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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141902, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207459

RESUMO

One of negative side-effects of usage of bio-renewables might be generation of mineral (ash) material, potential source of environmental pollution. A hypothesis was that bottom ash (BA; from biomass cogeneration facility) could be efficiently (re) used in soil chemical conditioning similarly to widely-used dolomite-based soil conditioner (DO; from Croatian Dinaric-coastal region) which we tested by: i) physicochemical characterisation of BA and DO, and ii) bioassay with Raphanus sativus cultivated in acidic soil amended with BA or DO. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) confirmed complex chemical/physical structures and morphology between amendments, X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed their distinctive mineralogy with predominantly dolomite (in DO) vs. quartz and calcite (in BA), while secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) revealed their diverse elemental/isotopic composition. The BA or DO amendments ameliorated soil acidity, increased available P, K and most other nutrients, but not Cd. The BA or DO amendments improved vegetative growth and edible hypocotyl yield. However, both amendments also increased Cd accumulation in all radish tissues, which was unexpected given the alkaline matrix of bio-ash and dolomite that would be likely to facilitate retention and immobilisation of toxic Cd. Thus, thorough characterisation and evaluation of BA- and/or DO-based materials and relevant soils (with an emphasis on metal sorption/immobilisation) prior to application in (agro) ecosystems is crucial for producing food clean of toxic metals.


Assuntos
Raphanus , Poluentes do Solo , Biomassa , Cádmio/análise , Carbonato de Cálcio , Cinza de Carvão , Ecossistema , Magnésio , Nutrientes , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
2.
J Water Health ; 18(5): 722-727, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095195

RESUMO

Although dementia affects roughly 50 million people worldwide, its etiology is largely unknown. Recent studies have found a link between hypermagnesemia, hypomagnesemia, and increased risk of dementia. In this study, we explore the link between serum magnesium levels and the prevalence of dementia following the adoption of desalinated water (DSW) in Israel. DSW contains no magnesium, and relying on it for drinking water can lead to an increased incidence of hypomagnesia. Our objective was to analyze in a treat-control context how the switch to desalinated drinking water affected serum magnesium concentrations and the prevalence of dementia. We selected two cities which differed in terms of their access to underground aquifers but were otherwise similar. Rehovot has no underground water and uses over 90% DSW, whereas Kfar Saba relies almost entirely on its own aquifers. The cities are otherwise relatively similar in terms of their demographic composition. Using medical records for all subjects insured by the Maccabi Health Services in Rehovot (n = 23,991) and Kfar Saba (n = 20,541), we examined mean serum concentrations of Mg in the period prior to desalination (2001-2006) and post-desalination (2007-2018). Dementia prevalence is taken from 2007 to 2020 for the same coverage population. Serum magnesium levels were significantly lower in Rehovot following the switch to DSW (2.067 ± 0.21 pre-desalination and 2.059 ± 0.216 post-desalination, p < 0.01). In contrast, serum magnesium levels increased in Kfar Saba, which continued to rely on groundwater (2.008 ± 0.179 vs. 2.067 ± 0.206, p < 0.01). The prevalence of dementia was similar in the two cities (488/20,541, 2.37% in Rehovot and 613/23,991, 2.55% in Kfar Saba). In this ecological study, the adoption of DSW was associated with a significant decrease in serum magnesium concentrations. However, this change was not associated with a higher prevalence of dementia. While this association study cannot rule out some effect of hypomagnesemia on dementia morbidity, it suggests that the effect, if it exists, is relatively small.


