signal for the human body during this clinical setting. Protective immune responses to viral infection are initiated by innate immune sensors that survey extracellular and intracellular space for foreign nucleic acids. In Covid-19 the pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, but viral and host factors seem to play a key role. Important points in severe Covid-19 are characterized by an upregulated innate immune response, hypercoagulopathy state, pulmonary tissue damage, neurological and/or gastrointestinal tract involvement, and fatal outcome in severe cases of macrophage activation syndrome, which produce a 'cytokine storm'. These systemic conditions share polymorphous cutaneous lesions where innate immune system is involved in the histopathological findings with acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypercoagulability, hyperferritinemia, increased serum levels of D-dimer, lactic dehydrogenase, reactive-C-protein and serum A amyloid. It is described that several polymorphous cutaneous lesions similar to erythema pernio, urticarial rashes, diffuse or disseminated erythema, livedo racemosa, blue toe syndrome, retiform purpura, vesicles lesions, and purpuric exanthema or exanthema with clinical aspects of symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema. This review describes the complexity of Covid-19, its pathophysiological and clinical aspects.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/imunologia , Eritema/imunologia , Exantema/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Progressão da Doença , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/patologia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/virologia , Eritema/patologia , Eritema/virologia , Exantema/patologia , Exantema/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
8.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 49: 107256, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a frequently occurring complication in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD). However, the histological features of right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy (RVEMB) samples remain unclear. METHODS: The clinical characteristics and histological findings of consecutive patients undergoing HD with available RVEMB samples (HD group; n=28) were retrospectively compared with those of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (n=56) and hypertensive heart disease (n=15). RESULTS: The mean myocyte diameter was significantly larger in the HD group than in the other groups (P<.001), whereas the mean percent area of fibrosis did not differ among the three groups. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the capillary density was significantly lower in the HD group compared with the other groups (P<.001), and it was positively associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (P=.014). The number of CD68-positive macrophages, which was significantly higher in the HD group compared with the other two groups (P<.001), was associated with cardiovascular mortality (P=.020; log-rank test). CONCLUSIONS: Myocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration, and reduced capillary density were characteristic histological features of the RVEMB samples in patients undergoing HD, which may be related to the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Capilares/patologia , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/fisiopatologia , Tamanho Celular , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Cardiovasc Pathol ; 49: 107258, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced atherosclerotic plaques tend to indicate an increased risk of cerebral ischemic events. SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is a class I classical nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase associated with plaque stability, as shown by analysis of a Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset showing differences in mRNA levels. However, the correlation between SHP-1 and human carotid plaque stability at the protein level remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-nine carotid plaque tissue samples were acquired from 39 carotid artery stenosis patients after carotid endarterectomy. Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, and CD68 staining was performed for pathological characterization, and immunohistochemical staining for SHP-1 was carried out. Within stable and unstable plaques, SHP-1 mainly accumulated in the necrotic area, plaque shoulder, and fibrous cap, similar to the distribution of CD68. A quantitative analysis of SHP-1 was carried out. The relative SHP-1-positive cell area was higher in the vulnerable group than in the stable group (P < .001). The number of symptomatic patients in the vulnerable group was no greater than that in the stable group (P = .098). Moreover, the integrated optical density (IOD)/area of SHP-1 was significantly higher in the vulnerable group than in the stable group (P < .001). Besides, SHP-1 colocalized with CD68 and vascular cell adhesion protein 1(VCAM-1). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that SHP-1 expression increases during carotid atherosclerotic plaque progression. The protein expression of SHP-1 was related to an increase in plaque instability in not only symptomatic but also asymptomatic patients with carotid artery stenosis. SHP-1 may play a role in atherosclerosis progression by macrophage polarization-mediated efferocytosis. Furthermore, SHP-1 may become a promising biomarker for plaque vulnerability in the future.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/enzimologia , Estenose das Carótidas/enzimologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 6/análise , Idoso , Apoptose , Biomarcadores/análise , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Estenose das Carótidas/patologia , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Macrófagos/enzimologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Fagocitose , Ruptura Espontânea , Regulação para Cima
10.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(3): 452-460, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies suggest that fenofibrate prevents abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development by lowering aortic osteopontin (OPN) concentration and reducing the number of macrophages infiltrating the aortic wall. The current study examined the effects of a short course of fenofibrate on AAA pathology in people with large AAAs awaiting aortic repair. METHODS: This randomised double blind parallel trial included male and female participants aged ≥ 60 years who had an asymptomatic AAA measuring ≥ 50 mm and were scheduled to undergo open AAA repair. Participants were allocated to fenofibrate (145 mg/day) or matching placebo for at least two weeks before elective AAA repair. Blood samples were collected at recruitment and immediately prior to surgery. AAA biopsies were obtained during aortic surgery. The primary outcomes were (1) AAA OPN concentration; (2) serum OPN concentration; and (3) number of AAA macrophages. Exploratory outcomes included circulating and aortic concentrations of other proteins previously associated with AAA. Outcomes assessed at a single time point were compared using logistic regression. Longitudinal outcomes were compared using linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Forty-three participants were randomised. After three withdrawals, 40 were followed until the time of surgery (21 allocated fenofibrate and 19 allocated placebo). As expected, serum triglycerides reduced significantly from recruitment to the time of surgery in participants allocated fenofibrate. No differences in any of the primary and exploratory outcomes were observed between groups. CONCLUSION: A short course of 145 mg of fenofibrate/day did not lower concentrations of OPN or aortic macrophage density in people with large AAAs.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/terapia , Fenofibrato/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Idoso , Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/sangue , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fenofibrato/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteopontina/sangue , Queensland , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008566, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492066

