Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.069
Filtrar
1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 119, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489097

RESUMO

Introduction: The prison population in low-income countries is a group vulnerable to undernutrition, particularly incarcerated women. The aim of the study is to assess the nutritional status of women in prison and to determine the social profile and prison conditions related to undernutrition. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 125 women prisoners in Antanimora prison located in the city of Antananarivo, Madagascar. All women detained for 3 months or more at the time of the survey were included in the study. Data collection was conducted in May and June 2013. A survey of women and anthropometric measurements were carried out to collect the data. Results: The proportion of undernourished female prisoners is 38.4%. Five percent of pregnant and lactating women and 44.3% of non-lactating and non-pregnant women are undernourished. The factors related to undernutrition of women prisoners are: taking two meals a day instead of three meals (p = 0.003), insufficient energy intake (p < 0.001), incarceration duration of more than 10 months (p < 0.001), absence of family visits (p = 0.013) and lack of financial assistance from family (p = 0.013). Conclusion: Improving the prisoners' diets and assistance from family both help to fight against prisoner undernutrition in prisons.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/fisiologia , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Community Dent Health ; 36(3): 214-220, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update current knowledge of the distribution of drinking water fluoride content in Madagascar, in an effort to develop a strategy for the distribution of fluoridated salt to prevent tooth decay. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: In accordance with a strict protocol, water samples were collected from all the country's 22 regions. Fluoride concentration in ppm fluoride (F) was determined by use of a F ionselective electrode coupled with a pH/ion meter. RESULTS: A total of 651 sources of drinking water were sampled, of which 94% were found to have fluoride concentrations ≤ 0.7 ppm. The two regions with the highest number of water supplies with fluoride concentrations ⟩ 0.7 ppm are situated in the south and south-west of Madagascar. 87% of thermal springs have fluoride levels ⟩ 0.7 ppm, with a mean value of 2.21 ± 1.64 ppm. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm that, with the exception of certain districts in the extreme south of Madagascar, fluoridated salt distribution would be appropriate for most regions in the country. This could be achieved by encouraging salt producers in the north and west of Madagascar, who are responsible for over 88% of national salt production, to fluoridate their salt. Most of this salt is distributed throughout the north and centre of the country, whereas very little is distributed to the extreme south.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Água Potável , Fluoretação , Fluoretos , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Fluoretos/química , Humanos , Madagáscar , Sais , Abastecimento de Água
3.
Parasite ; 26: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31259684

RESUMO

An inventory of Phlebotomine sandflies was carried out in the Ankarana tsingy located in far northern Madagascar. A total of 723 sandflies were used for morphological, morphometric, and molecular studies (sequencing of partial cytochrome B (mtDNA) and partial 28S (rDNA)). Nine species were identified: Phlebotomus fertei, Sergentomyia anka, Se. sclerosiphon, Se. goodmani, two species of the genus Grassomyia, as well as three new species described herein: Se. volfi n. sp., Se. kaltenbachi n. sp., and Se. ozbeli n. sp. The recognition of these new species is strongly supported by molecular analyses. The first two of the new species could not be classified into any existing subgenus, therefore we proposed two new subgenera (Ranavalonomyia subg. nov., and Riouxomyia subg. nov.), with combinations as: Sergentomyia (Ranavalonomyia) volfi and Sergentomyia (Riouxomyia) kaltenbachi. Our study reveals important molecular variability in Se. anka, with the recognition of a population whose taxonomic status remains below that of species. Our research confirms the need to further study the specific diversity of Malagasy sandflies, which until the start of this millennium remained mostly unknown.


