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1.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 68(1): 91-95, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902904

RESUMO

Magnolia Flower is a crude drug used for the treatment of headaches, toothaches, and nasal congestion. Here, we focused on Magnolia kobus, one of the botanical origins of Magnolia Flower, and collected the flower parts at different growth stages to compare chemical compositions and investigate potential inhibitory activities against interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in murine splenic T cells. After determining the structures, we examined the inhibitory effects of the constituents of the bud, the medicinal part of the crude drug, against IL-2 production. We first extracted the flower parts of M. kobus from the bud to fallen bloom stages and analysed the chemical compositions to identify the constituents characteristic to the buds. We found that the inhibitory activity of the buds against IL-2 production was more potent than that of the blooms. We isolated two known compounds, tiliroside (1) and syringin (2), characteristic to the buds from the methanol (MeOH) extract of Magnolia Flower. Moreover, we examined the inhibitory activities of both compounds against IL-2 production and found that tiliroside (1) but not syringin (2), showed strong inhibitory activity against IL-2 production and inhibited its mRNA expression. Thus, our strategy to examine the relationship between chemical compositions and biological activities during plant maturation could not only contribute to the scientific evaluation of medicinal parts of crude drugs but also assist in identifying biologically active constituents that have not yet been reported.


Assuntos
Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Magnolia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Interleucina-2/genética , Magnolia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fenilpropionatos/química , Fenilpropionatos/isolamento & purificação , Fenilpropionatos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
2.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(11-12): 926-933, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758292

RESUMO

Chemical examination of plant constituents responsible for oviposition by a Magnoliaceae-feeding butterfly, Graphium doson, was conducted using its major host plant, Michelia compressa. A methanol extract prepared from young leaves of the plant elicited a strong oviposition response from females. The methanolic extract was then separated by solvent partition into three fractions: CHCl3, i-BuOH, and aqueous fractions. Active substance(s) resided in both i-BuOH- and water-soluble fractions. Bioassay-guided further fractionation of the water-soluble substances by means of various chromatographic techniques led to the isolation of an oviposition stimulant. The stimulant was identified as D-(+)-pinitol on the basis of 13C NMR spectra and physicochemical properties. D-(+)-Pinitol singly exhibited a moderate oviposition-stimulatory activity at a dose of 150 µg/cm2. This compound was present also in another host plant, Magnolia grandiflora, in a sufficient amount to induce oviposition behavior of G. doson females. Certain cyclitols including D-(+)-pinitol have been reported to be involved in stimulation of oviposition by some Aristolochiaceae- and Rutaceae-feeding papilionid butterflies. A possible pathway of phytochemical-mediated host shifts in the Papilionidae, in which certain cyclitols could enact important mediators, is discussed in relation to the evolution of cyclitol biosynthesis in plants.


Assuntos
Magnolia/química , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Butanóis/química , Borboletas , Ciclitóis/química , Ciclitóis/metabolismo , Feminino , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Inositol/análogos & derivados , Inositol/química , Inositol/metabolismo , Magnolia/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Água/química
3.
Tree Physiol ; 39(5): 861-876, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034013

RESUMO

The MADS-box family genes play critical roles in the regulation of growth and development of flowering plants. AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 (AGL6)-like genes are one of the most enigmatic subfamilies of the MADS-box family because of highly variable expression patterns and ambiguous functions, which have long puzzled researchers. A lot of AGL6 homologs have been identified from gymnosperms and angiosperms. However, only a few have been characterized, especially for basal angiosperm taxa. Magnolia wufengensis is a woody basal angiosperm from the family Magnoliaceae. In the current study, the phylogenesis, expression and protein-protein interaction (PPI) patterns, and functions of two AGL6 homologs from M. wufengensis, MawuAGL6-1 and MawuAGL6-2, were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two AGL6 duplicates may have arisen by gene duplication before the divergence of Magnoliaceae and Lauraceae, with the diversification of their expression and PPI patterns after gene duplication. Functional analysis revealed that, in addition to common functions in accelerating flowering, MawuAGL6-1 might be responsible for flower meristem determinacy, while MawuAGL6-2 is preferentially recruited to regulate tepal morphogenesis. These findings further advance our understanding of the evolution of phylogenesis, expression, interaction and functions of AGL6 lineage genes from basal angiosperms, as well as the entire AGL6 lineage genes, and the significance of AGL6 lineage genes in the evolution and biological diversity.


