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1.
Food Chem ; 327: 127012, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464457

RESUMO

Coffee is considered an important source of organic nutrients and minerals, and these resources are strongly affected by agricultural management. Among the minerals, the element Mg is important, which is essential for both plants and humans. In this work, the effects of agricultural management on the absorption and storage of Mg by commercial, ground, roasted Arabica coffee were investigated. For this purpose, some Mg and P fractions were evaluated. It was observed that Mg stored in the grain was concentrated in the inorganic fraction, with an average extraction of 102% and in conventional samples and 119% in organic samples. These results suggest that in these samples Mg is probably largely presented as different inorganic salts. Phytate and organic acid salts are two possibilities discussed in this work that could explain this hypothesis. This can be corroborated by the extraction of Mg in the infusion of hot water.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Coffea/química , Coffea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Café/química , Magnésio/análise , Brasil , Fracionamento Químico , Humanos , Agricultura Orgânica , Fósforo/análise , Sementes/química , Solubilidade , Água
2.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187218

RESUMO

Low soil fertility, high rates of fertilizer application and low yields and quality are major problems in intensive banana production in acid soils of south China. A field experiment was carried out for two years to determine the optimum management practices for maximizing soil health and banana yield and quality. The experiment consisted of an unamended control (CK) and lime (Lime), calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer (CMP), organic fertilizer (OF), and organic fertilizer combined with calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer (OFC) treatments. Soil nutrient concentrations and banana shoot biomass, nutrient uptake, yield and fruit quality were determined. Application of lime and CMP was found to increase soil pH and nutrient availability and increase banana yield. Yet, the banana biomass and yields in the Lime and CMP treatments were significantly lower than those in the OF and OFC treatments in which soil organic matter (SOM) content increased. Total soluble solids and soluble sugar contents increased in the CMP and organic fertilizer treatments. A consistent increase in Mg concentrations in banana leaves over the two years in the CMP and organic fertilizer treatments indicates that Mg is essential for banana production and quality. Short-term adding Mg from banana corms increased total soluble solids and soluble sugar content. The application of organic fertilizer combined with CMP or Mg solution is therefore recommended to increase soil health and promote the yield and quality of banana in intensively managed plantations in subtropical regions.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Musa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Magnésio/análise , Fosfatos/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Açúcares/análise
3.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(1): 87-90, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044746

RESUMO

Gitelman syndrome is one of the salt losing tubulopathies. Hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia appear in the setting of the partial blockade of salt absorption in the distal tubule. We conducted a descriptive study of a case series of five patients with Gitelman syndrome (4 women, from 28 to 85 years) in our institution, between the years 2004 and 2015. The most frequent form of diagnosis in our series was by laboratory finding. The only acknowledged clinical symptom was malaise. Regarding laboratory findings, the mean potassemia was of 2.5 ± 0.5 mmol/l, with a minimum value of 2.1 mmol/l. Additionally, the serum magnesium value was of 1.3 ± 0.3 mg/dl. In conclusion, we observed that the forms of presentation consist of biochemical alterations with or without nonspecific manifestations, which currently represents the greatest diagnostic difficulty and reinforces the importance to achieve a timely diagnosis, especially in young patients with critical serum potassium values.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Gitelman/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Gitelman/terapia , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Astenia/diagnóstico , Cálcio/análise , Feminino , Síndrome de Gitelman/metabolismo , Humanos , Magnésio/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Potássio/análise
4.
Curr Urol Rep ; 21(1): 6, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016596

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of the mineral constituents in water and their role in kidney stone disease (KSD) have been a long-standing subject of debate. The aim of our systematic review was to evaluate the relevance of different types of water in stone disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies to date have had varying results regarding the importance of hardness of water which is mostly determined by its calcium content. Other elements including magnesium and bicarbonate also play a crucial role in prevention of renal stones. Patients with stone disease are provided varying advice due to a lack of consensus on the types of water recommended. Increased fluid intake prevents stone formation. Our review of the literature suggests that hard water and bottled mineral water might be helpful for calcium stone formers. High calcium content in them leads to hypercalciuria; however, other factors also influence stone formation and the overall impact seems to be a reduction in calcium stone formation. The mineral content varies across different water types but high magnesium and bicarbonate content in water is also recommended for kidney stone patients.