RESUMO

Host-derived glutathione (GSH) is an essential source of cysteine for the intracellular pathogen Francisella tularensis. In a comprehensive transposon insertion sequencing screen, we identified several F. tularensis genes that play central and previously unappreciated roles in the utilization of GSH during the growth of the bacterium in macrophages. We show that one of these, a gene we named dptA, encodes a proton-dependent oligopeptide transporter that enables growth of the organism on the dipeptide Cys-Gly, a key breakdown product of GSH generated by the enzyme γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT). Although GGT was thought to be the principal enzyme involved in GSH breakdown in F. tularensis, our screen identified a second enzyme, referred to as ChaC, that is also involved in the utilization of exogenous GSH. However, unlike GGT and DptA, we show that the importance of ChaC in supporting intramacrophage growth extends beyond cysteine acquisition. Taken together, our findings provide a compendium of F. tularensis genes required for intracellular growth and identify new players in the metabolism of GSH that could be attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Francisella tularensis/fisiologia , Glutationa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Macrófagos , Transglutaminases , Tularemia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Dipeptídeos/genética , Dipeptídeos/metabolismo , Feminino , Glutationa/genética , Glutationa/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Transglutaminases/genética , Transglutaminases/metabolismo , Tularemia/genética , Tularemia/metabolismo
12.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(9): 1673-1697, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500231

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) not only facilitates cancer progression from the early formation to distant metastasis, but also it differs itself from time to time alongside the tumor evolution. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), whether as pre-existing tissue-resident macrophages or recruited monocytes, are an inseparable part of this microenvironment. As their parents are broadly classified into a dichotomic, simplistic M1 and M2 subtypes, TAMs also exert paradoxical and diverse phenotypes as they are settled in different regions of TME and receive different microenvironmental signals. Briefly, M1 macrophages induce an inflammatory precancerous niche and flame the early oncogenic mutations, whereas their M2 counterparts are reprogrammed to release various growth factors and providing an immunosuppressive state in TME as long as abetting hypoxic cancer cells to set up a new vasculature. Further, they mediate stromal micro-invasion and co-migrate with invasive cancer cells to invade the vascular wall and neural sheath, while another subtype of TAMs prepares suitable niches much earlier than metastatic cells arrive at the target tissues. Accordingly, at the neoplastic transformation, during the benign-to-malignant transition and through the metastatic cascade, macrophages are involved in shaping the primary, micro-invasive and pre-metastatic TMEs. Whether their behavioral plasticity is derived from distinct genotypes or is fueled by microenvironmental cues, it could define these cells as remarkably interesting therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
13.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1008291, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479529

RESUMO

The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) causes visceral leishmaniasis, a chronic infection which is fatal when untreated. Herein, we investigated whether in addition to altering transcription, L. donovani modulates host mRNA translation to establish a successful infection. Polysome-profiling revealed that one third of protein-coding mRNAs expressed in primary mouse macrophages are differentially translated upon infection with L. donovani promastigotes or amastigotes. Gene ontology analysis identified key biological processes enriched for translationally regulated mRNAs and were predicted to be either activated (e.g. chromatin remodeling and RNA metabolism) or inhibited (e.g. intracellular trafficking and antigen presentation) upon infection. Mechanistic in silico and biochemical analyses showed selective activation mTOR- and eIF4A-dependent mRNA translation, including transcripts encoding central regulators of mRNA turnover and inflammation (i.e. PABPC1, EIF2AK2, and TGF-ß). L. donovani survival within macrophages was favored under mTOR inhibition but was dampened by pharmacological blockade of eIF4A. Overall, this study uncovers a vast yet selective reprogramming of the host cell translational landscape early during L. donovani infection, and suggests that some of these changes are involved in host defense mechanisms while others are part of parasite-driven survival strategies. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation will shed light on the contribution of mTOR- and eIF4A-dependent translational programs to the outcome of visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Fator de Iniciação 4A em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Leishmania donovani/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Visceral , Macrófagos , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Leishmaniose Visceral/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos
14.
Cell Prolif ; 53(7): e12854, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530555

