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1.
BJOG ; 127(1): 116-122, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk for adverse perinatal outcomes for women who met the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria but not the two-step criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). DESIGN: Population-level cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. POPULATION: A total of 90 140 women who underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: Women were divided into those who met the diagnostic thresholds for GDM by two-step criteria and were therefore treated, those who met only the IADPSG criteria for GDM and so were not treated, and those who did not have GDM by either criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preterm delivery, primary caesarean section, large-for-gestational-age, shoulder dystocia and neonatal intensive care unit admission. RESULTS: Women who met the IADPSG criteria had an increased risk for all adverse perinatal outcomes compared with women who did not have GDM. Women with GDM by two-step criteria also had an increased risk of most outcomes. However, their risk for large-for-gestational-age neonates and for shoulder dystocia was actually lower than that of women who met IADPSG criteria. CONCLUSION: Women who met IADPSG criteria but who were not diagnosed with GDM based on the current two-step diagnostic strategy, and were therefore not treated, had an increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes compared with women who do not have GDM. The current strategy for diagnosing GDM may be leaving women who are at risk for adverse events without the dietary and pharmacological treatments that could improve their pregnancy outcomes. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Women who meet IADPSG criteria for GDM have an increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes compared with women without GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da População Rural , Saúde da População Urbana
2.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 54(12): 833-839, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874473

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the association of pre-pregnancy obesity, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with the risk of large for gestational age (LGA), and assess the dynamic changes in population attributable risk percent (PAR%) for having these exposures. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to collect data on pregnant women who received regular health care and delivered in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital from January to December in 2011, 2014 and 2017, respectively. Information including baseline characteristics, metabolic indicators during pregnancy, pregnancy complications, and pregnancy outcomes were collected. Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to assess their association with LGA delivery. Adjusted relative risk and prevalence of these factors were used to calculate PAR%and evaluate the comprehensive risk. Results: (1)The number of participants were 11 132, 13 167 and 4 973 in 2011, 2014 and 2017, respectively. Corresponding prevalence of LGA were 15.19% (1 691/11 132), 14.98% (1 973/13 167) and 16.21% (806/4 973). No significant change in the prevalence of LGA was observed across all years investigated (all P>0.05). (2)According to results from multivariate logistic regression model, advanced maternal age, multiparity, pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, GWG,GDM and serum triglyceride level≥1.7 mmol/L in the first trimester were associated with high risk of LGA (all P<0.05). Among these factors, pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity, excessive GWG and multiparity were common risk factors of LGA. GDM was not associated with risk of LGA in 2017 database. (3) Dynamic change of PAR% in these years were notable. PAR% of GWG for LGA decreased (32.6%, 27.2% and 22.2% in 2011, 2014 and 2017, respectively), while PAR% of pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity showed an upward trend (4.2%, 3.3% and 8.4%). In addition, PAR% of multiparity increased as well (3.5%, 6.3% and 15.9%). (4) Further analysis showed that excessive GWG in the first and second trimesters contributed the most (20.2% and 19.0% in 2014 and 2017). Conclusions: Excessive GWG, pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity and multiparity are the important risk factors what contribute to LGA. PAR% of excessive GWG for LGA decrease in recent years. However, GWG in the first and second trimesters is a critical factor of LGA. Appropriate weight management in pre-pregnancy, the first or second trimester is the key point to reduce the risk of LGA.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ganho de Peso
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1147-1151, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683403

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the association of pre-pregnancy body mass and weight gain during pregnancy with macrosomia. Methods: From January 2015 to December 2015, a total of 20 477 pregnant women were recruited by probabilistic proportional scale sampling with simple randomization in Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces. Basic information of pregnant women, weight gain during pregnancy and weight of newborn were collected. A multiple logistic regression model was used to assess the association between the pre-pregnancy body mass and gestational weight gain indicators with macrosomia. Results: 20 321 mother-infant were included in the final analysis. 20 321 pregnant women were (30.09±4.10) years old and delivered at (39.20±1.29) weeks, among which 12 341 (60.73%) cases were cesarean delivery. The birth weight of 20 321 infants were (3 292.26±431.67) grams, and 970 (4.77%) were macrosomia. The multiple logistic regression model showed that after adjusting for the age of women, compared to the normal weight group in the pre-pregnancy, the overweight and obesity group elevated the risk of macrosomia, with OR (95%CI) about 1.99 (95%CI: 1.69-2.35) and 4.05 (95%CI: 3.05-5.39), respectively. After adjusting for the age, the pre-pregnancy BMI, delivery weeks, delivery mode and infant's gender, compared to the weight-gain appropriate group, higher weight gain rate in the mid-pregnancy and excessive total gestational weight gain elevated the risk of macrosomia, with OR (95%CI) about 1.99 (95%CI: 1.66-2.39) and 1.80 (95%CI: 1.55-2.08), respectively. Conclusion: The overweight before pregnancy, obesity before pregnancy, the rate of weight gain in the second trimester and the high total weight gain during pregnancy could increase the risk of macrosomia.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
4.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 147(3): 404-412, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479156