Assuntos
Duplicação Gênica , Expressão Gênica , Magnolia/genética , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Evolução Molecular , Magnolia/metabolismo , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
4.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(5): e1900013, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811806

RESUMO

Thirteen sesquiterpenes including eight new ones, magnodelavins A-H (1-8), were obtained from the 95 % ethanolic extract of the leaves of Magnolia delavayi Franch. The structures of the new compounds were determined by exhaustive 1 H-, 13 C-, 2D-NMR, UV, IR, and HR-ESI-MS data, as well as X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compounds 9 and 10 showed potent cytotoxic activities against HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW480 human cancer cell lines in vitro using MTS assay.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Magnolia/química , Sesquiterpenos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Magnolia/metabolismo , Conformação Molecular , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
5.
Planta ; 248(3): 661-673, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882156

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Sucrose concentration in phloem sap was several times higher than in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. The results suggest that phloem loading involves active steps in the analyzed tree species. Phloem loading in source leaves is a key step for carbon partitioning and passive symplastic loading has been proposed for several tree species. However, experimental evidence to prove the potential for sucrose diffusion from mesophyll to phloem is rare. Here, we analyzed three tree species (two angiosperms, Fagus sylvatica, Magnolia kobus, and one gymnosperm, Gnetum gnemon) to investigate the proposed phloem loading mechanism. For this purpose, the minor vein structure and the sugar concentrations in phloem sap as well as in the subcellular compartments of mesophyll cells were investigated. The analyzed tree species belong to the open type minor vein subcategory. The sucrose concentration in the cytosol of mesophyll cells ranged between 75 and 165 mM and was almost equal to the vacuolar concentration. Phloem sap could be collected from F. sylvatica and M. kobus and the concentration of sucrose in phloem sap was about five- and 11-fold higher, respectively, than in the cytosol of mesophyll cells. Sugar exudation of cut leaves was decreased by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of sucrose-proton transporter. The results suggest that phloem loading of sucrose in the analyzed tree species involves active steps, and apoplastic phloem loading seems more likely.