RESUMO

Macrophages maintain a dynamic balance in physiology. Various known or unknown microenvironmental signals influence the polarization, activation and death of macrophages, which creates an imbalance that leads to disease. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by the massive infiltration of a variety of chronic inflammatory cells in synovia. Abundant activated macrophages found in RA synovia are an early hallmark of RA, and the number of these macrophages can be decreased after effective treatment. In RA, the proportion of M1 (pro-inflammatory macrophages) is higher than that of M2 (anti-inflammatory macrophages). The increased pro-inflammatory ability of macrophages is related to their excessive activation and proliferation as well as an enhanced anti-apoptosis ability. At present, there are no clinical therapies specific to macrophages in RA. Understanding the mechanisms and functional consequences of the heterogeneity of macrophages will aid in confirming their potential role in inflammation development. This review will outline RA-related macrophage properties (focus on polarization, metabolism and apoptosis) as well as the origin of macrophages. The molecular mechanisms that drive macrophage properties also be elucidated to identify novel therapeutic targets for RA and other autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Animais , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia
15.
Am J Pathol ; 190(9): 1789-1800, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473918

RESUMO

We studied the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in the expression of alternative activation markers (M2) on macrophage, cytokines, and fibrosis through the temporal evolution of healing, ventricular remodeling, and function after myocardial infarction (MI). C57BL/6J and Gal-3 knockout mice (Lgals3-/-) were subjected to permanent coronary ligation or sham. We studied i) mortality, ii) macrophage infiltration and expression of markers of alternative activation, iii) cytokine, iv) matrix metalloproteinase-2 activity, v) fibrosis, and vi) cardiac function and remodeling. At 1 week post-MI, lack of Gal-3 markedly attenuated F4/80+ macrophage infiltration and significantly increased the expression of Mrc1 and Chil1, markers of M2 macrophages at the MI zone. Levels of IL-10, IL-6, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 were significantly increased, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-ß, and fibrosis were remarkably attenuated at the infarct zone. In Gal-3 knockout mice, scar thinning ratio, expansion, and cardiac remodeling and function were severely affected from the onset of MI. At 4 weeks post-MI, the natural evolution of fibrosis in Gal-3 knockout mice was also affected. Our results suggest that Gal-3 is essential for wound healing because it regulates the dynamics of macrophage infiltration, proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression, and fibrosis along the temporal evolution of MI in mice. The deficit of Gal-3 affected the dynamics of wound healing, thus aggravating the evolution of remodeling and function.


Assuntos
Galectina 3/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Animais , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo
16.
Cell ; 182(1): 59-72.e15, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492406

RESUMO

Early detection and effective treatment of severe COVID-19 patients remain major challenges. Here, we performed proteomic and metabolomic profiling of sera from 46 COVID-19 and 53 control individuals. We then trained a machine learning model using proteomic and metabolomic measurements from a training cohort of 18 non-severe and 13 severe patients. The model was validated using 10 independent patients, 7 of which were correctly classified. Targeted proteomics and metabolomics assays were employed to further validate this molecular classifier in a second test cohort of 19 COVID-19 patients, leading to 16 correct assignments. We identified molecular changes in the sera of COVID-19 patients compared to other groups implicating dysregulation of macrophage, platelet degranulation, complement system pathways, and massive metabolic suppression. This study revealed characteristic protein and metabolite changes in the sera of severe COVID-19 patients, which might be used in selection of potential blood biomarkers for severity evaluation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Metabolômica , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Proteômica , Adulto , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3483-3496, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32523344

RESUMO

Background: The use of polycaprolactone (PCL) for bone defects in a clinical setting is limited due to a lack of bioactivity. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have an important immunoregulatory potential and together with S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) they possess therapeutic potential for bone regeneration. Materials and Methods: In this study, PCL was modified with GSNO and MSC-derived exosomes and the impact on macrophages and osteogenes is evaluated. Results: MSC-derived exosomes exhibited a cup-shaped morphology and were internalized by macrophages and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). The pattern of internalization of scaffold-immobilized exosomes was similar in RAW264.7 cells and hBMSCs after 4h and 24h of co-culture. Assessment of macrophage morphology under inflammatory conditions by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy demonstrated macrophages were significantly elongated and expression of pro-inflammatory genes markedly decreased when co-cultured with PCL/PDA + GSNO + exosome scaffolds. Furthermore, this scaffold modification significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. Discussion: This study demonstrated the possibility of using a GSNO- and exosome-based strategy to adapt barrier membrane scaffolds. PCL/PDA + GSNO + exosome scaffolds may serve as an important barrier membrane for osteogenesis and tissue regeneration.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Osteogênese , S-Nitrosoglutationa/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Endocitose , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Tecidos Suporte/química
18.
Am J Pathol ; 190(9): 1888-1908, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553806