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographics, comorbidities, management, and outcomes of pregnant women with pre-gestational and gestational diabetes (GDM), including overt and true GDM, taking into account HIV infection and the influence of exposure to oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs). METHODS: A review of medical records of 1071 diabetic pregnancies (between 2012 and 2018) at a tertiary hospital in South Africa. RESULTS: Of the women, 43% had GDM, 19% had type 1 diabetes (T1DM), and 38% had type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Each group had a mean initial body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 . Despite poor initial HbA1c for pre-gestational groups, over 90% of the cohort achieved glycemic control by the time of delivery. The rate of prematurity was 30.9%. Perinatal mortality (PNM) was 5.1% for the pre-gestational group and 1.8% for GDM. Of the cohort, 23.9% was HIV infected. PNM was higher in the HIV-infected pregnancies (9.4%) than non-HIV exposed pregnancies (1.8%, P<0.001). The macrosomia rate was higher in the glibenclamide-exposed group than the insulin-alone group (12.2% vs 0%, P=0.025). CONCLUSION: Obesity is a significant predictor for macrosomia and was high in all groups. In a low-/middle-income country setting with a high prevalence of HIV and high usage of OHAs as an alternative to insulin therapy, HIV might be associated with higher PNM and glibenclamide with increased rates of macrosomia, which warrants further exploration.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Gravidez em Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Mortalidade Perinatal , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 219, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite an increased number of infants born with macrosomia globally, low birth weight infants have currently attracted more attention. Macrosomia is a growing problem in most developing countries and it directly or indirectly contributes to morbidity, mortality, and disability worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess the level of macrosomia and its associated factors in the private clinics of Mekelle city, Tigray region, Ethiopia, 2017. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study with a total of 309 pregnant mothers was conducted. We collected data from the pregnant mothers as well as from their medical records using structured questionnaire and checklist respectively. We entered and analyzed the data using statistical package for social science (SPSS)-21 by applying binary logistic regression to identify the factors associated with macrosomia. Finally, we used texts and tables to summarize the results of the study. RESULTS: The prevalence of macrosomia was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 14.9, 23), and the mean ± standard deviations of birth weights were 3440 ± 543 g. Macrosomia was significantly associated with: weight gain during pregnancy ≥16 kg (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 11, 95% CI: 3, 37), pre-pregnancy overweight (AOR = 5, 95% CI = 2, 13), pre-pregnancy obesity (AOR = 15, 95% CI = 5, 50), maternal age (AOR =2.6, 95% CI = 1.2, 5.8) and giving birth to macrosomic baby in the last pregnancy (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1, 7). CONCLUSION: We found that prevalence of macrosomia was high, and significantly associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), pregnancy weight gain, maternal age and giving birth to a macrosomic baby in the last pregnancy. Hence, we recommend that emphasis should be given to maternal counseling for weight management before and during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nascimento Vivo , Modelos Logísticos , Idade Materna , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Prevalência , Instalações Privadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 154: 82-89, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271809