Assuntos
Demência , Água Potável , Cidades , Demência/epidemiologia , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Magnésio , Água do Mar
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7185-7198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061375

RESUMO

Background: Next generation of coating materials on the surface of implants is designed with a paradigm shift from an inert material to an osteoimmunomodulatory material. Regulating immune response to biomedical implants through influencing the polarization of macrophage has been proven to be an effective strategy. Methods: Through anodization and hydrothermal treatment, magnesium ion incorporated TiO2 nanotube array (MgN) coating was fabricated on the surface of titanium and it is hypothesized that it has osteoimmunomodulatory properties. To verify this assumption, systematic studies were carried out by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Results: Mg ion release behavior results showed that MgN coating was successfully fabricated on the surface of titanium using anodization and hydrothermal technology. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed the morphology of the MgN coating on the titanium. The expression of inflammation-related genes (IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α) was downregulated in MgN group compared with TiO2 nanotube (NT) and blank Ti groups, but anti-inflammatory genes (IL-10 and IL-1ra) were remarkably upregulated in the MgN group. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that MgN coating influenced macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype compared with NT and blank-Ti groups, which enhanced osteogenic differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells rBMSCs in conditioned media (CM) generated by macrophages. Conclusion: MgN coating on the titanium endowed the surface with immune-regulatory features and exerted an advantageous effect on osteogenesis, thereby providing excellent strategies for the surface modification of biomedical implants.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos/patologia , Magnésio/farmacologia , Nanoestruturas/química , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos Wistar , Propriedades de Superfície
4.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001980

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg) plays an irreplaceable role in plant growth and development. Mg transporters, especially CorA/MGT/MRS2 family proteins, played a vital role in regulating Mg content in plant cells. Although extensive work has been conducted in model crops, such as Arabidopsis, rice, and maize, the relevant information is scarce in tropical crops. In this study, 10 MaMRS2 genes in banana (Musa acuminata) were isolated from its genome and classified into five distinct clades. The putative physiochemical properties, chromosome location, gene structure, cis-acting elements, and duplication relationships in between these members were analyzed. Complementary experiments revealed that three MaMRS2 gene members (MaMRS2-1, MaMRS2-4, MaMRS2-7), from three distinct phylogenetic branches, were capable of restoring the function of Mg transport in Salmonella typhimurium mutants. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that MaMRS2 genes were differentially expressed in banana cultivar 'Baxijiao' (Musa spp. AAA Cavendish) seedlings. The result was confirmed by real-time PCR analysis, in addition to tissue specific expression, expression differences among MaMRS2 members were also observed under Mg deficiency conditions. These results showed that Mg transporters may play a versatile role in banana growth and development, and our work will shed light on the functional analysis of Mg transporters in banana.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Musa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Galactolipídeos/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Teste de Complementação Genética , Família Multigênica , Musa/genética , Musa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Leveduras/genética , Zea mays/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5496, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127896

RESUMO

Mechanical anisotropy is an essential property for many biomolecules to assume their structures, functions and applications, however, the mechanisms for their direction-dependent mechanical responses remain elusive. Herein, by using a single-molecule nanopore sensing technique, we explore the mechanisms of directional mechanical stability of the xrRNA1 RNA from ZIKA virus (ZIKV), which forms a complex ring-like architecture. We reveal extreme mechanical anisotropy in ZIKV xrRNA1 which highly depends on Mg2+ and the key tertiary interactions. The absence of Mg2+ and disruption of the key tertiary interactions strongly affect the structural integrity and attenuate mechanical anisotropy. The significance of ring structures in RNA mechanical anisotropy is further supported by steered molecular dynamics simulations in combination with force distribution analysis. We anticipate the ring structures can be used as key elements to build RNA-based nanostructures with controllable mechanical anisotropy for biomaterial and biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Exorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , RNA Viral/química , Zika virus/genética , Anisotropia , Humanos , Magnésio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Dobramento de RNA , RNA Viral/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
6.
Chemosphere ; 261: 128189, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113651