RESUMO

Myopia is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. This sight-compromising condition is associated with scleral thinning, extracellular matrix remodeling, and inappropriate optical axial length elongation. Although macrophages are present in the sclera, their involvement in this condition is unknown. By using a form-deprivation myopia (FDM) mouse model, we found that both the scleral macrophage density and their matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression levels increased in myopic eyes. Partial scleral macrophage depletion by clodronate shifted the refraction toward hyperopia in both the form-deprived and the untreated fellow eyes compared with their respective counterparts in the vehicle-injected control mice. However, this procedure did not alter susceptibility to FDM. FDM development was 59% less in the macrophage-specific Mmp2 deletion (LysMCreMmp-2fl/fl) mice than in their Cre-negative littermates (Mmp2fl/fl mice). Moreover, the expression of scleral C-C motif chemokine ligand-2 (CCL2), which is a potent monocyte chemoattractant recruiting monocytes to tissue sites, was increased during myopia progression. However, the increase in the density of scleral macrophages and myopia development were suppressed in fibroblast-specific Ccl2 deletion mice. These declines suggested that the increase in scleral macrophage density in myopic eyes stems from the up-regulation of scleral Ccl2 expression in fibroblasts, which, in turn, promotes monocytes recruitment. In summary, scleral monocyte-derived macrophages contribute to myopia development through enhancing MMP-2 expression in mice.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/enzimologia , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Miopia/enzimologia , Esclera/enzimologia , Esclera/patologia , Animais , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miopia/patologia , Regulação para Cima
19.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(4): 1285-1290, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504146

RESUMO

Forensic investigations generally contain extensive morphological examinations to accurately diagnose the cause of death. Thus, the appearance of a new disease often creates emerging challenges in morphological examinations due to the lack of available data from autopsy- or biopsy-based research. Since late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel seventh coronavirus disease has been reported in China caused by "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2). On March 11, 2020, the new clinical condition COVID-19 (Corona-Virus-Disease-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Patients with COVID-19 mainly have a mild disease course, but severe disease onset might result in death due to proceeded lung injury with massive alveolar damage and progressive respiratory failure. However, the detailed mechanisms that cause organ injury still remain unclear. We investigated the morphological findings of a COVID-19 patient who died during self-isolation. Pathologic examination revealed massive bilateral alveolar damage, indicating early-phase "acute respiratory distress syndrome" (ARDS). This case emphasizes the possibility of a rapid severe disease onset in previously mild clinical condition and highlights the necessity of a complete autopsy to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiological changes in SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Autopsia , Tosse/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Febre/virologia , Fibrina/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Hiperplasia/patologia , Hipertensão , Pulmão/metabolismo , Linfócitos/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Megacariócitos/patologia , Metaplasia/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/patologia , Pandemias , Quarentena , Taquicardia/virologia , Trombose/patologia
20.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(7): 947-967, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574520

RESUMO

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are one of the most widely used types of novel nano-fiber materials. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental system based on actual exposure dosage and environments and explore the roles and mechanisms of inflammation in the malignant transformation of pleural mesothelial cells induced by MWCNTs after low doses and long-term exposure. Here, we established an in vitro system by co-culturing macrophages and mesothelial cells and exposing these cells to high aspect ratio MWCNTs (0.1 µg/mL) for three months. Results indicated that IL-1ß, secreted by macrophages stimulated by MWCNTs, may significantly enhance the release of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-6, from mesothelial cells. Results obtained from proliferation, migration, invasion, colony formation, and chromosomal aberration studies indicated that MWCNTs may promote malignant transformation of mesothelial cells after long-term and low-dose exposure via inflammation. Furthermore, the obtained results demonstrated that the NF-κB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway was active in the malignant transformation of Met 5A cells, induced by MWCNTs, and played an important role in the process. In conclusion, our results showed that the NF-κB (p65)/IL-6/STAT3 molecular pathway, which was mediated by inflammation, played an important role in the malignant transformation of pleural mesothelial cells induced by MWCNTs. These findings also provide novel ideas and references for the treatment of mesothelioma and offers options for the occupational safety of nanomaterial practitioners.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mesotelioma/imunologia , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Epiteliais/imunologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , Mesotelioma/patologia , Células THP-1 , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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