Assuntos
Phlebotomus/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Citocromos b/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Madagáscar , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1005, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Seasonal variation affects nutrition particularly in contexts where people's food consumption depends on their production of food. Assessing the effect of the season on nutrition status can help us to identify strategies to address undernutrition. This study aims to measure the variations in food consumption and the incidence of undernutrition according to season, and to identify the factors associated with the incidence of undernutrition. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted among 608 mothers aged between 18 and 45 years living in the Amoron'i Mania Region of Madagascar. Inclusion in the study occurred during the post-harvest season, and mothers were followed until the end of the next lean period (7 months). A dichotomous variable of the frequency of consumption of various foods was used to establish variation in food consumption. Body Mass Index < 18.5 kg/m2 and Middle Upper Arm Circumference < 220 mm were used to measure incidence of undernutrition. A generalized linear model was used to identify factors associated with the incidence of undernutrition and to derive relative risks. RESULTS: During the lean season, the frequency of consumption of leafy green vegetables, peanuts, fish, and eggs decreased significantly. In contrast, the frequency of fruit, legumes, and non-leafy green vegetables consumption increased significantly. The prevalence of undernutrition (based on the BMI and/or MUAC) among mothers increased from 19.6% in the post-harvest period to 27.1% in the lean period (p < 0.001). The incidence of undernutrition (based on the BMI and/or MUAC) during the follow-up was 12.2%. The factors related to undernutrition were low and medium score of movable property possession (Adjusted RR = 3.26 [1.33-7.94] and Adjusted RR = 2.48 [1.01-6.10]), no toilet (Adjusted RR = 1.76 [1.07-2.91]), and pregnancy (Adjusted RR = 2.92 [1.42-6.04]) (based on the MUAC only for pregnancy). CONCLUSION: This study highlights the variation in the frequency and type of food consumption and subsequent deterioration in mothers' nutritional status during the lean season. Economic, hygiene, and reproductive factors were associated with undernutrition. Analyzing the existing interventions to fight maternal undernutrition is necessary to determine whether or not seasonality is considered and addressed.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Estações do Ano , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 542, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis rapid molecular assays, including GeneXpert MTB/RIF® and Loopamp MTBC Detection Kit®, are highly sensitive and specific. Such performance does not automatically translate in improved disease control and highly depends on their use, local epidemiology and the diagnostic algorithms they're implemented within. We evaluate the performance of both assays and assess their impact on additional cases notification when implemented within WHO recommended tuberculosis diagnostic algorithms in Madagascar. METHODS: Five hundred forty eight presumptive pulmonary tuberculosis patients were prospectively recruited between November 2013 and December 2014 in Antananarivo, Madagascar, a high TB incidence sub-Saharan African urban setting. Both molecular assays were evaluated as first line or add-on testing following negative smear microscopy. Based on locally defined assay performance characteristics we measure the impact of both assays and WHO-recommended diagnostic algorithms on additional tuberculosis case notifications. RESULTS: High sensitivity and specificity was confirmed for both GeneXpert MTB/RIF® (86.6% (95% CI 81.1-90.7%) and 97.4% (95% CI 94.9-98.8%)) and Loopamp MTBC Detection Kit® (84.6% (95% CI 78.9-89.0%) and 98.4% (95% CI 96.2-99.4%)). Implementation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF® and Loopamp MTBC Detection Kit® increased tuberculosis diagnostic algorithms sensitivity from 73.6% (95% CI 67.1-79.3%) up to 88.1% (95% CI 82.8-91.9%). This increase was highest when molecular assays were used as add-on testing following negative smear microscopy. As add-on testing, GeneXpert MTB/RIF® and Loopamp MTBC Detection Kit® respectively improved case detection by 23.8 and 21.2% (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Including GeneXpert MTB/RIF® or Loopamp MTBC Detection Kit® molecular assays for TB detection on sputum samples from presumptive TB cases can significantly increase case notification in TB diagnostic centers. The TB case detection rate is further increased when those tests are use as second-line follow-on testing following negative smear microscopy results. A country wide scale-up and digital integration of molecular-based TB diagnosis assays shows promises for TB control in Madagascar.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Madagáscar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 773, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For over 20 years, Madagascar has been challenged by continued high prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among children under 5 years of age. Yet, nutritional status of post-under-five age group has never been assessed in the country, despite its importance in relation not only to physical health but also to cognitive capacity and educational achievements of children. This study aims to estimate prevalence of malnutrition among schoolchildren aged 5-14 years in Madagascar. It further attempts to identify the possible risk factors for their malnutrition. This is the first study that estimates prevalence of malnutrition among school-aged children in Madagascar. METHODS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Antananarivo-Avaradrano district, Analamanga region, Madagascar. The study targeted 393 first and second graders 5-14 years of age enrolled at 10 primary schools, where school-feeding was implemented. Data were collected from anthropometric measurements, their subsequent household structured interviews and observations. Bivariate (Chi-square test or Mann-Whitney's U test) and multivariable (logistic regression) analyses were performed, to identify the possible risk factors associated with malnutrition. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of stunting, underweight and thinness were 34.9%, 36.9% and 11.2%, respectively. Nineteen children (4.8%) suffered from all the three forms of undernutrition. Older schoolchildren had a significantly greater likelihood of being stunted, underweight and thin. The greater number of members a household had, the higher likelihood of being stunted and thin its schoolchild had. Children having lower Household Dietary Diversity Score were more likely to be underweight. Yet, 'Had lunch at school yesterday' was associated neither with being stunted nor with being underweight and thin. This implies room for improvement of the current school feeding program. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rates of stunting and underweight among 393 children examined were as high as the national averages among children under 5 years of age. Adequate food availability and dietary diversity over a sufficient period (incl. 5-14 years of age) are necessary for increasing likelihood of catch-up in height-for-age and weight-for-age, which are expectable during adolescence. To supplement inadequate household dietary diversity practices, school-feeding program may need to use more animal-protein ingredients.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 73, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223364