Assuntos
Cálcio/análise , Água Potável , Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle , Águas Minerais/uso terapêutico , Bicarbonatos/análise , Ingestão de Líquidos , Água Potável/química , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/etiologia , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Magnésio/análise , Águas Minerais/análise
5.
Biophys Chem ; 258: 106330, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981743

RESUMO

The glycolytic pathway is present in most organisms and represents a central part of the energy production mechanism in a cell. For a general understanding of glycolysis, the investigation from a thermodynamic point of view is essential and allows realising thermodynamic feasibility analyses under in vivo conditions. However, available literature standard Gibbs energies of reaction, ΔRg'0, are calculated using equilibrium-molality ratios Km', which might lead to a misinterpretation of the glycolytic pathway. It was the aim of this work to thermodynamically investigate the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) reaction to provide new activity-based reaction data. In vitro equilibrium experiments were performed, and activity coefficients were predicted with the equation of state electrolyte PC-SAFT (ePC-SAFT). The combination of experimental concentrations and predicted activity coefficients yielded the thermodynamic equilibrium constant Ka and a new value for ΔRg'0(298.15 K, pH 7) = 7.1 ± 0.3 kJ mol­1. The availability of the new ΔRg'0 value allowed predicting influences of the reaction medium on the reaction equilibrium of the TPI reaction. In this work, influences of the initial substrate concentration, pH and Mg2+ concentration on the reaction equilibrium were investigated and a method is presented to predict these influences. The higher the substrate concentration and the higher the temperature, the stronger the reaction equilibrium is shifted on the product side. While the pH did not have a significant influence on the reaction equilibrium, Mg2+ yielded a shift of the reaction equilibrium to the substrate side. All these effects were predicted correctly with ePC-SAFT. Based on the ePC-SAFT predictions we concluded that a charge-reduction of the product by complexation of the product with Mg2+ was responsible for the strong influence of Mg2+ on the reaction equilibrium. Finally, the standard enthalpy of reaction of ΔRh'0(pH 7) = 18 ± 7 kJ mol­1 was determined with the equilibrium constants Ka at 298.15 K, 304.15 K and 310.15 K using the van 't Hoff equation.


Assuntos
Termodinâmica , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/metabolismo , Fosfato de Di-Hidroxiacetona/química , Fosfato de Di-Hidroxiacetona/metabolismo , Magnésio/análise , Magnésio/metabolismo , Modelos Estatísticos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0219229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895921

RESUMO

Reduction of waste from food industry and food services is a current concern due to the large amount of waste generated, including peels and fruit seeds. The objective of this study was to obtain a flour produced from Cantaloupe melon seeds (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus) and to evaluate the viability of using the product as an ingredient in cake manufacturing. In this study, different formulations were developed: standard cake-0% (F1) and cakes containing melon seed flour as substitute of wheat flour in 10% (F2), 30% (F3), and 50% (F4) concentrations. Centesimal composition, dietary fibre, structural and morphological characterization, determination of mineral composition, and evaluation of fatty acids profile in melon seed flour were carried out. To determine the overall acceptance of cake formulations, sensory analysis was performed with 135 non-trained panelists, which also included the identification of sensorial attributes using the Just About Right ideal scale test. The results showed that the melon seed flour has considerable nutritional value, with 18% proteins, 3% moisture, 4% ash, 30% lipids, and 35% dietary fibre. Melon flour also has a significantly high content of minerals, mainly phosphorus (1507.62 mg/100 g), potassium (957.35 mg/100 g), and magnesium (504.03 mg/100 g). The polyunsaturated fatty acid fraction was the most abundant in melon seed flour, with predominance of omega-6 fatty acids (17.95 g/mg of sample). Sensorial analysis disclosed good acceptance for formulations containing 10% and 30% of melon seed flour, with the 10% formulation being the most accepted. The research showed the feasibility of using the melon seed flour in cake production, as well as the possibility of using food waste in restaurants and food industries in order to adhere to sustainable production actions.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/química , Farinha/análise , Sementes/química , Resíduos/análise , Brasil , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Magnésio/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Triticum/química
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110974, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743745

RESUMO

During tea preparation mineral elements are extracted from the dried leaves of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) plants into the solution. Micro-particle induced X-ray emission was employed to investigate the spatial distribution of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) in the young and old leaves of tea plants grown in the absence and presence of aluminium (Al) in the substrate. Results revealed that in tea leaves the largest concentrations of Mg occurred in the epidermis, of Ca in oxalate crystals and of Mn in epidermis and oxalate crystals; there was a leaf-age effect on tissue-specific concentrations of Mg, Ca and Mn with all tissues of old leaves containing larger concentrations of Mg, Ca and Mn than young leaves; supplementation of substrate with Al reduced concentrations of Mg, Ca and Mn in the old leaves, and a link between the distribution of Mg, Ca and Mn in the tea leaves with the extraction efficiencies of these elements into the tea was possible. We conclude that old leaves of tea plants cultivated under conditions of low Al availability will have the largest concentrations of Mg, Ca and Mn and may represent most acceptable ingredient for the preparation of tea.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Magnésio/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Chá/química , Alumínio/metabolismo , Cálcio/análise , Magnésio/análise , Manganês/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria por Raios X , Distribuição Tecidual
8.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2019: 2630537, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885523