Assuntos
Fagus/metabolismo , Gnetum/metabolismo , Magnolia/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Citosol/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Células do Mesofilo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Árvores , Vacúolos/metabolismo
6.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 42(5): 1789-1801, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tubulin/microtubule system, which is an integral component of the cytoskeleton, plays an essential role in mitosis. Targeting mitotic progression by disturbing microtubule dynamics is a rational strategy for cancer treatment. METHODS: Microtubule polymerization assay was performed to examine the effect of Magnolol (a novel natural phenolic compound isolated from Magnolia obovata) on cellular microtubule polymerization in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Cell cycle analysis, mitotic index assay, cell proliferation assay, colony formation assay, western blotting analysis of cell cycle regulators, Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and live/dead viability staining were carried out to investigate the Magnolol's inhibitory effect on proliferation and viability of NSCLS cells in vitro. Xenograft model of human A549 NSCLC tumor was used to determine the Magnolol's efficacy in vivo. RESULTS: Magnolol treatment effectively inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation of NSCLC cells. Further study proved that Magnolol induced the mitotic phase arrest and inhibited G2/M progression in a dose-dependent manner, which were mechanistically associated with expression alteration of a series of cell cycle regulators. Furthermore, Magnolol treatment disrupted the cellular microtubule organization via inhibiting the polymerization of microtubule. We also found treatment with NSCLC cells with Magnolol resulted in apoptosis activation through a p53-independent pathway, and autophgy induction via down-regulation of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Finally, Magnolol treatment significantly suppressed the NSCLC tumor growth in mouse xenograft model in vivo. CONCLUSION: These findings identify Magnolol as a promising candidate with anti-microtubule polymerization activity for NSCLC treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase M do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnolia/química , Magnolia/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Transplante Heterólogo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
7.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 463, 2017 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28615048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnolia champaca, commonly known as champak is a well-known tree due to its highly fragrant flowers. Champak floral scent is attributed to a complex mix of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These aromatic flowers are widely used in flavors and fragrances industry. Despite its commercial importance, the VOC biosynthesis pathways in these flowers are largely unknown. Here, we combine metabolite and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of fully opened champak flowers to discover the active VOC biosynthesis pathways as well as floral scent-related genes. RESULTS: Volatile collection by headspace method and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) identified a total of 43 VOCs from fully opened champak flowers, of which 46.9% were terpenoids, 38.9% were volatile esters and 5.2% belonged to phenylpropanoids/benzenoids. Sequencing and de novo assembly of champak flower transcriptome yielded 47,688 non-redundant unigenes. Transcriptome assembly was validated using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based approach for randomly selected unigenes. The detailed profiles of VOCs led to the discovery of pathways and genes involved in floral scent biosynthesis from RNA-seq data. Analysis of expression levels of many floral-scent biosynthesis-related unigenes in flowers and leaves showed that most of them were expressed higher in flowers than in leaf tissues. Moreover, our metabolite-guided transcriptomics, in vitro and in vivo enzyme assays and transgenic studies identified (R)-linalool synthase that is essential for the production of major VOCs of champak flowers, (R)-linalool and linalool oxides. CONCLUSION: As our study is the first report on transcriptome analysis of Magnolia champaca, this transcriptome dataset that serves as an important public information for functional genomics will not only facilitate better understanding of ecological functions of champak floral VOCs, but also provide biotechnological targets for sustainable production of champak floral scent.


Assuntos
Flores/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Magnolia/genética , Magnolia/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA
8.
Sci Rep ; 7: 45342, 2017 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28349971

RESUMO

To systematically study the chemical constituents in Magnolia officinalis var. biloba fruits, nine phenylethanoid glycosides were isolated by solvent extraction, silica gel, and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR analyses, including COSY, HMQC and HMBC correlations, and HPLC analysis of sugar residue. Nine phenylethanoid glycosides, namely, magnoloside Ia (1), magnoloside Ic (2), crassifolioside (3), magnoloside Ib (4), magnoloside IIIa (5), magnoloside IVa (6), magnoloside IIa (7), magnoloside IIb (8) and magnoloside Va (9), were first isolated from the n-butanol fraction of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba fruits alcohol extract. Free radical scavenging activities of the nine phenylethanoid glycosides were assessed using the DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. Simultaneously, protective effects of all compounds against free radical-induced oxidative damage were evaluated by two different kinds of mitochondrial damage model. The protective effects were assessed by mitochondrial swelling, the formations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). All phenylethanoid glycosides showed significant protective effects.


Assuntos
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Glicosídeos/química , Magnolia/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Magnolia/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/efeitos da radiação , Conformação Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Álcool Feniletílico/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
Genet Mol Res ; 16(1)2017 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28252172

RESUMO

A combination of phenotypic characterization and molecular markers may provide reliable information on new plant varieties and elucidate the conservation status of rare species. Five newly developed Magnolia wufengensis cultivars, an endangered plant species endemic to Hubei Province, China, possess more distinctive phenotypes than common Magnolia cultivars. With reference to a wild species population of M. wufengensis and a population of Magnolia denudata, morphological traits of flower organs, simple sequence repeat (SSR), and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers were used. In the morphological study, six traits of floral organs were investigated and their relationships were analyzed between cultivars. In the genetic study, 9 SSR primer pairs and 10 SRAP primer combinations were screened. The five cultivars maintained a high level of genetic diversity. Genetic diversity of each M. wufengensis cultivar was much lower than that of the wild population, but was slightly higher than that of the M. denudata population. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that genetic variation among populations was 20% (SRAP) and 30% (SSR), which showed a high degree of genetic differentiation among populations of the five cultivars. The dendrograms illustrated a clear separation between M. wufengensis populations and outer species, and identified two major groups among cultivars. Correlation analysis indicated a good fit between the two marker systems, but a relatively low fit between morphological and genetic traits (SRAP: r = 0.60, SSR: r = 0.52). These findings provide reliable references for the application of these molecular markers in the breeding and conservation of M. wufengensis.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética , Magnolia/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Análise de Variância , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise por Conglomerados , Cor , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Magnolia/classificação , Magnolia/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Pigmentação/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(10)2016 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27669240