RESUMO

The blood group of Malagasy patients with cancer have never been the subject of previous publications. Our objective was to determine the blood group of Malagasy patients with cancer followed in the Medical Oncology Unit of the Soavinandriana Teaching Hospital, Antananarivo. This was a one-year retrospective study (November 2012 to October 2013) in patients over the age of 15 with histological or pathological evidence of their cancer. One hundred and thirty of the 258 patients identified had an ABO blood group determination (50.39%). Among these 130 patients, 114 patients (87.69%) had solid tumors and 16 patients (12.31%) had hematologic malignancies. Thirty seven (28.49%) patients were transfused and 93 (71.54%) not transfused. There were 57 men and 73 women (sex ratio = 0.78), the average age was 55.11 +/- 14.76 years. With regard to their blood group, 52 patients (40%) were blood group B, 44 (33.84%) group O, 27 (20.76%) group A and 7 (5.38%) group AB. The order of blood group frequency of cancer patients in our series differs from other studies. This study has allowed us to know the proportion of each blood group in our Unit and thus help us in the management of stocks of labile blood products in our hospital.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo ABO , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Madagáscar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 79, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223370

RESUMO

Introduction: This study aims to assess the adherence of private health providers to the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and to the prescription of artemisinin-containing combinations (ACT) in patients with uncomplicated malaria. Methods: We conducted an analytical, retrospective and cross-sectional study in 11 Madagascar's health districts divided into four epidemiological strata in September and in October 2015. A total of 43 health providers from 39 private health care facilities (PHF) were interviewed and visited. Results: Health providers declared having read the malaria management manual in 16.3% of cases (4/43). Only one quarter (25.6%) of health providers had RDTs in their office. ACT was reported as "first-line drug" for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria by 83.7% of health providers. In practice, 55.6% of health providers had doubts about the results of the RDTs. The use of antimalarial drugs, despite having had negative RDTs results (38.2%), was more frequent among those who had raised doubts (p = 0.03). Conversely, despite having had positive RDTs results, half of the health providers did not prescribe ACT (50%). The decision to not participate in periodic reviews by the Health District (p = 0.05) negatively influenced the adherence to the policies. Conclusion: The low adherence of private health providers to the national guidelines for the management of uncomplicated malaria raises questions about the importance of exercising more control over health providers activities.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Madagáscar , Malária/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Setor Privado , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 341, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be influenced by knowledge, perception and perception regarding ART. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude/perception and practice regarding ART among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, perception and practices ART in PLHIV. The survey was suggested to all PLHIV of at least 18 years old and who were on ART for at least 1 month. PLHIV who were unable to answer questions correctly and those who did not complete the survey for any reason were excluded. RESULTS: During the study period, 234 PLHIV were included. Participants were mostly men (75.2%). The median age was 33 years (IQR: 27-41). The median time since HIV diagnosis was 25 months (IQR: 9-56) and the median duration of ART was 18 months (IQR: 8-48). 87.6% had an overall good knowledge of ART. However, only 3.2% knew the name of their ART, 31.2% were aware that ART should be taken at a fixed time and 17.1% knew how to take ART in relation to food intake. 75.6% of participants had an overall positive attitude/perception of ART. However, 10.7% were convinced that other methods were more effective than ART for treating HIV and 42.7% thought that taking ART was shameful. The assessment of practices showed that in case of missed dose, 48.3% of participants routinely skipped this dose instead of trying to take it as soon as possible. In multivariate analysis, good knowledge of ART was independently associated with high level of education (aOR: 4.7, IC95%: 1.6-13.7, p = 0.004) and disclosure of HIV status (aOR: 2.7, IC95%: 1.1-6.6, p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed an overall good knowledge and a predominantly positive attitude/perception of ART. However, accurate knowledge of ART intake was insufficient and the stigma associated with taking ART remained very present. Furthermore, very heterogeneous practices may reflect lack of instruction given by the physician regarding ART intake.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Madagáscar , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Comportamento Sexual , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 20, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social tolerance strongly influences the patterns of affiliation and aggression in animal societies. However, not much is known about the variation of social tolerance in species living in dispersed social systems that combine solitary foraging activities with the need of coordinating social interactions with conspecifics on a regular basis. This study aims to investigate the sources of variation in social tolerance within a Malagasy primate radiation with dispersed social systems, the mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.). Six mouse lemur species were selected as model species that belong to three different taxonomic clades, live in two types of forest environments (dry and humid), and differed in this study with respect to their reproductive activity. Six male-female and six male-male dyads of each species were tested temporarily in a standardized social encounter paradigm in Madagascar to collect data on joint use of space, non-agonistic body contacts, aggression rates, the number of conflicts and the establishment of intra- and intersexual dominance. RESULTS: Male-female dyads of the six species differed significantly in the frequency of affiliative and agonistic behaviors. In contrast, the variations between male-male dyads could not be explained by one parameter only, but clade membership, forest type, reproductive state as well as species were all suggested to be partially influential. Only one species (Microcebus mamiratra) showed signals of unambiguous female dominance in all male-female dyads, whereas the others had no or only a few dyads with female dominance. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in social tolerance and its consequences are most likely influenced by two factors, ecology (via forest type) and physiology (via reproductive activity), and only to a lesser extent by clade membership. The study suggests that mouse lemur females have higher aggression rates and more agonistic conflicts with males when females in the population are reproducing, at least in resource-rich humid forests. The study confirms a high degree of social plasticity between species in these small solitary foragers that supports their taxonomic distinctiveness and requires further scientific attention.