RESUMO

Snails were fed with three medicinal plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (rosemary, sage, and peppermint) in order to test their effects on those animals with high nutritive values. The media of raising were flour containing different percentages of the cited plants ranging from 1% to 9%. The feed had benefits on the raised snails depending on the plant and its percentage. Minerals in those aromatic plants, especially zinc and magnesium, had their effect on protein synthesis in snails fed with those plant percentages. Rosemary was the most profitable plant with the highest protein amount, the lowest mortality rate, and reduced microbial charge. Furthermore, it was a good regulator of the specific catalase activity which confirmed the role of the antioxidant activity of rosemary during raising snails.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Plantas Medicinais/química , Caramujos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Magnésio/análise , Mentha piperita/química , Rosmarinus/química , Salvia officinalis/química , Caramujos/fisiologia , Zinco/análise
9.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(5): 487-492, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695237

RESUMO

Introduction: The low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) index is a predictive factor for atherosclerosis, which is associated with oxidative modifications. Objective: To assess the association of the index with oxidative stress markers. Methods: 444 subjects were included and were clinically, anthropometrically and biochemically characterized; superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), magnesium and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) index (oxLDL/HDL) were quantified. Results: A decrease of 1.014 units in the LDL/HDL index was associated with a superoxide dismutase increase of 1 unit/mL (p = 0.030), while a decrease of 0.023 units was associated with a GPx3 increase of 1 nmol/min/mL (p < 0.0005). An increase of one unit in the index was associated with an increase of 0.831 in the oxLDL/HDL index (p < 0.05). After controlling for the effect of gender, age, smoking, obesity and insulin resistance, a reduction of 0.001 per index unit was associated with an increase of 1 µg/g of magnesium in the nails (p = 0.020). Conclusions: The LDL/HDL index shows an inverse relationship with the antioxidant status and a direct relationship with oxidation status, regardless of other cardiovascular and oxidative stress risk factors.


Assuntos
Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Magnésio/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/sangue , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731722

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg) intake is an important indication of an individual's Mg status, but no validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess intake currently exists. The purpose of this study was to develop and investigate the validity of a semi-quantitative Mg food frequency questionnaire (MgFFQ) against a 14-day food diary to assess average daily Mg intakes. In this cross-sectional study, 135 adults aged 18 to 75 completed the 33-item MgFFQ and a 14-day food diary to assess their Mg intakes. Coefficients of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients, and/or Spearman's rank correlation coefficient tests were used to determine the relationship between the MgFFQ and the average Mg intake from the 14-day food diary among all participants, men, women, age groups, and body mass index (BMI) groups. The correlation between the MgFFQ and the 14-day food diary was significant (p < 0.05) for all participants (r = 0.798), men (r = 0.855), women (r = 0.759), normal weight (r = 0.762), overweight (r = 0.858), and obese (r = 0.675) weight statuses, and in all age groups. The calcium to magnesium intake (Ca:Mg) ratio in all participants was higher than optimal, 3.39 (2.11). Our results suggest that the MgFFQ is a valid method to capture Mg intake over an extended period of time, therefore acting as a valuable tool to quickly determine Mg intake.


Assuntos
Registros de Dieta , Magnésio/análise , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222789, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613894