RESUMO

AIMS: Obesity increases risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and GDM increases risk of macrosomia but their inter-relations for increased risk of macrosomia remain uncertain. We aimed to examine associations between prepregnancy overweight and macrosomia, and synergistic effects between prepregnancy overweight and GDM on macrosomia. METHODS: From 2010 to 2012, 19,622 women in urban Tianjin, China, underwent a 50-g 1-h glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 gestational weeks and followed by a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) if the GCT value was ≥ 7.8 mmol/L. GDM was defined according to International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group's criteria. Overweight was defined as body mass index ≥ 24.0 kg/m2. Logistic regression was performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Additive interaction between prepregnancy overweight and GDM was used to test synergistic effects. RESULTS: In the cohort, 1791 (9.1%) and 1726 (8.8%) of the women delivered a macrosomic infant or a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant, respectively. Prepregnancy overweight was associated with increased risk of macrosomia and LGA with adjusted ORs being 2.29 (95%CI: 2.07-2.54) and 2.27 (2.05-2.52), respectively. Copresence of prepregnancy overweight and GDM greatly enhanced the adjusted ORs of overweight alone (ORs for macrosomia and LGA: 2.17, 1.94-2.42 & 2.21,1.98-2.47) and GDM alone (ORs for macrosomia and LGA: 2.01,1.48-2.72 & 2.14, 1.60-2.87) for macrosomia and LGA to 5.29 (4.07-6.87) for macrosomia and 4.72 (3.66-6.10) for LGA, with significant additive interactions. CONCLUSIONS: Prepregnancy overweight increased the risks of macrosomia and LGA independently and synergistically with GDM.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/diagnóstico , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 94, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223385

RESUMO

Introduction: This study was aimed at evaluating effect of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and maternal characteristics on pregnancy outcome. GDM has several risk factors including; advanced maternal age, ethnic background, obesity and family history of diabetes mellitus. These pregnancy complications are associated with fetal morbidity and mortality and may lead to macrosomia and shoulder dystocia. Others are stillbirth, miscarriages, preterm and small for gestational age babies. Methods: This was a retrospective case-case control study which compared maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcome among pregnant women with and without GDM. Diagnosis of GDM was done in accordance with the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. Weight and height were determined and Body mass index (BMI) calculated. Pregnancy outcome was determined at the end of pregnancy and information on maternal characteristics obtained using questionnaire and patient folders. Results: Those who developed GDM were significantly older (OR= 1.772; 95% CI =1.432-2.192; P<0.0001) and had higher BMI (OR=1.637; 95% CI=1.004-1.289; P=0.044) than those who did not. A significant number of those who developed GDM also had stillbirths OR= 5.188; 95% CI=1.093-24.613; p=0.038) and cesarean deliveries (OR=14.362; 95% CI=3.661-56.335; p= 0.001). Conclusion: Women who develop GDM are more likely to deliver stillborn or macrosmic babies and may require surgical intervention in order to have normal deliveries.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Idade Materna , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 159, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes during pregnancy is an increasingly common metabolic disorder, associated with significantly increased risks for both mother and child. Aim of this study was to compare maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with pregestational (PDM) type 1 (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and compare these to pregnancies not complicated with diabetes. This study also evaluated a specifically organized care-model mostly involving specialist diabetes nurses. METHODS: Retrospective population-based records review 2009-2012. Rates of maternal (preeclampsia, pre-term delivery, cesarean section (CS)) and fetal outcomes (large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, congenital malformations/intrauterine death) were assessed and potential predisposing or contributing factors as maternal age, ethnicity, obesity, weight gain, parity, HbA1c levels, insulin types and doses. RESULTS: Among 280 pregnancies 48 were PDM, 97 GDM and 135 without diabetes. Within the group with diabetes, early-pregnancy BMI was higher (p = 0.0001), pregnancy weight gain lower (11.1 ± 6.7 kg vs 13.1 ± 7.1 kg, p = 0.005), more delivered preterm (p = 0.0001), by CS (p = 0.05), and had more LGA neonates (p = 0.06) than the group without diabetes. Among pregnancies with diabetes, GDM mothers gained less weight (9.9 kg vs 13.5 kg) (p = 0.006), and rates of CS (p = 0.03), preterm deliveries (p = 0.001) and LGA (p = 0.0001) were not increased compared to PDM; More T1DM infants were LGA, 60% vs. 27% in T2DM. In pregnancies with diabetes obesity, excessive weight gain and multiparity were associated with increased risk of LGA neonates, and mother's type of diabetes and gestational week were associated with higher rates of CS. CONCLUSION: Weight gain during pregnancy was lower in pregnancies with diabetes and prevalence of LGA, CS and preterm deliveries in GDM was not elevated, also for T2DM, except increased prevalence of LGA in T1DM that warrants increased clinical attention, indicating that this model of antenatal diabetes care may have contributed to improved maternal and fetal outcomes.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Paridade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
World J Pediatr ; 15(3): 289-296, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women who had delivered a macrosomic newborn will have a higher risk to deliver another macrosomia. We aimed to examine the recurrence risk of macrosomia in the subsequent pregnancy and the implications in long-term child health. METHODS: Data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a longitudinal birth cohort with 54,371 singleton births, were used. 401 recurrent macrosomic infants (macro-macro) and 1327 normal weight babies with a macrosomia in the last pregnancy (macro-normal) were selected to explore risk factors for recurrent macrosomia. Furthermore, 768 newly onset macrosomia with normal birthweight infant in previous pregnancies (normal-macro) were identified to examine long-term health effects of recurrent macrosomia. RESULTS: The recurrent rate of macrosomia was 23.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 21.2%, 25.2%]. White race, higher pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI), more gestational weight gain, male infant and more prior macrosomic infants were significant risk factors for recurrent macrosomia. At 4 years of age, recurrent macrosomic infants had a higher BMI (16.7 vs. 16.1 kg/m2, adjusted ß: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.60) and a higher risk of overweight and obesity (adjusted OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.23) than infants with normal birthweight after a previous macrosomic sibling. There was no significant difference between recurrent macrosomia and newly onset macrosomia in child outcomes after adjustment for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Fetal macrosomia has a high recurrence rate in the following pregnancy. Higher maternal pre-pregnant BMI and gestational weight gain are still important risk factors for recurrence of macrosomia, which in turn increases the risk for childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Paridade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 126, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity has a wide range of health effects on both the pregnant woman and developing fetus. The clinical significance of these disorders, combined with a dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity among pregnant women has precipitated a major health crisis in the United States. The most commonly used recommendations for gestational weight gain were established by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) in 2009 and have become well known and often adopted. The authors of the IOM report acknowledged that the recommended gestational weight gain of 5 to 9 kg for obese women whose body mass index was greater than 30 kg/m2 was based on very little empirical evidence. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a 5 to 9 kg weight gain, for obese women, optimized a set of maternal and neonatal health outcomes. METHODS: Data containing approximately 12,000,000 birth records were obtained from the United States Natality database for the years 2014 to 2016. A Bayesian modeling approach was used to estimate the controlled direct effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain. RESULTS: Obese women gaining less than 5 kg during pregnancy had reduced maternal risks for gestational hypertension, eclampsia, induction of labor and Caesarian section. In contrast, maternal gestational weight gain of less than 5 kg was associated with increased risks for multiple adverse neonatal outcomes with macrosomia the exception. Obese women who gained more than 9 kg during pregnancy had increased risk for multiple maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Obese women who were observed to gain less than 5 kg during gestation had reduced odds of several peripartum disorders. However, this lower gestational weight gain was associated with an increase in multiple risks for the neonate.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Índice de Massa Corporal , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 9136250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944829