RESUMO

Diabetic complications are the major cause of mortality for the patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors for the development of many diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have established the anti-inflammatory and oxidative roles of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark, which has been widely used in the traditional herbal medicines in Chinese society. These findings have attracted various scientists to investigate the effect of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark on diabetic complications. The aim of this review is to present a systematic overview of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark that induce the prevention of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and diabetic complications, including cardiovascular, liver, and kidney.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Magnolia/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/complicações , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Magnolia/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
11.
J Proteomics ; 133: 76-85, 2016 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26688106

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Magnolia sieboldii is a deciduous tree native to China. This species has a deep dormancy characteristic. To better understand seed germination, we used protein analysis of changes in seed protein at 0, 65, 110 and 150 d of stratification. Comparative 2DE analysis of M. sieboldii seed protein profiles at 0, 65, 110 and 150 d of stratification revealed 80 differentially abundance protein species. Comparative analysis showed that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit was degraded during germination. In particular, it was degraded almost completely at 110 d of germination. Starch granules in the microstructure decreased after 65 d of stratification. Starch granules provided a sufficient amount of substrates and ATPs for subsequent germination. Four storage protein species were identified, of which all were down accumulated. Spots 44 and 46 had different MW and pI values, spots 36 and 46 had nearly the same MW with pI shift in the 2-DE gels, suggesting that they might be present as different isoforms of the same protein family and the post translational modification. Our results suggested that degradation of starch granules and storage protein species prepared the seed embryo for growth, as well as regulated seed germination. The present proteomics analysis provides novel insights into the mobilisation of nutrient reserves during the germination of M. sieboldii seeds. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of M. sieboldii seed. We performed the first comprehensive proteomic and microstructure analysis during different seed stratification stages of M. sieboldii. Among the 80 protein species, 26 were identified, 7 and 14 protein species were up or down accumulated significantly. Many of the identified key proteins were involved in embryo development, starch biosynthesis and energy metabolism, Microstructure of stratification seed analysis revealed degradation of starch was used for preparing the seed embryo for growth. These data may help us to develop a comprehensive understanding of the physiological status and mobilisation mechanisms in M. sieboldii seed germination.


Assuntos
Germinação/fisiologia , Magnolia/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos
12.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 16(5): 404-26, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26586125

RESUMO

Honokiol and magnolol (an isomer of honokiol) are small-molecule polyphenols isolated from the barks of Magnolia officinalis, which have been widely used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicines. In the last decade, a variety of biological properties of honokiol and magnolol (e.g., anti-oxidativity, antitumor activity, anti-depressant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, neuroprotective activity, anti-diabetic activity, antiviral activity, and antimicrobial activity) have been reported. Meanwhile, certain mechanisms of action of some biological activities were also investigated. Moreover, many analogs of honokiol and magnolol were prepared by structural modification or total synthesis, and some exhibited very potent pharmacological activities with improved water solubility. Therefore, the present review will provide a systematic coverage on recent developments of honokiol and magnolol derivatives in regard to semisynthesis, total synthesis, and structure-activity relationships from 2000 up to now.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/síntese química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Lignanas/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo/síntese química , Compostos de Bifenilo/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Isomerismo , Lignanas/síntese química , Lignanas/toxicidade , Magnolia/química , Magnolia/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/química , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 41(4): 648-653, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28871687