RESUMO

This study compared effects of pH, ionic strength and complexation with Mg2+ on the chromophores and fluorophores of aquatic and terrestrial NOM exemplified by the standard isolates Suwannee River fulvic and humic acid (SRFA and SRHA) and Pahokee Peat fulvic and humic acids (PPFA and PPHA) provided by the International Humic Substance Society (IHSS). The intensity of the differential spectra of the NOM isolates increased monotonically with pH. These spectra comprised contributions of similar chromophore systems associated with the carboxylic and phenolic moieties. The intensity of SRFA and PPFA fluorescence changed non-monotonically vs. pH indicating that the deprotonation of the phenolic fluorophores decreased their emission yields. Examination of the effects of pH on the slopes of the log-transformed absorbance of NOM showed that the influence of deprotonation on the conformations of PPFA and PPHA molecules was less prominent than those for SRFA but not dissimilar to those of SRHA. Changes of the differential spectra and spectral slopes showed that Mg2+/PPFA and Mg2+/PPHA complexation was more effected by electrostatic interactions while the involvement of phenolic groups was notable for SRFA. The observed trends highlight similarities and differences in the properties of the chromophores and fluorophores in the standard isolates of soil and aquatic NOM. These results necessitate further systematic comparison of the properties of NOM isolates and those of unaltered NOM.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Solo/química , Benzopiranos/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Magnésio/análise , Concentração Osmolar , Rios/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4368, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868758