RESUMO

Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a growing global public health problem that can have short- and long-term health consequences for the mother and the child. Despite its criticalness, many countries still do not have the epidemiological data which could guide them in responding to the problem. Due to the lack of knowledge on GDM and the fact that diabetes and obesity are high in Kuwait, this study sought to estimate the prevalence of GDM and determine its risk factors and outcomes. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 947 mothers living in Kuwait, who had given birth within the previous four years. Participants were recruited from primary health care clinics and public hospitals. GDM status was self-reported by the mother. Associations between exposures and outcomes were evaluated using logistic regression, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. Results: Of the 868 mothers with no prior history of diabetes mellitus, 109 (12.6%, 95% CI: 10.4, 14.8) reported having been given a GDM diagnosis during their last pregnancy. The prevalence of GDM increased with maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index. GDM was positively associated with caesarean section delivery (aOR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.17, 2.66) and fetal macrosomia (aOR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.14, 4.89). Conclusion: GDM is prevalent in Kuwait and is associated with poor maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. To date, GDM has received little attention, and there is a need for more research to identify and respond to individual and public health implications of GDM in Kuwait.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Mães , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 12(2): 133-137, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-995577

RESUMO

Introducción. La macrosomía fetal es un factor de riesgo para complicaciones maternas y neonatales. Se ha asociado a mal control metabólico del embarazo, diabetes gestacional y pregestacional. A la fecha, no hay estudios locales sobre las características clínicas de madres no diabéticas de hijos macrosómicos. Objetivo. Describir características clínicas de madres sin antecedente de diabetes que tienen hijos macrosómicos, atendidas en la maternidad del Hospital Carlos van Buren durante el año 2017. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal con enfoque analítico. Se recolectó la información a través de fichas clínicas y carnet prenatal de las pacientes no diabéticas con hijos macrosómicos. Se presentan de manera descriptiva las distintas variables de estudio, y se analizaron las asociaciones entre las variables mediante análisis estadístico. Resultados: Se incluyeron 68 madres con recién nacidos macrosómicos, con un promedio de edad de 25,8 años (±6.3 años). Entre sus hijos, 48 (70.5%) fueron de sexo masculino, con un peso promedio de 4.207,5g (±183g). De las 49 (72%) pacientes multíparas, ninguna presentó historia de diabetes gestacional previa. El índice de masa corporal (IMC) promedio fue de 29,7 (±5.2), el 39,4% (20) presentó acrocordon y el 19,1% (13) acantosis nigricans. La glicemia de ayuno del primer trimestre promedio fue de 83.4 mg/dL (±5.4mg/dL) y el promedio de HbA1c fue 5.2% (±0.3%). El 47% de las pacientes registró complicaciones del parto. Se encontró una asociación significativa entre las complicaciones del parto y la HbA1c (p = 0.014) y una correlación positiva entre el IMC materno con el peso de nacimiento (Rho = 0.23) Conclusiones: La macrosomía se asocia a complicaciones del parto, incluso en hijos de madres no diabéticas. Existe una correlación positiva entre un mayor IMC y el desarrollo de macrosomía. Son necesarios estudios de distinta metodología para desarrollar modelos predictivos en base a factores de riesgo.


Introduction. Fetal macrosomia is a risk factor for maternal and neonatal complications. It has been associated with poor metabolic control of pregnancy, gestational and pregestational diabetes. To date, there are no local studies on the clinical characteristics of non-diabetic mothers of macrosomic children. Objective. Describe clinical characteristics of mothers without a history of diabetes who have macrosomic children, attended in the maternity of Carlos van Buren Hospital during the year 2017. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study with an analytical approach was carried out. The information was collected through clinical files and prenatal card of non-diabetic patients with macrosomic children. The different study variables are presented in a descriptive way, and the associations between the variables were analyzed through statistical analysis. Results: We included 68 mothers with macrosomic newborns, with an average age of 25.8 years (± 6.3 years). Among their children, 48 (70.5%) were male, with an average weight of 4,207.5g (± 183g). Of the 49 (72%) multiparous patients, none had a history of previous gestational diabetes. The average body mass index (BMI) was 29.7 (± 5.2), 39.4% (20) presented acrocordon and 19.1% (13) acanthosis nigricans. Fasting glycemia in the first quarter was 83.4 mg / dL (± 5.4 mg / dL) and the average HbA1c was 5.2% (± 0.3%). 47% of the patients registered complications of childbirth. A significant association was found between labor complications and HbA1c (p = 0.014) and a positive correlation between maternal BMI and birth weight (Rho = 0.23). Conclusions: Macrosomia is associated with labor complications, even in children of non-diabetic mothers. There is a positive correlation between a higher BMI and the development of macrosomia. Studies of different methodology are necessary to develop predictive models based on risk factors.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Adulto , Complicações na Gravidez , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Paridade , Peso ao Nascer , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Fatores Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , Idade Gestacional
13.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 221(2): 126.e1-126.e18, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frozen embryo transfer is associated with better perinatal outcome regarding preterm birth and low birthweight, yet higher risk of large for gestational age and macrosomia compared to fresh transfer. Further, higher rates of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are noted after frozen embryo transfer. Whether these differences are due to the protocol used in frozen cycles remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the obstetric outcome after frozen embryo transfer depending on protocol used. Comparison was also made for frozen vs fresh transfer and for frozen transfer vs spontaneous conception. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based retrospective registry study including all singletons born after frozen embryo transfer in Sweden from 2005 to 2015. The in vitro fertilization register was cross-linked with the Medical Birth Register, the Register of Birth Defects, the National Patient Register, the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register, and the Prescribed Drug Register. Singletons after frozen embryo transfer were compared depending on the presence of a corpus luteum in the actual cycle. All frozen transfer singletons were also compared with fresh transfer and spontaneous conception singletons. Primary outcomes were preterm birth (<37 w), low birthweight (<2500 g), hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, and postpartum hemorrhage (>1000 mL). Crude and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were calculated and adjustment made for relevant confounders. RESULTS: A total of 9726 singletons were born after frozen embryo transfer (natural cycles, n = 6297; stimulated cycles, n = 1983; programmed cycles, n = 1446), 24,365 after fresh transfer, and 1,127,566 after spontaneous conception. No significant differences were noticed for preterm birth and low birthweight between the different protocols used in frozen embryo transfer. Compared to natural and stimulated frozen cycles, programmed frozen cycles were associated with a higher risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.21 and adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-2,10, respectively) and postpartum hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 2.20-3.13 and adjusted odds ratio, 2.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.29-2.60, respectively). Moreover, higher risks for postterm birth (adjusted odds ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-2.01 and adjusted odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-2.68) and macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.09 and adjusted odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.90) were detected. There were no significant differences in any outcomes between stimulated and natural cycles. Frozen cycles in general compared to fresh cycles and compared to spontaneous conceptions showed neonatal and maternal outcomes in agreement with earlier studies. CONCLUSION: No significant difference could be seen regarding preterm birth and low birthweight between the different protocols. However, higher rates of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage, postterm birth, and macrosomia were detected in programmed cycles. Stimulated cycles had outcomes similar to natural cycles. These findings are important in view of the increasing use of frozen cycles and the new policy of freeze-all cycles in in vitro fertilization. The results suggest a link between the absence of corpus luteum and adverse obstetric outcomes.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez Prolongada/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia/epidemiologia
14.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 150: 202-210, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880095