RESUMO

The study used use bimolecular marking methods to evaluate the lignans of Magnolia officinalis and M. officinalis var. biloba. First, we compare the chemical constituents between M. officinalis and M. officinalis var.biloba. There were significant differences in concentration of magnolignan I between leaves of these two varieties. Then we further select the p-hydroxyphenyl lignin to mining the key enzyme genes of biosynthesis from Magnolia transcriptome, and screened an encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogease gene as the candidate marker of bimolecular marking methods of Magnolia quality by comparing of the expression level and structure variation in homologous gene between M. officinalis and M. officinalis var.biloba. The established method provides the technical support for bimolecular marking methods of Magnolia quality evaluation.


Assuntos
Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Magnolia/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/metabolismo , Lignanas/análise , Lignanas/metabolismo , Lignina/análise , Lignina/metabolismo , Magnolia/enzimologia , Magnolia/genética , Magnolia/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/enzimologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Controle de Qualidade
14.
Plant Sci ; 241: 277-85, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26706078

RESUMO

Magnolia stellata is a woody ornamental shrub with more petaloid tepals than related plants from family Magnoliaceae. Recent studies revealed that expression changes in an AGAMOUS (AG) orthologous gene could resulted in double flowers with increased numbers of petals. We isolated three transcripts encoding different isoforms of a single AG orthologous gene, MastAG, mastag_2 and mastag_3, from M. stellata. Sequence alignments and Southern blot analyses suggested that MastAG was a single-copy gene in M. stellata genomes, and that mastag_2 and mastag_3 were abnormally spliced isoforms of MastAG. An 144bp exon skipping in MastAG results in the truncated mastag_2 protein lacking the completely I domain and 18 aa of the K1 subdomain, whereas an 165bp exon skipping of MastAG produces a truncated mastag_3 protein lacking 6 aa of the K3 subdomain and the completely C terminal region. Expression analyses showed that three alternative splicing (AS) isoforms expressed only in developing stamens and carpels. Functional analyses revealed that MastAG could mimic the endogenous AG to specify carpel identity, but failed to regulate stamen development in an Arabidopsis ag-1 mutant. Moreover, the key domain or subdomain deletions represented by mastag_2 and mastag_3 resulted in loss of C-function. However, ectopic expression of mastag_2 in Arabidopsis produced flowers with sepals converted into carpeloid organs, but without petals and stamens, whereas ectopic expression of mastag_3 in Arabidopsis could mimic the flower phenotype of the ag mutant and produced double flowers with homeotic transformation of stamens into petals and carpels into another ag flower. Our results also suggest that mastag_3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create multi-petal phenotypes in commercial ornamental cultivars.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Magnolia/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Magnolia/metabolismo , Filogenia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(11): 2077-83, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26552160

RESUMO

Methyl valerate (MVA) pathway is one of the important ways for synthesis of terpenoids. This study was based on data of the transcriptome sequencing of Magnolia officinalis, the associated genes MoACOT, MoHMGS, MoHMGR, MoMK in methyl valerate (MVA) pathway, were completed in detail by using bioinformatics methods. The results of analysis showed that MoACOT and MoMK were stable hydrophobic proteins, MoHMGS and MoHMGR were unstable hydrophobic protein. The secondary structures of all proteins were hybrid architecture,and alpha helical were the major motifs. There were no clear transmembrane domains in MoACOT, MoHMGS and MoMK, but two transmembrane domains were founded in MoHMGR which were from 39-61 aa and 82-104 aa resepectively. The results of evolutionary relationship analysis showed that MoACOT, MoHMGS, MoHMGR and MoMK had relative close relationship to angiosperm or dicotyledonous plants, and accorded with genetic evolution rule. From transcriptome data, transcripted level of MoACOT, MoHMGS, MoHMGR, MoMK in M. officinalis and M. officinalis var. biloba was not significantly different. The result provided theoretical reference for study on Methyl valerate (MVA) pathway of terpenoid of M. officinalis.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Genes de Plantas , Magnolia/genética , Terpenos/metabolismo , Magnolia/metabolismo , Filogenia
16.
Sci Rep ; 5: 13556, 2015 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26324190