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate Egyptian date palm pollen (DPP) grains composition, physical and functional potentials in comparing with two forms; 80% ethanol extract, and nanoencapsulated form. Functional yoghurt fortified with DPP in three forms was prepared and their physicochemical, microstructure, texture and sensory characteristics were assessed. The micro morphology was explored via Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed for functional groups detection. Phenolic compounds were detected by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) while fatty acids were identified via Gas Liquid Chromatography (GLC). Cytotoxicity of DPP nanocapsules was evaluated against RPE1 cell line (BJ1). The Egyptian date palm pollen grains evaluation revealed its rich content of protein and carbohydrate (36.28 and 17.14 g/ 100g), high content of Fe, Zn and Mg (226.5, 124.4 and 318 mg/100g), unsaturated fatty acids ω-3, ω-6 and ω-9 (8.76, 20.26 and 7.11 g/100g, which was increased by ethanol extraction) and phenolic compounds especially catechin (191.73 µg/mL) which was pronounced in DPP antioxidant potentials (IC50 35.54 mg/g). The FTIR analyses indicated the presence of soluble amides (proteins) and polysaccharides (fibers) functional groups in DPP. Fortification with nanoencapsulated DPP proved to be safe and the recommended form due to the announced positive characteristics. Yoghurt fortification with DPP forms enhanced viscosity, syneresis and Water Holding Capacity (WHC), which can be considered a symbiotic functional product as it contained both probiotics (106 CFU/g) and prebiotics represented in DPP forms.


Assuntos
Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Phoeniceae/química , Pólen/química , Iogurte/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Carboidratos da Dieta/isolamento & purificação , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Magnésio/análise , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/análise
12.
Andrologia ; 51(10): e13406, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502269

RESUMO

Although many studies reported the detrimental effects of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM) on testis, reproductive parameter changes in DM seminal vesicles have never been documented. This study aimed to examine the morphology, biochemical levels and tyrosine phosphorylation in seminal vesicles of T1DM and T2DM mice. Fifty-six male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 14/each): T1DM control, T1DM, T2DM control and T2DM. T1DM mice were daily injected of streptozotocin (STZ; 40 mg/kg BW) for 5 days. T2DM mice received high-fat diet for 14 days prior to STZ injection at a single dose (85 mg/kg BW). At the end of experiments (days 36 and 72), magnesium (MG) and fructosamine (FRA) levels, and phosphorylated protein expression in seminal vesicle were examined. The results showed that seminal and prostate weights and MG and FRA levels of T1DM animals were significantly increased as compared to T2DM mice. Some seminal histopathologies and decreased epithelial height were observed in both DM groups. Significantly, a 72-kDa phosphorylated protein expression was increased in DM seminal vesicle. We concluded that changes of biochemical components and phosphorylated proteins in seminal vesicle of T1DM and T2DM mice may be associated with low-quality seminal plasma.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Infertilidade Masculina/patologia , Glândulas Seminais/patologia , Animais , Ácido Cítrico/toxicidade , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Frutosamina/análise , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Magnésio/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação , Glândulas Seminais/química , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Tirosina/metabolismo
13.
Magnes Res ; 32(1): 25-36, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503003

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Magnesium (Mg) deficiency is associated with numerous non-communicable diseases. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of hypomagnesemia in the general adult population of Northern Serbia (NS), and to determine the level of Mg in drinking water. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with 5,122 adults from the general population. Serum level of Mg was determined by spectrophotometry, while the level of Mg in the drinking water was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Standard laboratory methods were used to determine individual's blood lipid status and complete blood count. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypomagnesemia (Mg < 0.75 mmol/L) in the general population was 2.7%, while the prevalence of the subjects with high risk for the Mg deficiency (Mg 0.75-0.85 mmol/L) was 20.1%. The public water supply showed variable values between 17.3-35.3 mg/L. Age, systolic blood pressure, duration of diabetes mellitus, and glycemia increase with the decrease of Mg level. In addition, increased level of Mg was associated with higher red blood cell count and hemoglobin levels. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hypomagnesemia in Northern Serbia is low (2.7%) and level of Mg in drinking water is not satisfactory. Serum level of Mg in the range 0.75-0.85 mmol/L is present in about 1/5 of the population. Glycemia, advanced age, gender, and smoking have a predictive role in hypomagnesemia occurrence. There is a significant correlation between serum level of Mg and lifestyle and dietary habits.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Comportamento Alimentar , Estilo de Vida , Deficiência de Magnésio/sangue , Magnésio/análise , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Magnésio/sangue , Deficiência de Magnésio/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109638, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514080