RESUMO

AIM: To determine, in a multi-ethnic cohort, the association of first-trimester HbA1c levels with the development of pregnancy complications. METHODS: A prospective study between April 2013-October 2016. Participants were stratified in five ethnic groups. Women had an HbA1c measurement added to their first antenatal bloods. Primary outcome was macrosomia and secondary outcomes included preeclampsia and large-for-gestational age (LGA). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to adjust for potential confounders in determining the association between different HbA1c cut-off points and obstetric outcomes on each ethnic group. RESULTS: 1,882 pregnancies were included. Analysis was limited to the three main ethnic groups: Caucasian (54.3%), South-Central Asian (19%) and Latin-American (12.2%). There was no association between HbA1c levels and obstetric outcomes among Caucasians. In Latin-Americans, an HbA1c ≥ 5.8% (40 mmol/mol) was associated with higher risk of macrosomia, whereas an HbA1c ≥ 5.9% (41 mmol/mol) was associated with LGA. In South-Central Asian, an HbA1c ≥ 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) was associated with increased risk of macrosomia and a continuous graded relationship between HbA1c levels and preeclampsia and LGA was detected starting at HbA1c levels of 5.4% (36 mmol/mol). CONCLUSION: First-trimester HbA1c levels perform as a suitable predictor of pregnancy complications in South-Central Asian and Latin-American women whereas in Caucasian no significant associations were found.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Adulto , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/sangue , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/sangue , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
J Perinat Med ; 47(4): 402-408, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817307