RESUMO

Increased extracellular sodium activates Th17 cells, which provide protection from bacterial and fungal infections. Whilst high salt diets have been shown to worsen autoimmune disease, the immunological consequences of clinical salt depletion are unknown. Here, we investigate immunity in patients with inherited salt-losing tubulopathies (SLT). Forty-seven genotyped SLT patients (with Bartter, Gitelman or EAST Syndromes) are recruited. Clinical features of dysregulated immunity are recorded with a standardised questionnaire and immunological investigations of IL-17 responsiveness undertaken. The effects of altering extracellular ionic concentrations on immune responses are then assessed. Patients are hypokalaemic and hypomagnesaemic, with reduced interstitial sodium stores determined by 23Na-magnetic resonance imaging. SLT patients report increased mucosal infections and allergic disease compared to age-matched controls. Aligned with their clinical phenotype, SLT patients have an increased ratio of Th2:Th17 cells. SLT Th17 and Tc17 polarisation is reduced in vitro, yet STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation and calcium flux following T cell activation are unaffected. In control cells, the addition of extracellular sodium (+40 mM), potassium (+2 mM), or magnesium (+1 mM) reduces Th2:Th17 ratio and augments Th17 polarisation. Our results thus show that the ionic environment typical in SLT impairs IL-17 immunity, but the intracellular pathways that mediate salt-driven Th17 polarisation are intact and in vitro IL-17 responses can be reinvigorated by increasing extracellular sodium concentration. Whether better correction of extracellular ions can rescue the immunophenotype in vivo in SLT patients remains unknown.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/etiologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais Distais/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Humanos , Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/metabolismo , Sais/metabolismo , Sais/uso terapêutico , Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Células Th17/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD009402, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle cramps are common and often occur in association with pregnancy, advanced age, exercise or motor neuron disorders (such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). Typically, such cramps have no obvious underlying pathology, and so are termed idiopathic. Magnesium supplements are marketed for the prophylaxis of cramps but the efficacy of magnesium for this purpose remains unclear. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2012, and performed to identify and incorporate more recent studies. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of magnesium supplementation compared to no treatment, placebo control or other cramp therapies in people with skeletal muscle cramps.   SEARCH METHODS: On 9 September 2019, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL Plus, AMED, and SPORTDiscus. We also searched WHO-ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov for registered trials that might be ongoing or unpublished, and ISI Web of Science for studies citing the studies included in this review. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of magnesium supplementation (in any form) to prevent skeletal muscle cramps in any patient group (i.e. all clinical presentations of cramp). We considered comparisons of magnesium with no treatment, placebo control, or other therapy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion and extracted data. Two review authors assessed risk of bias. We attempted to contact all study authors when questions arose and obtained participant-level data for four of the included trials, one of which was unpublished. We collected all data on adverse effects from the included RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 11 trials (nine parallel-group, two cross-over) enrolling a total of 735 individuals, amongst whom 118 cross-over participants additionally served as their own controls. Five trials enrolled women with pregnancy-associated leg cramps (408 participants) and five trials enrolled people with idiopathic cramps (271 participants, with 118 additionally crossed over to control). Another study enrolled 29 people with liver cirrhosis, only some of whom suffered muscle cramps. All trials provided magnesium as an oral supplement, except for one trial which provided magnesium as a series of slow intravenous infusions. Nine trials compared magnesium to placebo, one trial compared magnesium to no treatment, calcium carbonate or vitamin B, and another trial compared magnesium to vitamin E or calcium. We judged the single trial in people with liver cirrhosis and all five trials in participants with pregnancy-associated leg cramps to be at high risk of bias. In contrast, we rated the risk of bias high in only one of five trials in participants with idiopathic rest cramps. For idiopathic cramps, largely in older adults (mean age 61.6 to 69.3 years) presumed to have nocturnal leg cramps (the commonest presentation), differences in measures of cramp frequency when comparing magnesium to placebo were small, not statistically significant, and showed minimal heterogeneity (I² = 0% to 12%). This includes the primary endpoint, percentage change from baseline in the number of cramps per week at four weeks (mean difference (MD) -9.59%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -23.14% to 3.97%; 3 studies, 177 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); and the difference in the number of cramps per week at four weeks (MD -0.18 cramps/week, 95% CI -0.84 to 0.49; 5 studies, 307 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The percentage of individuals experiencing a 25% or better reduction in cramp rate from baseline was also no different (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.29; 3 studies, 177 participants; high-certainty evidence). Similarly, no statistically significant difference was found at four weeks in measures of cramp intensity or cramp duration. This includes the number of participants rating their cramps as moderate or severe at four weeks (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.81 to 2.21; 2 studies, 91 participants; moderate-certainty evidence); and the percentage of participants with the majority of cramp durations of one minute or more at four weeks (RR 1.83, 95% CI 0.74 to 4.53, 1 study, 46 participants; low-certainty evidence). We were unable to perform meta-analysis for trials of pregnancy-associated leg cramps. The single study comparing magnesium to no treatment failed to find statistically significant benefit on a three-point ordinal scale of overall treatment efficacy. Of the three trials comparing magnesium to placebo, one found no benefit on frequency or intensity measures, another found benefit for both, and a third reported inconsistent results for frequency that could not be reconciled. The single study in people with liver cirrhosis was small and had limited reporting of cramps, but found no difference in terms of cramp frequency or cramp intensity. Our analysis of adverse events pooled all studies, regardless of the setting in which cramps occurred. Major adverse events (occurring in 2 out of 72 magnesium recipients and 3 out of 68 placebo recipients), and withdrawals due to adverse events, were not significantly different from placebo. However, in the four studies for which it could be determined, more participants experienced minor adverse events in the magnesium group than in the placebo group (RR 1.51, 95% CI 0.98 to 2.33; 4 studies, 254 participants; low-certainty evidence). Overall, oral magnesium was associated with mostly gastrointestinal adverse events (e.g. diarrhoea), experienced by 11% (10% in control) to 37% (14% in control) of participants. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is unlikely that magnesium supplementation provides clinically meaningful cramp prophylaxis to older adults experiencing skeletal muscle cramps. In contrast, for those experiencing pregnancy-associated rest cramps the literature is conflicting and further research in this population is needed. We found no RCTs evaluating magnesium for exercise-associated muscle cramps or disease-state-associated muscle cramps (for example amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease) other than a single small (inconclusive) study in people with liver cirrhosis, only some of whom suffered cramps.