RESUMO

Magnesium (Mg) is a common contaminant in mine water discharges. Although Mg is an essential element in biological processes, increased concentrations from anthropogenic sources can stress aquatic ecosystems. Additionally, studies evaluating the effects of Mg on north Australian freshwater species have indicated that in very soft waters there is a high risk to some species. Freshwater mussels are an ecologically and culturally important taxon in many freshwater environments, but knowledge of their sensitivity to Mg is limited. In the present study, the acute and chronic sensitivity of two freshwater mussel species, Velesunio angasi and an undescribed Velesunio species, to Mg was assessed (using MgSO4) on their early life stages, larval glochidia and post-parasitic juveniles. Acute 24-h exposures with glochidia generated a mean median lethal (LC50) toxicity estimate of 284mg/L for the five tests with V. angasi, and a mean LC50 of 300mg/L for the three tests with Velesunio sp. Mean chronic 14-d toxicity estimates resulting in 50% (EC50) and 10% (EC10) growth rate reductions for juveniles were 241 and 88mg/L respectively for the three tests with V. angasi juveniles, and 232 and 87mg/L respectively for the three tests with Velesunio sp. juveniles. The results represent the first acute and chronic Mg toxicity data for tropical freshwater mussels, and indicated that V. angasi and Velesunio sp. exhibited similar sensitivity and were moderately sensitive to Mg when compared to other tropical species. These results are a valuable contribution to the small existing dataset for Mg toxicity to tropical freshwater species, which can be used to inform water management in areas where Mg is a contaminant of concern, and ensure the protection of these taxa.


Assuntos
Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Água Doce/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnésio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Austrália , Ecossistema , Dose Letal Mediana , Magnésio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 178-186, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319254

RESUMO

The leaves and seeds of plants frequently function as the source and sink organs for distinct metabolites, which can interactively vary in response to adverse site conditions. Subtropical soils are typically characterized as having deficient phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg), with enriched aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe), while Al and manganese (Mn) are toxic at low pH. It remains largely unknown how leaf- and seed-sourced metabolites are synergistically linked to adapt to P-variable soils for trees in subtropical areas. Here we quantified the metabolic and elemental profiling in the mature leaves and immature seeds of Quercus variabilis at contrasting geologically-derived phosphorus sites in subtropical China. The results revealed that carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) based metabolites (primarily sugars and organic acids), as well as enzyme- and protein/nucleic acid-related elements (N, P, Mg, and Mn) played important roles toward characterizing the profiling of metabolites and ionomes in leaves and seeds at two site types, respectively. These metabolites (sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids) and elements (N, P, Mg, and Mn) of seeds were closely related to the sugars, organic acids, and elements (N, P, Mg, and Mn) of leaves at the two site types. For the most part, the content of N and P in the soil affected the accumulation of materials (such as, starchs and proteins) in seeds, as well as N and P assimilation in leaves, by influencing C- and N-containing metabolites in leaves. These results suggested that correlated disparities of C- and N-containing metabolites, along with enzyme- and protein/nucleic acid-related elements in both leaves and seeds played important roles in plants to facilitate their adaptation to nutrient-variable sites in subtropical zones.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fósforo/análise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Quercus/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/análise , Alumínio/análise , Cálcio/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Magnésio/análise , Manganês/análise , Minerais/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Potássio/análise , Quercus/química , Sementes/química , Solo/química
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(27): 27854-27861, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342349

RESUMO

In this paper, a flexible and efficient nano-reinforced polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) was fabricated and used for cyanide (CN-) extraction from water samples. Aliquat 336 (a liquid anion exchanger) was embedded in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) support as the extractant. Mg-Al-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) with high surface area and anion exchange ability was applied to promote the extraction efficiency of PIM. A PIM comprising 56% PVC, 40% Aliquat 336, and 4% Mg-Al-CO3 LDH showed the best extraction efficiency. A single beam ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer was used for the detection of cyanide. Surface morphology of the PIM was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The experimental parameters influencing the extraction process were investigated and optimized. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations at two different concentrations were in the range of 2.8-7.6%. The dynamic range of the method was in the range of 5-500 µg L-1, and the detection limit was 1.4 µg L-1. The LDH reinforced PIM showed proper characteristics for the extraction of cyanide from real water and wastewater samples with recoveries between 82 and 115%.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio/análise , Cianetos/análise , Hidróxidos/análise , Magnésio/análise , Hidróxido de Alumínio/química , Cianetos/química , Hidróxidos/química , Limite de Detecção , Magnésio/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Polímeros , Águas Residuárias , Água
17.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 129: 109352, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307579

RESUMO

Present study reports modulation in butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 under the influence of zinc supplementation or magnesium starvation either individually or in combination. An improvement in butanol titer from 11.83 g L-1 in control to 13.72 g L-1, 15.79 g L-1, and 19.18 g L-1 was achieved when organism was grown on magnesium starved, zinc supplemented and combined zinc supplemented-magnesium starved fermentation medium, respectively. The elevation in butanol biosynthesis was associated with raised glucose utilization, reduced ethanol production and early induction of solventogenesis. Change in these phenotypic traits of the organism may be attributed to multi-level modulation in central carbon metabolism e.g., upregulation of glycolytic pathway; upregulation in thiolase activity; key intermediate enzyme for biosynthesis of acids and solvent; upregulation in the activity of butyrylaldehyde dehydrogenase & butanol dehydrogenase, the enzymes responsible for butanol biosynthesis and downregulation in alcohol dehydrogenase, redirecting carbon flux from ethanol to butanol.