RESUMO

Amyloid formation is associated with multiple amyloidosis diseases. Human calcitonin (hCT) is a typical amyloidogenic peptide, its aggregation is associated with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC), and also limits its clinical application. Magnolia officinalis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine; its two major polyphenol components, magnolol (Mag) and honokiol (Hon), have displayed multiple functions. Polyphenols like flavonoids and their derivatives have been extensively studied as amyloid inhibitors. However, the anti-amyloidogenic property of a biphenyl backbone containing polyphenols such as Mag and Hon has not been reported. In this study, these two compounds were tested for their effects on hCT aggregation. We found that Mag and Hon both inhibited the amyloid formation of hCT, whereas Mag showed a stronger inhibitory effect; moreover, they both dose-dependently disassembled preformed hCT aggregates. Further immuno-dot blot and dynamic light scattering studies suggested Mag and Hon suppressed the aggregation of hCT both at the oligomerization and the fibrillation stages, while MTT-based and dye-leakage assays demonstrated that Mag and Hon effectively reduced cytotoxicity caused by hCT aggregates. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry indicated Mag and Hon both interact with hCT. Together, our study suggested a potential anti-amyloidogenic property of these two compounds and their structure related derivatives.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Calcitonina/metabolismo , Lignanas/metabolismo , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Calcitonina/química , Calorimetria , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Humanos , Lignanas/química , Magnolia/química , Magnolia/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Polifenóis/química , Ligação Proteica
17.
Oncotarget ; 6(18): 16396-410, 2015 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26036628

RESUMO

Obesity greatly influences risk, progression and prognosis of breast cancer. As molecular effects of obesity are largely mediated by adipocytokine leptin, finding effective novel strategies to antagonize neoplastic effects of leptin is desirable to disrupt obesity-cancer axis. Present study is designed to test the efficacy of honokiol (HNK), a bioactive polyphenol from Magnolia grandiflora, against oncogenic actions of leptin and systematically elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Our results show that HNK significantly inhibits leptin-induced breast-cancer cell-growth, invasion, migration and leptin-induced breast-tumor-xenograft growth. Using a phospho-kinase screening array, we discover that HNK inhibits phosphorylation and activation of key molecules of leptin-signaling-network. Specifically, HNK inhibits leptin-induced Wnt1-MTA1-ß-catenin signaling in vitro and in vivo. Finally, an integral role of miR-34a in HNK-mediated inhibition of Wnt1-MTA1-ß-catenin axis was discovered. HNK inhibits Stat3 phosphorylation, abrogates its recruitment to miR-34a promoter and this release of repressor-Stat3 results in miR-34a activation leading to Wnt1-MTA1-ß-catenin inhibition. Accordingly, HNK treatment inhibited breast tumor growth in diet-induced-obese mouse model (exhibiting high leptin levels) in a manner associated with activation of miR-34a and inhibition of MTA1-ß-catenin. These data provide first in vitro and in vivo evidence for the leptin-antagonist potential of HNK revealing a crosstalk between HNK and miR34a and Wnt1-MTA1-ß-catenin axis.


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Leptina/metabolismo , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Repressoras/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Wnt1/antagonistas & inibidores , beta Catenina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D1/antagonistas & inibidores , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Histona Desacetilases , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Magnolia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos Obesos , MicroRNAs/genética , Invasividade Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/patologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
J Theor Biol ; 370: 116-20, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25665719

RESUMO

Pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) from photosystem II (PSII) of plants has been routinely measured for the analysis of photosynthesis and environmental changes. PAM ChlF from PSII is non-stationary and has time-varying frequency characteristics; however, existing analysis of PAM ChlF has been limited to selected characteristic values in the time domain. Wavelet transform is recognized as an efficient tool for analyzing non-stationary signals. In this research, an attempt was made to analyze PAM ChlF through wavelet transform. Features of PAM ChlF signals were computed from wavelet decomposition to classify two tree species and to detect chilling and detachment stresses. The wavelet-based features were compared with the commonly-used maximal PSII efficiency Fv/Fm. Both the wavelet-based features and Fv/Fm could effectively classify two tree species, but the former showed superiority than the latter in detecting the stresses. Wavelet transform revealed chilling stress earlier than Fv/Fm and detected detachment stress Fv/Fm failed to show. The results show that wavelet transform is a useful technique for analysis of PAM ChlF.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Ondaletas , Análise de Variância , Temperatura Baixa , Fluorescência , Maackia/metabolismo , Magnolia/metabolismo , Phaseolus/metabolismo , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Estresse Fisiológico , Fatores de Tempo , Árvores/metabolismo
19.
Evol Dev ; 17(1): 82-91, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25627715

RESUMO

One successful mechanism of seed dispersal in plants involves production of edible fleshy structures which attract frugivorous animals and transfer this task to them. Not only Angiosperms but also Gymnosperms may use the fleshy fruit habit for seed dispersal, and a similar suite of MADS-box genes may be expressed as these structures form. Magnolia grandiflora produces dry follicles which, at maturity, open to reveal brightly colored fleshy seeds. This species thus also employs endozoochory for seed dispersal, although it produces dry fruits. Molecular analysis reveals that genes involved in softening and color changes are expressed at late stages of seed development, when the fleshy seed sarcotesta softens and accumulates carotenoids. Several MADS-box genes have also been studied and results highlight the existence of a basic genetic toolkit which may be common to all fleshy fruit-like structures, independently of their anatomic origin. According to their expression patterns, one of two AGAMOUS genes and the three SEPALLATA genes known so far in Magnolia are of particular interest. Duplication of AGAMOUS already occurs in both Nymphaeales and Magnoliids, although the lack of functional gene analysis prevents comparisons with known duplications in the AGAMOUS lineage of core Eudicots.


Assuntos
Magnolia/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Magnolia/embriologia , Magnolia/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Transcriptoma
20.
BMC Genomics ; 15: 706, 2014 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25150046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnolia sprengeri Pamp is one of the most highly valuable medicinal and ornamental plants of the Magnolia Family. The natural color of M. sprengeri is variable. The complete genome sequence of M. sprengeri is not available; therefore we sequenced the transcriptome of white and red petals of M. sprengeri using Illumina technology. We focused on the identity of structural and regulatory genes encoding the enzymes involved in the determination of flower color. RESULTS: We sequenced and annotated a reference transcriptome for M. sprengeri, and aimed to capture the transcriptional determinanats of flower color. We sequenced a normalized cDNA library of white and red petals using Illumina technology. The resulting reads were assembled into 77,048 unique sequences, of which 28,243 could be annotated by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, while 48,805 transcripts lacked GO annotation. The main enzymes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis, such as phenylalanine ammonia-Lyase, cinnamat-4-Hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol-4-reductase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase, flavonol synthase, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase, were identified in the transcriptome. A total of 270 transcription factors were sorted into three families, including MYB, bHLH and WD40 types. Among these transcription factors, eight showed 4-fold or greater changes in transcript abundance in red petals compared with white petals. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of anthocyanin compositions showed that the main anthocyanin in the petals of M. sprengeri is cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and its content in red petals was 26-fold higher than that in white petals. CONCLUSION: This study presents the first next-generation sequencing effort and transcriptome analysis of a non-model plant from the Family Magnoliaceae. Genes encoding key enzymes were identified and the metabolic pathways involved in biosynthesis and catabolism of M. sprengeri flavonoids were reconstructed. Identification of these genes and pathways adds to the current knowledge of the molecular biology and biochemistry of their production in plant. Such insights into the mechanisms supporting metabolic processes could be used to genetically to enhance flower color among members of the Magnoliaceae.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Flores/genética , Magnolia/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transcriptoma , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Plantas , Magnolia/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Pigmentação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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