RESUMO

Background Maternal obesity, excessive gestational weight gain and fetal macrosomia may affect the health of the mother and the newborn, and are associated with cesarean delivery. Pregnant women with a migration background have a higher risk of obesity but nevertheless a lower frequency of cesarean deliveries than women from the majority population. This study assesses which of these factors most influence the risk of a cesarean delivery and whether their prevalence can explain the lower cesarean rates in migrant women. Methods A total of 2256 migrant women and 2241 non-immigrant women subsequently delivering in three hospitals of Berlin/Germany participated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the effects of obesity, excessive gestational weight gain and macrosomia on cesarean delivery. Standardized coefficients (STB) were used to rank the predictors. Results Obesity was more frequent in immigrant than among non-immigrant women. The mean gestational weight gain was independent of migration status. The frequency of macrosomia increased with maternal weight. Obesity and excessive gestational weight gain were the most important predictors of cesarean besides older age; fetal macrosomia played a much smaller role. Despite similar distributions of the three risk factors, the frequency of cesarean deliveries was lower in migrant than in non-immigrant women. Conclusion The presence of obesity and/or excessive gestational weight gain is associated with an increased risk of a cesarean delivery; fetal macrosomia does not increase the risk when obesity and weight gain are considered. The distribution of these risk factors is similar in migrant and non-immigrant women, so they cannot explain the lower frequency of cesarean deliveries in migrant women.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Obesidade/complicações , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 220(4): 395.e1-395.e12, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unexpected admissions of term neonates to the neonatal intensive care unit and unexpected postnatal complications have been proposed as neonatal-focused quality metrics for intrapartum care. Previous studies have noted significant variation in overall hospital neonatal intensive care unit admission rates; however, little is known about the influence of obstetric practices on these rates or whether variation among unanticipated admissions in low-risk, term neonates can be attributed to systemic hospital practices. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the relative effects of patient characteristics and intrapartum events on unexpected neonatal intensive care unit admissions and to quantify the between-hospital variation in neonatal intensive care unit admission rates among this group of neonates. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study using data collected as part of the Consortium for Safe Labor study. Women who delivered term (≥37 weeks), singleton, nonanomalous, liveborn infants without an a priori risk for neonatal intensive care unit admission were included. The primary outcome was neonatal intensive care unit admission among this population. Multilevel mixed-effect models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for demographics (age, race, insurer), pregnancy characteristics (parity, gestational age, tobacco use, birthweight), maternal comorbidities (chronic and pregnancy-induced hypertension), hospital characteristics (delivery volume, hospital and neonatal intensive care unit level, academic affiliation), and intrapartum events (prolonged second stage, induction of labor, trial of labor after cesarean delivery, chorioamnionitis, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and abruption). Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to estimate the between-hospital variance in a series of hierarchical models. RESULTS: Of the 143,951 infants meeting all patient and hospital inclusion criteria, 7995 (5.6%) were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after birth. In the fully adjusted model, the factors associated with the highest odds for neonatal intensive care unit admission included: nulliparity (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62 [95% confidence interval, 1.53-1.71]), large for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio, 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.47-1.71]), and small for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio, 1.60 [95% confidence interval, 1.47-1.73]). Induction of labor (adjusted odds ratio, 0.95 [95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.01]) was not associated with increased odds of neonatal intensive care unit admission compared with women who labored spontaneously. The events associated with higher odds of neonatal intensive care unit admission included: prolonged second stage (adjusted odds ratio, 1.66 [95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.83]); chorioamnionitis (adjusted odds ratio, 3.89 [95% confidence interval, 3.42-4.44]), meconium-stained amniotic fluid (adjusted odds ratio, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.82-2.10]), and abruption (adjusted odds ratio, 2.64 [95% confidence interval, 2.16-.21]). Compared with women who did not labor, the odds of neonatal intensive care unit admission were lower for women who labored: adjusted odds ratio, 0.48 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.52) for women with no uterine scar and adjusted odds ratio, 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.94) for women with a uterine scar. There was significant variation in neonatal intensive care unit admission rates by hospital, ranging from 2.9% to 11.2%. After accounting for case mix and hospital characteristics, the between-hospital variance was 1.9%, suggesting that little of the variation was explained by the effect of the hospital. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to the currently limited understanding of term, neonatal intensive care unit admission rates as a marker of obstetrical care quality. We demonstrated that significant variation exists in hospital unexpected neonatal intensive care unit admission rates and that certain intrapartum events are associated with an increased risk for neonatal intensive care unit admission after delivery. However, the between-hospital variation was low. Unmeasured confounders and extrinsic factors, such as neonatal intensive care unit bed availability, may limit the ability of unexpected term neonatal intensive care unit admissions to meaningfully reflect obstetrical care quality.


Assuntos
Descolamento Prematuro da Placenta/epidemiologia , Corioamnionite/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Obstetrícia/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Nascimento a Termo , Adulto , Líquido Amniótico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Mecônio , Paridade , Gravidez , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 220(6): 590.e1-590.e10, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large, recent multicenter trial found that induction of labor at 39 weeks for low-risk nulliparous women was not associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery or adverse neonatal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the cost-effectiveness and outcomes associated with induction of labor at 39 weeks vs expectant management for low-risk nulliparous women in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: A cost-effectiveness model using TreeAge software was designed to compare outcomes in women who were induced at 39 weeks vs expectantly managed. We used a theoretical cohort of 1.6 million women, the approximate number of nulliparous term births in the United States annually that are considered low risk. Outcomes included mode of delivery, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, macrosomia, stillbirth, permanent brachial plexus injury, and neonatal death, in addition to cost and quality-adjusted life years for both the woman and neonate. Model inputs were derived from the literature, and a cost-effectiveness threshold was set at $100,000/quality-adjusted life years. RESULTS: In our theoretical cohort of 1.6 million women, induction of labor resulted in 54,498 fewer cesarean deliveries and 79,152 fewer cases of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We also found that induction of labor resulted in 795 fewer cases of stillbirth and 11 fewer neonatal deaths, despite 86 additional cases of brachial plexus injury. Induction of labor resulted in increased costs but increased quality-adjusted life years with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $87,691.91 per quality-adjusted life year. In sensitivity analysis, if the cost of induction of labor was increased by $180, elective induction would no longer be cost effective. Similarly, we found that if the rate of cesarean delivery was the same in both strategies, elective induction of labor at 39 weeks would not be a cost-effective strategy. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis via Monte Carlo simulation, we found that induction of labor was cost effective only 65% of the time. CONCLUSION: In our theoretical cohort, induction of labor in nulliparous term women at 39 weeks of gestation resulted in improved outcomes but increased costs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was marginally cost effective but would lead to an additional 2 billion dollars of healthcare costs. Whether individual clinicians and healthcare systems offer routine induction of labor at 39 weeks will need to depend on local capacity, careful evaluation and allocation of healthcare resources, and patient preferences. KEY WORDS: cesarean delivery, decision analysis, healthcare resources, induction of labor, low-risk nulliparous women, mode of delivery, obstetric outcomes.


Assuntos
Cesárea/economia , Macrossomia Fetal/economia , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/economia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/economia , Paralisia do Plexo Braquial Neonatal/economia , Natimorto/economia , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Parto Obstétrico/economia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Paralisia do Plexo Braquial Neonatal/epidemiologia , Paridade , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Conduta Expectante/economia
18.
Diabetes Care ; 42(5): 810-815, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) provides far greater detail about fetal exposure to maternal glucose across the 24-h day. Our aim was to examine the role of temporal glucose variation on the development of large for gestational age (LGA) infants in women with treated gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of 162 pregnant women with GDM in specialist multidisciplinary antenatal diabetes clinics. Participants undertook 7-day masked CGM at 30-32 weeks' gestation. Standard summary indices and glycemic variability measures of CGM were calculated. Functional data analysis was applied to determine differences in temporal glucose profiles. LGA was defined as birth weight ≥90th percentile adjusted for infant sex, gestational age, maternal BMI, ethnicity, and parity. RESULTS: Mean glucose was significantly higher in women who delivered an LGA infant (6.2 vs. 5.8 mmol/L, P = 0.025, or 111.6 mg/dL vs. 104.4 mg/dL). There were no significant differences in percentage time in, above, or below the target glucose range or in glucose variability measures (all P > 0.05). Functional data analysis revealed that the higher mean glucose was driven by a significantly higher glucose for 6 h overnight (0030-0630 h) in mothers of LGA infants (6.0 ± 1.0 mmol/L vs. 5.5 ± 0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.005, and 108.0 ± 18.0 mg/dL vs. 99.0 ± 14.4 mg/dL). CONCLUSIONS: Mothers of LGA infants run significantly higher glucose overnight compared with mothers without LGA infants. Detecting and addressing nocturnal glucose control may help to further reduce rates of LGA in women with GDM.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/sangue , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Idade Gestacional , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211278, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between maternal BMI>50kg/m2 during pregnancy and maternal and perinatal outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An international cohort study was conducted using data from separate national studies in the UK and Australia. Outcomes of pregnant women with BMI>50 were compared to those of pregnant women with BMI<50. Multivariable logistic regression estimated the association between BMI>50 and perinatal and maternal outcomes. RESULTS: 932 pregnant women with BMI>50 were compared with 1232 pregnant women with BMI<50. Pregnant women with BMI>50 were slightly older, more likely to be multiparous, and have pre-existing comorbidities. There were no maternal deaths, however, extremely obese women had a nine-fold increase in the odds of thrombotic events compared to those with a BMI<50 (uOR: 9.39 (95%CI:1.15-76.43)). After adjustment, a BMI>50 during pregnancy had significantly raised odds of preeclampsia/eclampsia (aOR:4.88(95%CI: 3.11-7.65)), caesarean delivery (aOR: 2.77 (95%CI: 2.31-3.32)), induction of labour (aOR: 2.45(95% CI:2.00-2.99)) post caesarean wound infection (aOR:7.25(95%CI: 3.28-16.07)), macrosomia (aOR: 8.05(95%CI: 4.70-13.78)) compared a BMI<50. Twelve of the infants born to women in the extremely obese cohort died in the early neonatal period or were stillborn. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women with BMI>50 have a high risk of inferior maternal and perinatal outcomes.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Eclampsia/epidemiologia , Eclampsia/etiologia , Feminino , Macrossomia Fetal/epidemiologia , Macrossomia Fetal/etiologia , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/diagnóstico , Razão de Chances , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia
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