Assuntos
Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Cãibra Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Músculo Esquelético , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Magnésio/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cãibra Muscular/etiologia , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Maturitas ; 140: 55-63, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972636

RESUMO

Supplementation with calcium (Ca) and/or vitamin D (vitD) is key to the management of osteoporosis. Other supplements like vitamin K2 (VitK2) and magnesium (Mg) could contribute to the maintenance of skeletal health. This narrative review summarizes the most recent data on Ca, vitD, vitK2 and Mg supplementation and age-related bone and muscle loss. Ca supplementation alone is not recommended for fracture prevention in the general postmenopausal population. Patients at risk of fracture with insufficient dietary intake and absorption could benefit from calcium supplementation, but it needs to be customized, taking into account possible side-effects and degree of adherence. VitD supplementation is essential in patients at risk of fracture and/or vitD deficiency. VitK2 and Mg both appear to be involved in bone metabolism. Data suggest that VitK2 supplementation might improve bone quality and reduce fracture risk in osteoporotic patients, potentially enhancing the efficacy of Ca ± vitD. Mg deficiency could negatively influence bone and muscle health. However, data regarding the efficacy of vitK2 and Mg supplementation on bone are inconclusive.


Assuntos
Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitamina K 2/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos
10.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 886: 173546, 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931782

RESUMO

Magnesium as an enzymatic activator is essential for various physiological functions such as cell cycle, metabolic regulation, muscle contraction, and vasomotor tone. A growing body of evidence supports that magnesium supplementation (mainly magnesium sulfate and magnesium oxide) prevents or treats various types of disorders or diseases related to respiratory system, reproductive system, nervous system, digestive system, and cardiovascular system as well as kidney injury, diabetes and cancer. The ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) characterized by respiratory tract symptoms with different degrees of important organ and tissue damages has attracted global attention. Particularly, effective drugs are still lacking in the COVID-19 therapy. In this review, we find and summarize the effectiveness of magnesium supplementation on the disorders or diseases, and provide a reference to the possibility of magnesium supplementation for supportive treatment in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Magnésio/farmacologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Magnésio/efeitos adversos , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Segurança
12.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(3): 128-134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969018

RESUMO

Future expeditionary missions are expected to occur in more remote austere environments where combat medics and casualties may have to wait up to 7 days before resupply or safe evacuation. Currently, there is no effective fluid therapy for hemorrhagic shock (HS) at the point-of-injury and continuum-of-care over this extended period. We have been developing a small-volume IV or IO ALM therapy for noncompressible HS and have shown in preclinical models that it extends survival to 3 days, reduces abdominal bleeding by 60%, blunts inflammation, corrects coagulopathy, preserves platelet function, and prevents immunodeficiency. The ALM-survival phenotype is associated with an upregulation of the master genes of metabolism and mitochrondrial biogenesis in heart and brain and a downregulation in the periphery. Future translational studies will investigate the timing and nature of the "switch" and extend survival to 7 days. We will also discuss some of the controversies of ALM resuscitation in pigs, present our Systems Hypothesis of Trauma (SHOT), and discuss future clinical safety trials before field use.


Assuntos
Choque Hemorrágico , Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Hidratação , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Suínos
13.
Open Heart ; 7(2)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938758