Assuntos
Butanóis/metabolismo , Clostridium acetobutylicum/metabolismo , Magnésio/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Glucose/metabolismo , Magnésio/análise , Zinco/análise
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6227-6233, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250922

RESUMO

BACKGOUND: Potato peels are usually discarded before consumption of the tubers. However, it could be expected that red- and purple-fleshed potato peels contain more minerals. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the proximate and mineral composition in flesh and peels of six coloured potato cultivars. Five proximate compositions (dry matter, total soluble solids, protein, fibre, and ash) and nine minerals [phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), Boron (B), manganese (Mn)] content were determined. The data obtained were evaluated employing the multivariate analysis techniques: principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. RESULTS: The results show that proximate and mineral composition depends on potato tissue and cultivar. Potato peels have significantly higher levels of protein, fibre, ash and minerals (except Mg) than the flesh. However, flesh contains the highest contents of dry matter and total soluble solids. Of the studied elements, K has the highest content in both parts of the potato tuber followed by P, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu. Violetta peels had the highest contents of ash, K and Mg, and Highland Burgundy Red peels had the highest protein, fibre, Ca, Mn contents. The flesh of the Highland Burgundy Red cultivar shows the highest contents of dry matter and total soluble solids. CONCLUSION: Based on the present study, it can be concluded that the investigated red and purple potato peels showed significantly higher protein, fibre, ash and element (K, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, B) contents compared to the flesh. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Minerais/química , Tubérculos/química , Cor , Cobre/análise , Ferro/análise , Magnésio/análise , Manganês/análise , Fósforo/análise , Potássio/análise , Solanum tuberosum/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 243-252, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229821

RESUMO

Magnesium is an essential element to aquatic organisms and understanding the origin of Mg is important for understanding their growth. Ultimately, Mg in streams is derived from the chemical weathering of bedrock in the catchment. In this study, we used Mg stable isotope ratios (δ26Mg) to test whether stream organisms reflect lithological sources in stream catchments. In November 2017 and May 2018, we sampled aquatic insects and small gobies from six temperate streams in the Lake Biwa area (central Japan). Three of these streams had up to 38% limestone in their catchment (limestone streams), and three streams lacked limestone (non-limestone streams). We hypothesised that stream organisms from limestone streams had significantly lower δ26Mg values compared to those of the same organisms from non-limestone streams. Aquatic insects from limestone streams had an average of 0.78‰ lower δ26Mg values than those of the same organisms from non-limestone streams, thereby indicating a lithological control on the δ26Mg of aquatic insects. Aquatic insects often showed an offset to higher δ26Mg values compared to those of stream water, thereby pointing to a 26Mg-enriched diet as an additional Mg source to water and/or Mg isotope fractionation during Mg accumulation. Instead, stream water was the main Mg source for small gobies, as their bones reflected the δ26Mg of water. We concluded that δ26Mg could trace Mg sources of aquatic organisms, and the same methodology can be applied to other metals.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Magnésio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Japão
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5918-5925, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence systems have been employed for the development of predictive models that estimate many agricultural processes. RESULTS: In present study, the predictive capabilities of artificial neural networks (ANNs) were evaluated with respect to assessing fruit firmness as a postharvest life index, with determinations made at four stages of storage: 1, 60, 120 and 180 days after harvesting. Single concentrations of nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) on fruit (D1 ), all of these nutrient concentrations (D2 ), the ratios of the nutrient concentrations alone (D3 ), and a combination of nutrient concentrations and their ratios (D4 ), were considered. CONCLUSION: The results obtained showed that fruit firmness at 1 and 60 days after harvesting was not influenced by nutrients. However, the ANN model estimated fruit firmness of 120 and 180 days, respectively, for D1 and D3 more accurately than for the D2 and D4 datasets. Application of D3 (nitrogen/calcium ratio) as the input dataset improved predictions of fruit firmness, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85 between the measured and estimated data. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Magnésio/análise , Redes Neurais de Computação , Actinidia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cálcio/análise , Frutas/química , Nitrogênio/análise , Potássio/análise
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