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1.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1816044, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012269

RESUMO

COVID-19 has wreaked havoc globally with particular concerns for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where models suggest that the majority of the population will become infected. Conventional wisdom suggests that the continent will bear a higher burden of COVID-19 for the same reasons it suffers from other infectious diseases: ecology, socio-economic conditions, lack of water and sanitation infrastructure, and weak health systems. However, so far SSA has reported lower incidence and fatalities compared to the predictions of standard models and the experience of other regions of the world. There are three leading explanations, each with different implications for the final epidemic burden: (1) low case detection, (2) differences in epidemiology (e.g. low R 0 ), and (3) policy interventions. The low number of cases have led some SSA governments to relaxing these policy interventions. Will this result in a resurgence of cases? To understand how to interpret the lower-than-expected COVID-19 case data in Madagascar, we use a simple age-structured model to explore each of these explanations and predict the epidemic impact associated with them. We show that the incidence of COVID-19 cases as of July 2020 can be explained by any combination of the late introduction of first imported cases, early implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), and low case detection rates. We then re-evaluate these findings in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic in Madagascar through August 2020. This analysis reinforces that Madagascar, along with other countries in SSA, remains at risk of a growing health crisis. If NPIs remain enforced, up to 50,000 lives may be saved. Even with NPIs, without vaccines and new therapies, COVID-19 could infect up to 30% of the population, making it the largest public health threat in Madagascar for the coming year, hence the importance of clinical trials and continually improving access to healthcare.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Pandemias
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008251, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853251

RESUMO

Yersinia pestis, the bacterial causative agent of plague, remains an important threat to human health. Plague is a rodent-borne disease that has historically shown an outstanding ability to colonize and persist across different species, habitats, and environments while provoking sporadic cases, outbreaks, and deadly global epidemics among humans. Between September and November 2017, an outbreak of urban pneumonic plague was declared in Madagascar, which refocused the attention of the scientific community on this ancient human scourge. Given recent trends and plague's resilience to control in the wild, its high fatality rate in humans without early treatment, and its capacity to disrupt social and healthcare systems, human plague should be considered as a neglected threat. A workshop was held in Paris in July 2018 to review current knowledge about plague and to identify the scientific research priorities to eradicate plague as a human threat. It was concluded that an urgent commitment is needed to develop and fund a strong research agenda aiming to fill the current knowledge gaps structured around 4 main axes: (i) an improved understanding of the ecological interactions among the reservoir, vector, pathogen, and environment; (ii) human and societal responses; (iii) improved diagnostic tools and case management; and (iv) vaccine development. These axes should be cross-cutting, translational, and focused on delivering context-specific strategies. Results of this research should feed a global control and prevention strategy within a "One Health" approach.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Peste/prevenção & controle , Yersinia pestis , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Humanos , Insetos Vetores , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/transmissão , Roedores , Sifonápteros
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235572, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuing tuberculosis control with current approaches is unlikely to reach the World Health Organization's objective to eliminate TB by 2035. Innovative interventions such as unmanned aerial vehicles (or drones) and digital adherence monitoring technologies have the potential to enhance patient-centric quality tuberculosis care and help challenged National Tuberculosis Programs leapfrog over the impediments of conventional Directly Observed Therapy (DOTS) implementation. A bundle of innovative interventions referred to for its delivery technology as the Drone Observed Therapy System (DrOTS) was implemented in remote Madagascar. Given the potentially increased cost these interventions represent for health systems, a cost-effectiveness analysis was indicated. METHODS: A decision analysis model was created to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness of the DrOTS strategy compared to DOTS, the standard of care, in a study population of 200,000 inhabitants in rural Madagascar with tuberculosis disease prevalence of 250/100,000. A mixed top-down and bottom-up costing approach was used to identify costs associated with both models, and net costs were calculated accounting for resulting TB treatment costs. Net cost per disability-adjusted life years averted was calculated. Sensitivity analyses were performed for key input variables to identify main drivers of health and cost outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. FINDINGS: Net cost per TB patient identified within DOTS and DrOTS were, respectively, $282 and $1,172. The incremental cost per additional TB patient diagnosed in DrOTS was $2,631 and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of DrOTS compared to DOTS was $177 per DALY averted. Analyses suggest that integrating drones with interventions ensuring highly sensitive laboratory testing and high treatment adherence optimizes cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSION: Innovative technology packages including drones, digital adherence monitoring technologies, and molecular diagnostics for TB case finding and retention within the cascade of care can be cost effective. Their integration with other interventions within health systems may further lower costs and support access to universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Adesão à Medicação , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Aeronaves , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Robótica , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17932-17936, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631980

RESUMO

Early members of the dinosaur-pterosaur clade Ornithodira are very rare in the fossil record, obscuring our understanding of the origins of this important group. Here, we describe an early ornithodiran (Kongonaphon kely gen. et sp. nov.) from the Mid-to-Upper Triassic of Madagascar that represents one of the smallest nonavian ornithodirans. Although dinosaurs and gigantism are practically synonymous, an analysis of body size evolution in dinosaurs and other archosaurs in the context of this taxon and related forms demonstrates that the earliest-diverging members of the group may have been smaller than previously thought, and that a profound miniaturization event occurred near the base of the avian stem lineage. In phylogenetic analysis, Kongonaphon is recovered as a member of the Triassic ornithodiran clade Lagerpetidae, expanding the range of this group into Africa and providing data on the craniodental morphology of lagerpetids. The conical teeth of Kongonaphon exhibit pitted microwear consistent with a diet of hard-shelled insects, indicating a shift in trophic ecology to insectivory associated with diminutive body size. Small ancestral body size suggests that the extreme rarity of early ornithodirans in the fossil record owes more to taphonomic artifact than true reflection of the group's evolutionary history.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Dinossauros/anatomia & histologia , Dinossauros/classificação , Fósseis , Animais , Madagáscar , Paleontologia , Filogenia
5.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 32(1): 113-122, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Madagascar has adopted strategies to fight against maternal malnutrition, but the evaluation of their implementation is not effective.Purpose of research: The present study aims to describe beneficiary appreciation of interventions to fight maternal malnutrition and to identify their expectations. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted in the Amoron’i Mania region, Madagascar. The study included mothers of children under 5, pregnant women, and other family members and community members (fathers, grandmothers, matrons and community workers). Six focus groups and 16 individual interviews were conducted to collect the data. The thematic analysis was used. RESULTS: Food supplementation, improved production of agriculture and livestock, and nutrition education, operated by NGOs, are the best-known interventions. The health centers were not mentioned as interveners and their interventions were ignored. The effectiveness of the intervention is generally judged on the benefits perceived by the beneficiaries. Interveners working on a project basis were assessed as unsustainable. Two main problems were mentioned: first, the insufficiency of agricultural production resulting in the inaccessibility of the ingredients required for the nutrition education, and second the low coverage of the interventions. The improvement of agricultural production is the main suggestion mentioned to fight against maternal undernutrition. CONCLUSIONS: Beneficiaries thought that existing interventions in the region are insufficient to address the problem of malnutrition among mothers.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
Mycorrhiza ; 30(5): 567-576, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535694

RESUMO

Orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) are critical for seed germination and maintaining natural populations of orchids, yet the degree of specificity of most orchids to their mycorrhizal associates remains unknown. Many orchids are at risk of extinction, whether generalists or specialists, but orchid species of narrow fungal specificity are arguably under increased threat due to their requirement for specific fungal symbionts. This study characterises the fungi associated with Aerangis ellisii, a lithophytic orchid from a site in the Central Highlands of Madagascar. Culturable OMF isolated from spontaneous protocorms of this species from the wild were used for seed germination. In vitro germination and seedling development of A. ellisii were achieved with fungi derived from A. ellisii and an isolate from a different Aerangis species 30 km away. The significance of these findings and their importance to conservation strategies for this species and other Aerangis spp. is discussed. These results have important implications for the conservation of A. ellisii populations in Madagascar.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Orchidaceae , Germinação , Madagáscar , Sementes , Simbiose
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0218698, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542001

RESUMO

Low-income cities that are subject to high population pressure and vulnerable to climate events often have a low capacity to continuously deliver safe drinking water. Here we reported the results of a 32-year survey on the temporal dynamics of drinking water quality indicators in the city of Antananarivo. We analyzed the long-term evolution of the quality of the water supplied and characterized the interactions between climatic conditions and the full-scale water supply system. A total of 25,467 water samples were collected every week at different points in the supplied drinking water system. Samples were analyzed for total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (EC), intestinal Enterococci (IE), and Spores of Sulphite-Reducing Clostridia (SSRC). Nine-hundred-eighty-one samples that were identified as positive for one or more indicators were unevenly distributed over time. The breakpoint method identified four periods when the time series displayed changes in the level and profile of contamination (i) and the monthly pattern of contamination (ii), with more direct effects of rainfall on the quality of supplied drinking water. The modeling showed significantly different lags among indicators of bacteria occurrence after cumulative rainfall, which range from 4 to 8 weeks. Among the effects of low-income urbanization, a rapid demographic transition and the degradation of urban watersheds have gradually affected the quality of the water supplied and resulted in the more direct effects of rainfall events. We focused on the need to adopt an alternative perspective of drinking water and urban watersheds management.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Chuva , Qualidade da Água , Água Potável/química , Água Potável/microbiologia , Madagáscar , Fatores de Tempo , Poluição da Água
8.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1927): 20200598, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396803

RESUMO

The ecology of Madagascar's grasslands is under-investigated and the dearth of ecological understanding of how disturbance by fire and grazing shapes these grasslands stems from a perception that disturbance shaped Malagasy grasslands only after human arrival. However, worldwide, fire and grazing shape tropical grasslands over ecological and evolutionary timescales, and it is curious Madagascar should be a global anomaly. We examined the functional and community ecology of Madagascar's grasslands across 71 communities in the Central Highlands. Combining multivariate abundance models of community composition and clustering of grass functional traits, we identified distinct grass assemblages each shaped by fire or grazing. The fire-maintained assemblage is primarily composed of tall caespitose species with narrow leaves and low bulk density. By contrast, the grazer-maintained assemblage is characterized by mat-forming, high bulk density grasses with wide leaves. Within each assemblage, levels of endemism, diversity and grass ages support these as ancient assemblages. Grazer-dependent grasses can only have co-evolved with a now-extinct megafauna. Ironically, the human introduction of cattle probably introduced a megafaunal substitute facilitating modern day persistence of a grazer-maintained grass assemblage in an otherwise defaunated landscape, where these landscapes now support the livelihoods of millions of people.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Pradaria , Herbivoria , Animais , Fogo , Madagáscar , Poaceae
9.
Nature ; 581(7809): 421-427, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461642

RESUMO

The fossil record of mammaliaforms (mammals and their closest relatives) of the Mesozoic era from the southern supercontinent Gondwana is far less extensive than that from its northern counterpart, Laurasia1,2. Among Mesozoic mammaliaforms, Gondwanatheria is one of the most poorly known clades, previously represented by only a single cranium and isolated jaws and teeth1-5. As a result, the anatomy, palaeobiology and phylogenetic relationships of gondwanatherians remain unclear. Here we report the discovery of an articulated and very well-preserved skeleton of a gondwanatherian of the latest age (72.1-66 million years ago) of the Cretaceous period from Madagascar that we assign to a new genus and species, Adalatherium hui. To our knowledge, the specimen is the most complete skeleton of a Gondwanan Mesozoic mammaliaform that has been found, and includes the only postcranial material and ascending ramus of the dentary known for any gondwanatherian. A phylogenetic analysis including the new taxon recovers Gondwanatheria as the sister group to Multituberculata. The skeleton, which represents one of the largest of the Gondwanan Mesozoic mammaliaforms, is particularly notable for exhibiting many unique features in combination with features that are convergent on those of therian mammals. This uniqueness is consistent with a lineage history for A. hui of isolation on Madagascar for more than 20 million years.


Assuntos
Fósseis , Ilhas , Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/classificação , Filogenia , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Dentição , Madagáscar , Crânio/anatomia & histologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232623, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421746

RESUMO

The loss of biodiversity during the Anthropocene is a constant topic of discussion, especially in the top biodiversity hotspots, such as Madagascar. In this regard, the study of preserved organisms through time, like those included in "Madagascar copal", is of relevance. "Madagascar copal" originated from the leguminous tree Hymenaea verrucosa, which produced and produces resin abundantly. In the last 20 years, interest has focused on the scientific study of its biological inclusions, mainly arthropods, described in dozens of publications. The age and origin of the deposits of "Madagascar copal" have not yet been resolved. Our objectives are to determine its age and geographical origin, and thus increase its scientific value as a source of biological/palaeobiological information. Although Hymenaea was established in Madagascar during the Miocene, we did not find geological deposits of copal or amber in the island. It is plausible that the evolution of those deposits was negatively conditioned by the type of soil, by the climate, and by the development of soil/litter microorganisms, which inhibit preservation of the resin pieces in the litter and subsoil over 300 years. Our results indicate that "Madagascar copal" is a Recent resin, up to a few hundred years old, that originated from Hymenaea trees growing in the lowland coastal forests, one of the most endangered ecosystems in the world. The included and preserved biota is representative of that ecosystem today and during historical times. Inclusions in this Recent resin do not have the palaeontological significance that has been mistakenly attributed to them, but they do have relevant implications for studies regarding Anthropocene biodiversity loss in this hottest hotspot.


Assuntos
Âmbar/história , Fósseis/história , Hymenaea/química , Árvores/química , Âmbar/química , Biodiversidade , História Antiga , Madagáscar
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1309-1315, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274983

RESUMO

In late 2017, Madagascar experienced a large urban outbreak of pneumonic plague, the largest outbreak to date this century. During the outbreak, there were widespread reports of plague patients presenting with atypical symptoms, such as prolonged duration of illness and upper respiratory tract symptoms. Reported mortality among plague cases was also substantially lower than that reported in the literature (25% versus 50% in treated patients). A prospective multicenter observational study was carried out to investigate potential reasons for these atypical presentations. Few subjects among our cohort had confirmed or probable plague, suggesting that, in part, there was overdiagnosis of plague cases by clinicians. However, 35% subjects reported using an antibiotic with anti-plague activity before hospital admission, whereas 55% had antibiotics with anti-plague activity detected in their serum at admission. Although there may have been overdiagnosis of plague by clinicians during the outbreak, the high frequency of community antibiotic may partly explain the relatively few culture-positive sputum samples during the outbreak. Community antibiotic use may have also altered the clinical presentation of plague patients. These issues make accurate detection of patients and the development of clinical case definitions and triage algorithms in urban pneumonic plague outbreaks difficult.


Assuntos
Peste/epidemiologia , Peste/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Zootaxa ; 4732(1): zootaxa.4732.1.3, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230272

RESUMO

A new species, Holophloeus loebli Trýzna Banar sp. nov. (Anthribidae: Anthribinae: Discotenini), from east Madagascar is described. Male genitalia are studied and illustrated, and color photographs are provided. A comparison is provided with the other known Madagascan species of the genus, H. tuberosus (Fairmaire, 1897). Ecological notes, including color photographs of habitats, on H. loebli and H. tuberosus are provided.


Assuntos
Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Cor , Ecologia , Jordânia , Madagáscar , Masculino
14.
Zootaxa ; 4727(1): zootaxa.4727.1.1, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230592

RESUMO

A general introduction to the water mites of Madagascar is given, together with a survey of the diversity of the early derivative superfamilies Eylaoidea, Hydrachnoidea, and Hydryphantoidea. The family Teratothyadidae (genera Teratothyas and Teratothyasides) and the hydryphantid subfamilies Euthyadinae (genera Javathyas and Trichothyas) and Wandesiinae (genus Wandesia) are recorded for the first time from Madagascar, the latter being new for the Ethiopian bioregion. One subgenus in the family Teratothyadidae, Ascoteratothyas subgen. nov. (genus Teratothyas) and eighteen species are described as new to science: Hydrodroma amoenoderma, H. lasioderma, H. megalonyx, H. mesembrina, H. poseidon, Javathyas nasipalpis, Wandesia pelipoda, W. anjozorobensis, Teratothyas (s. str.) digitata, T. (s. str.) aucta, T. (s. str.) proceripapillata, T. (s. str.) planipapillata, T. (Ascoteratothyas) levigata, T. (A.) porrigens, T. (A.) reducta, Teratothyasides heptaplax, T. ravenala and T. vanilla. Previous Madagascan records of Hydrodroma despiciens (Müller, 1776) and H. capensis (K. Viets, 1914) are attributed to H. poseidon. The subgenus Pseudowandesia is synonymized with the nominate subgenus. New locality records for other species include the first recording on the island of Hydrodroma perreptans (K. Viets, 1913) and H. zhokhovi Tuzovskij, 2014. Limnochares connexa Tuzovskij Gerecke 2009 is redescribed. A dichotomous key leads to species level for the groups treated here, to family level for representatives of the remaining four superfamilies present on Madagascar.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Madagáscar , Água
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294134

RESUMO

The negative environmental and economic impacts of many invasive species are well known. However, given the increased homogenization of global biota, and the difficulty of eradicating species once established, a balanced approach to considering the impacts of invasive species is needed. The marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) is a parthenogenetic freshwater crayfish that was first observed in Madagascar around 2005 and has spread rapidly. We present the results of a socio-economic survey (n = 385) in three regions of Madagascar that vary in terms of when the marbled crayfish first arrived. Respondents generally considered marbled crayfish to have a negative impact on rice agriculture and fishing, however the animals were seen as making a positive contribution to household economy and food security. Regression modeling showed that respondents in regions with longer experience of marbled crayfish have more positive perceptions. Unsurprisingly, considering the perception that crayfish negatively impact rice agriculture, those not involved in crayfish harvesting and trading had more negative views towards the crayfish than those involved in crayfish-related activities. Food preference ranking and market surveys revealed the acceptance of marbled crayfish as a cheap source of animal protein; a clear positive in a country with widespread malnutrition. While data on biodiversity impacts of the marbled crayfish invasion in Madagascar are still completely lacking, this study provides insight into the socio-economic impacts of the dramatic spread of this unique invasive species. "Biby kely tsy fantam-piaviana, mahavelona fianakaviana" (a small animal coming from who knows where which supports the needs of the family). Government worker Analamanga, Madagascar.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutos do Mar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Aquicultura/economia , Aquicultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Produção Agrícola/economia , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares , Espécies Introduzidas/economia , Espécies Introduzidas/legislação & jurisprudência , Madagáscar , Partenogênese , Análise de Regressão , Frutos do Mar/economia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231822, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315367

RESUMO

Environmental education programs are critically important for raising awareness about global and local environmental concerns, by providing the knowledge, tools, and means for young and old generations to cope with current challenges. Of the greatest importance is the implementation of environmental education programs in biodiversity hotspots where environmental crises are high and resources to fund mitigation programs are low. Madagascar is one such priority hotspot, featuring intensive wildlife-human conflicts due to shrinking natural environments. The Duke Lemur Center-SAVA Conservation Initiative has been conducting environmental education activities in the SAVA region, northeastern Madagascar, since 2011. These activities have been aimed at increasing awareness of local and global environmental issues and at stimulating the involvement of local school students. Our initiatives have predominantly supported teacher trainings to provide teachers with environmental education content, examples, and recommendations on how to integrate activities into their regular curricula, commonly referred to as a "cascade approach". Due to logistical hurdles, including high teacher turnover rates, however, these interventions have not been monitored to assess their efficacy. Thus, to better inform current and future interventions, we designed and implemented classroom-based surveys to gather baseline data on the basic knowledge of SAVA students and their perceptions of the environment. We identify informational gaps in surveyed schools, including those located in large towns vs. villages, and those with trained vs. untrained teachers. Based on these results, we make recommendations for future environmental education efforts in the region, including activities that could address real-life environmental problems and decision-making solutions.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ciência Ambiental/educação , Humanos , Madagáscar , Professores Escolares , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Meio Selvagem
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(4): 1177-1199, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246259

RESUMO

A few data are related to the anthropophily of Malagasy Phlebotomine sandflies. Prior studies focussed mainly to inventories and description of new species. Our goal was to emphasize the anthropophily of Malagasy Phlebotomine sandflies. We worked in the Makira region, using two simultaneous methods: human landing catches (HLC) and CDC light traps. We collected sandflies in three rural communities adjacent to the Makira Natural Park. In each community, three different biotopes were sampled: within community settlements; at the edge of forest, typically in agricultural land; and within the forest. We collected 61 sandflies belonging to two new species presently described: Phlebotomus artemievi sp. nov. and Sergentomyia maroantsetraensis sp. nov. These sandflies were caught exclusively in the forest edge biotope. None were captured within communities or within forests. HLC provided 97% of the collected sandflies, corresponding to a human-biting rate of 15 females per human per night. CDC provided only two females. Ph. artemievi sp. nov. was predominantly captured by HLC and appears to be highly anthropophilic. Here, we update the behavioural ecology of sandflies and describe two new species. Further research is required to understand their vector competence and their ability to transmit arboviruses and other pathogens such as Leishmania.


Assuntos
Florestas , Phlebotomus , Psychodidae , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Ecossistema , Feminino , Madagáscar , Masculino , Phlebotomus/classificação , Psychodidae/classificação
19.
J Mycol Med ; 30(3): 100966, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317216

RESUMO

Candida africana has been recovered principally as a causative agent of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) from different countries, which is likely to be misidentified as the typical Candida albicans or Candida dubliniensis. The current study aimed to characterize C. albicans species complex obtained from VVC based on conventional and molecular assays. Furthermore, in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing was performed based on CLSI documents. Additionally, due to low knowledge concerning C. africana infections, we reviewed all published papers from 1991 to 2019. One hundred forty-four out of 287 patients were identified with Candida infection, among whom 151 isolates of Candida were obtained. Candida albicans 109 (72.1%), Candida glabrata 21 (13.9%), Candida krusei 8 (5.2%), Candida tropicalis 5 (3.3%), Candida africana 3 (1.9%), Candida parapsilosis 3 (1.9%) and C. dubliniensis 2 (1.3%) were isolated from patients. MIC results showed that C. africana isolates were susceptible to all tested antifungal drugs. Candida africana infections were more prevalent in Africa. One hundred fifteen (40.6%) of patients with C. africana candidiasis were from seven African countries, and Madagascar and Angola had the majority of cases. The epidemiological data, phenotypic, clinical features, ecologic similarity, and antifungal susceptibility profiles for better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and optimal treatment underlying non-CandidaalbicansCandida vulvovaginitis are highly recommended.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/epidemiologia , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , África/epidemiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/classificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Geografia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência
20.
Science ; 367(6483): 1178, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124609
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