RESUMO

Risk factors for COVID-19 patients with poorer outcomes include pre-existing conditions: obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure, hypertension, low oxygen saturation capacity, cancer, elevated: ferritin, C reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer. A common denominator, hyperinsulinaemia, provides a plausible mechanism of action, underlying CVD, hypertension and strokes, all conditions typified with thrombi. The underlying science provides a theoretical management algorithm for the frontline practitioners.Vitamin D activation requires magnesium. Hyperinsulinaemia promotes: magnesium depletion via increased renal excretion, reduced intracellular levels, lowers vitamin D status via sequestration into adipocytes and hydroxylation activation inhibition. Hyperinsulinaemia mediates thrombi development via: fibrinolysis inhibition, anticoagulation production dysregulation, increasing reactive oxygen species, decreased antioxidant capacity via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide depletion, haem oxidation and catabolism, producing carbon monoxide, increasing deep vein thrombosis risk and pulmonary emboli. Increased haem-synthesis demand upregulates carbon dioxide production, decreasing oxygen saturation capacity. Hyperinsulinaemia decreases cholesterol sulfurylation to cholesterol sulfate, as low vitamin D regulation due to magnesium depletion and/or vitamin D sequestration and/or diminished activation capacity decreases sulfotransferase enzyme SULT2B1b activity, consequently decreasing plasma membrane negative charge between red blood cells, platelets and endothelial cells, thus increasing agglutination and thrombosis.Patients with COVID-19 admitted with hyperglycaemia and/or hyperinsulinaemia should be placed on a restricted refined carbohydrate diet, with limited use of intravenous dextrose solutions. Degree/level of restriction is determined by serial testing of blood glucose, insulin and ketones. Supplemental magnesium, vitamin D and zinc should be administered. By implementing refined carbohydrate restriction, three primary risk factors, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia and hypertension, that increase inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis risk are rapidly managed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hiperinsulinismo/terapia , Insulina/sangue , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Trombose/terapia , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hiperinsulinismo/epidemiologia , Cetonas/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/virologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Zinco/uso terapêutico
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238763, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found hypomagnesemia is linked to a heightened risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients; however, the level of serum magnesium (s-Mg) necessary for promoting overall health in these patients and the effects of s-Mg in diabetes HD patients remains to be clarified. METHODS: HD outpatients (n = 148 under, age ≤ 70 y) were followed over a 6-y period. They were divided into four groups according to their average s-Mg during the first year (L; low level, H; high level) and if they had DM or not (non-DM). The endpoint was mortality and hospitalization for decline of Activities of Daily Living (death/hospitalization). A receiver operating characteristics curve was used in diagnostic tests to identify s-Mg associated with this endpoint. Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test, and a Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate prognoses. Fisher's exact test and multiple regressions examined the causes of the endpoints between the four groups and the factors predictive of s-Mg. RESULTS: s-Mg at 2.7 mg/dL was associated with death/hospitalization. The 5-y survival rate was 38.1%, 86.7%, 73.2% and 87.5%, in the DM/Mg(L), DM/Mg(H), non-DM/Mg(L) and non-DM/Mg(H) groups, respectively (P < 0.001). The Cox proportional hazards model showed significantly lower risk in other groups compared with that in the DM/Mg(L) group [DM/Mg(H); hazard ratio (HR): 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-0.97, P = 0.046, non-DM/Mg(L); HR: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.15-0.68, P = 0.003, non-DM/Mg(H); HR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.06-0.44, P < 0.001]. The frequency of the different causes of the endpoints for each group was not significant; s-Mg only associated with age in the DM group. CONCLUSIONS: s-Mg greater than 2.7 mg/dL associated with a favorable prognosis in HD patients with DM, suggesting that s-Mg is a factor independent of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Magnésio/sangue , Diálise Renal , Atividades Cotidianas , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141277, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777510

RESUMO

Engineered biochars (EBCs) loaded with metal oxides/hydroxides have been used as sorbents to remove and recycle phosphate (P) from wastewater. However, P removal by EBCs made with different types and loading of metals have rarely been compared in a single study. Thus, in this study, EBCs were synthesized through pyrolysis of bamboo or hickory wood chips (25 g) pretreated with four amounts (25, 50, 75, and 100 mmol) of magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), or iron (Fe) salt solutions (Mg-EBC, Al-EBC, and Fe-EBC, respectively). The resulting EBCs were loaded with metal oxides/hydroxides that served as P adsorption sites. Al-EBCs showed the highest aqueous stability with little metal dissolution, which can be attributed to the low level of residual (unconverted) metal salt as well as the extremely low solubility of loaded Al metal oxyhydroxide. After the leaching/washing, the metal loading efficiencies of the Al- and Mg-EBCs were similar (50-60%) and stable metal loadings increased with pretreatment salt amounts, indicating that the amount of the two metal oxides/hydroxides in the EBCs can be controlled during pretreatment. However, stable iron oxide on the Fe-EBCs remained almost the same for all the four levels of pretreatment, reflecting saturation of the biochar surface. All the EBCs showed increasing P adsorption with increasing metal loading. At low initial P concentrations of 31 mg/L, Fe- and Al-EBCs removed up to 68% and 94% of P, likely through an electrostatic interaction mechanism. At high P concentrations, Mg-EBC had the largest P adsorption capacity (119.6 mg P/g), mainly through the combination of surface precipitation and electrostatic interaction mechanisms. This study demonstrates that metal oxide/hydroxide-loaded EBCs are promising sorbents that can be designed to meet specific needs for the removal of aqueous P in various applications.


Assuntos
Fosfatos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Alumínio , Carvão Vegetal , Ferro , Magnésio
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237174, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776966

RESUMO

Postoperative sore throat is one of the most common complications following endotracheal intubation. Nebulization therapy, a preferable and safety method of drug delivery, has been shown to be effective in postoperative sore throat prevention in many studies. However, the relative efficacy of various nebulized agents remains unknown. In this review, we aimed to quantify and rank order the efficacy of available nebulized agents for various postoperative sore throat-related outcomes. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Google Scholar was conducted to identify eligible studies from inception to 25 May 2020. Incidence of postoperative sore throat 1hour and 24hours postoperatively and severity of postoperative sore throat 24 hours postoperatively were the primary outcomes. We conducted a Bayesian network meta-analysis to combine direct and indirect evidence to estimate the relative effects between treatments as well as the probabilities of ranking for treatments based on their protective effects. We identified 32 trials assessing 6 interventions. Overall inconsistency and heterogeneity were acceptable. Nebulized corticosteroids, magnesium, and ketamine differed from non-analgesic methods on the three primary outcomes. Based on the surface under the cumulative ranking curve, nebulized corticosteroids ranked first in almost all outcomes among the nebulized drugs. Considering only high-quality and 2-arm design studies, nebulized corticosteroids still seemed best. In conclusion, prophylactic use of nebulized corticosteroids, magnesium, and ketamine can effectively prevent postoperative sore throat, and nebulized corticosteroids appears to be the overall best approach.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Ketamina/uso terapêutico , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Faringite/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metanálise em Rede , Faringite/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cell ; 182(6): 1560-1573.e13, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32783916

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the 2019-2020 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 genome is replicated and transcribed by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase holoenzyme (subunits nsp7/nsp82/nsp12) along with a cast of accessory factors. One of these factors is the nsp13 helicase. Both the holo-RdRp and nsp13 are essential for viral replication and are targets for treating the disease COVID-19. Here we present cryoelectron microscopic structures of the SARS-CoV-2 holo-RdRp with an RNA template product in complex with two molecules of the nsp13 helicase. The Nidovirales order-specific N-terminal domains of each nsp13 interact with the N-terminal extension of each copy of nsp8. One nsp13 also contacts the nsp12 thumb. The structure places the nucleic acid-binding ATPase domains of the helicase directly in front of the replicating-transcribing holo-RdRp, constraining models for nsp13 function. We also observe ADP-Mg2+ bound in the nsp12 N-terminal nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase domain, detailing a new pocket for anti-viral therapy development.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/química , RNA Helicases/química , RNA Replicase/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Replicação Viral , Difosfato de Adenosina/química , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Betacoronavirus/ultraestrutura , Sítios de Ligação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Holoenzimas/química , Holoenzimas/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , RNA Viral/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797087

RESUMO

The Late Mesolithic in Southern Europe is dated to the 7th and the first part of the 6th millennia BCE and is marked by profound changes which are mostly evident in the technical know-how and tool-kit of the last hunter-fisher-gatherer societies. The significance of this phase also relates to the fact that it precedes the Early Neolithic, another period of major transformations of human societies. Nonetheless, the Late Mesolithic still remains a poorly known age in this area. A burial discovered at Mondeval de Sora (Northern Italy) in 1987, represents a unique window into this period. In this paper, we provide a detailed analysis of more than 50 lithic and osseous artifacts associated with this burial. We highlight important contextual data regarding the techno-economic dimension and the notion of personal burial possessions. Based on the association and location of some items, we propose a new interpretation of the social status of this individual and the possible impact of technological innovation on the social organization and symbolic sphere of Late Mesolithic groups.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Lítio/análise , Magnésio/análise , Arqueologia , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Sepultamento , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Humanos
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