Assuntos
Cheirogaleidae , Animais , Feminino , Madagáscar , Masculino , Camundongos , Reprodução
13.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(4): 199-214, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067551

RESUMO

Lemur catta is the most reported illegal captive lemur. We document 286 L. catta that were held in illegal captive conditions in Madagascar. Coastal tourist destinations are "hot spots" for sightings. Many of the L. catta reported were in businesses (49%) and were perceived to be held captive for the purpose of generating income (41%). Infant/juvenile L. catta were overwhelmingly observed annually in December (41%) and may suffer high mortality rates given that they are not weaned during this month of the year. Population growth modeling suggests that known capture rates may be sustainable in all but small populations of 500 individuals and when infants/juveniles are targeted. However, of the seven remaining populations of L. catta with more than 100 individuals, only one is known to contain more than 500 animals, and we present evidence here that infants/juveniles are targeted. Moreover L. catta face significant other threats including habitat loss, bushmeat hunting, and climate change. Several actions could reduce the illegal capture and ownership of L. catta in Madagascar such as tourist behavior change initiatives, enforcement of laws, and alternative livelihoods for local people. These interventions are urgently needed and could be adapted to protect other exploited wildlife in the future.


Assuntos
Comércio , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Lemur , Animais , Feminino , Madagáscar , Dinâmica Populacional
14.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(5-6): 19, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31041592

RESUMO

Previous genetic studies of frogs from Mayotte Island (a French Overseas Department in the Comoros Archipelago) in the Western Indian Ocean have provided evidence for oceanic dispersal in amphibians, which is a rare phenomenon due to the osmotic intolerance of amphibians to saline water. Using an integrative approach including morphological, bioacoustic, and genetic evidence, we here confirm that these frogs correspond to two new species and are the only representatives of the family Mantellidae not endemic to Madagascar. Blommersia transmarina sp. nov. differs from its sister taxon, B. wittei, by several morphological differences including larger body size (snout-vent length up to 34.5 mm) and by slight differences in advertisement calls. Boophis nauticus sp. nov. differs from its closest relatives, B. tephraeomystax and B. doulioti, by slight morphological differences (including larger body size), a reddish (vs. silvery or golden) iris coloration in life, and slightly different advertisement calls. The two new species differ from their closest relatives by a substantial genetic differentiation, with pairwise genetic distances > 5% in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, and based on the limited available data, also by distinct differences in nuclear DNA. They also are both larger than their closest relatives from Madagascar and B. transmarina sp. nov. is the largest Blommersia species, suggesting a moderate form of island gigantism. The Madagascan sister species B. wittei and B. doulioti are among the relatively few amphibian species occurring in the arid western biomes of the island, are adapted to open landscape, and reproduce in stagnant water bodies, which we hypothesize may represent important preadaptations for successful overseas colonization.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Anuros , Animais , Anuros/anatomia & histologia , Anuros/classificação , Anuros/genética , Comores , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Madagáscar
15.
Biol Lett ; 15(2): 20180922, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958136

RESUMO

Crown-group frogs (Anura) originated over 200 Ma according to molecular phylogenetic analyses, though only a few fossils from high latitudes chronicle the first approximately 60 Myr of frog evolution and distribution. We report fossils that represent both the first Late Triassic and the earliest equatorial record of Salientia, the group that includes stem and crown-frogs. These small fossils consist of complete and partial ilia with anteriorly directed, elongate and distally hollow iliac blades. These features of these ilia, including the lack of a prominent dorsal protuberance and a shaft that is much longer than the acetabular region, suggest a closer affinity to crown-group Anura than to Early Triassic stem anurans Triadobatrachus from Madagascar and Czatkobatrachus from Poland, both high-latitude records. The new fossils demonstrate that crown anurans may have been present in the Late Triassic equatorial region of Pangea. Furthermore, the presence of Early Jurassic anurans in the same stratigraphic sequence ( Prosalirus bitis from the Kayenta Formation) suggests that anurans survived the climatic aridification of this region in the early Mesozoic. These fossils highlight the importance of the targeted collection of microfossils and provide further evidence for the presence of crown-group representatives of terrestrial vertebrates prior to the end-Triassic extinction.


Assuntos
Dinossauros , Animais , Anuros , Arizona , Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Madagáscar , Filogenia
16.
Science ; 364(6436): 139, 2019 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975881
18.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 93, 2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tropical rainforests (TRFs) harbour almost half of the world's vascular plant species diversity while covering only about 6-7% of land. However, why species richness varies amongst the Earth's major TRF regions remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the evolutionary processes shaping continental species richness disparities of the pantropical, epiphytic and mostly TRF-dwelling orchid mega-genus Bulbophyllum (c. 1948 spp. in total) using diversification analyses based on a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny (including c. 45-50% spp. each from Madagascar, Africa, Neotropics, and 8.4% from the Asia-Pacific region), coupled with ecological niche modelling (ENM) of geographic distributions under present and past (Last Glacial Maximum; LGM) conditions. RESULTS: Our results suggest an early-to-late Miocene scenario of 'out-of-Asia-Pacific' origin and progressive, dispersal-mediated diversification in Madagascar, Africa and the Neotropics, respectively. Species richness disparities amongst these four TRF lineages are best explained by a time-for-speciation (i.e. clade age) effect rather than differences in net diversification or diversity-dependent diversification due to present or past spatial-bioclimatic limits. For each well-sampled lineage (Madagascar, Africa, Neotropics), we inferred high rates of speciation and extinction over time (i.e. high species turnover), yet with the origin of most extant species falling into the Quaternary. In contrast to predictions of classical 'glacial refuge' theories, all four lineages experienced dramatic range expansions during the LGM. CONCLUSIONS: As the Madagascan, African and Neotropical lineages display constant-rate evolution since their origin (early-to-mid-Miocene), Quaternary environmental change might be a less important cause of their high species turnover than intrinsic features generally conferring rapid population turnover in tropical orchids (e.g., epiphytism, specialization on pollinators and mycorrhizal fungi, wind dispersal). Nonetheless, climate-induced range fluctuations during the Quaternary could still have played an influential role in the origination and extinction of Bulbophyllum species in those three, if not in all four TRF regions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Orchidaceae/classificação , Filogenia , Floresta Úmida , Ecossistema , Extinção Biológica , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Madagáscar , Filogeografia , Probabilidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Pathog Glob Health ; 113(2): 94-100, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879406

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections carry the highest number of disability adjusted life years among all neglected tropical diseases, disproportionately affecting low-income countries such as Madagascar.  This study describes the epidemiology of STH and S. stercoralis infections in twelve remote villages surrounding Ranomafana National Park (RNP), Ifanadiana, Madagascar. Questionnaires and stool samples were collected from 574 subjects from random households. The Kato-Katz method and spontaneous sedimentation technique were used to examine stool samples for evidence of infection. Infection prevalence rates were 71.4% for Ascaris lumbricoides (95% CI: 67.7-75.1), 74.7% for Trichuris trichiura (95% CI: 71.1-78.2), 33.1% for hookworm (95% CI: 29.2-36.9), and 3.3% for Strongyloides stercoralis (95% CI: 1.84-4.77). Participants who were older in age (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99) and who had a high school education (OR = 0.17; 95% CI: 0.04-0.77) were less likely to be infected with a STH. Females were less likely to be infected with A. lumbricoides (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.82). Participants living in villages further from the main road were more likely to be infected with a STH (F = 4.00, p = 0.02). Overall, this study found that 92.5% (95% CI: 90.3-94.6) of the people living in rural regions near RNP have at least one STH infection. This calls into question the current preventative chemotherapy (PC) program in place and suggests that further medical, socioeconomic, and infrastructural deveopments are needed to reduce STH prevalence rates among this underserved population.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , População Rural , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Tricuríase/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Educação , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA