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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 32, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777300

RESUMO

Introduction: there is an existing variability in eating patterns between adolescents and children. Consequently, with the adoption of westernised way of life, this translates to a change in eating habits and food choices. This study was designed to investigate the dietary patterns and nutritional status of the female adolescents in Amai Secondary Commercial School, Delta State, Nigeria. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted among 201 adolescent female students (12-18 years) using simple random sampling techniques. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain the information while anthropometric measurement was carried out to obtain the height and weight of the respondents. Data generated were analysed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: majority of the respondents 129 (64.20%) were between the ages of 16-18 years. Measurement of nutritional status confirmed that 46.80% and 31.80% of the respondents were underweight and healthy weight respectively. In addition, the dietary pattern of the respondents demonstrated that they consumed proteinous, carbohydrate, and snacks occasionally. Factors that motivated respondents for good food choices include; nutritional status 71 (35.30%), taste 54 (26.90%), and popularity 15 (7.50%). Conclusion: under nutrition remains a challenge among rural adolescent girls in Amai community. Therefore sustained strategic nutritional campaigns should be carried out among female adolescents in Amai community in order to improve their nutritional status.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Nigéria , População Rural , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia
2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 51, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition and altered body composition are well-documented in chronic pulmonary diseases; however, investigation of nutritional status in interstitial lung disease (ILD) is limited. This study aimed to describe the nutritional status of ILD patients within three diagnostic groups and explore the relationship between nutritional status and quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Consecutive patients attending an ILD clinic within a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia were studied. Weight, body-mass-index, anthropometrics, handgrip strength (HGS), subjective global assessment and QoL questionnaires (EQ-5D-5L and King's-Brief Interstitial-Lung-Disease 'K-BILD') were collected. Associations between nutritional status and QoL were analysed. RESULTS: Ninety participants were recruited and categorised: (1) Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) (2) Connective-Tissue Disease associated-ILD (CTD-ILD) or (3) Other (non-IPF/non-CTD ILD). Median age was 66.5 (18) years. Four-percent of patients were underweight and 50% were overweight or obese. Median HGS was 71%-(25.3) of predicted and was correlated to all measures of QoL including EQ-5D health-state index (r = 0.376, p < 0.0001), patient-reported EQ-5D-5L Visual Analogue Score (r = 0.367, p < 0.0001) and K-BILD total score (r = 0.346, p = 0.001). Twenty-three percent of the variance in K-BILD total score (F = 12.888, p < 0.0001) was explained by HGS (ß = 0.273, p = 0.006) and forced vital capacity % predicted (ß = 0.331, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Although a small number of ILD patients were malnourished, a large proportion of the cohort were overweight or obese. Handgrip strength was compromised and correlated to QoL. Future research with a larger cohort is required to explore the role of HGS as a predictor of QoL.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Magreza/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/epidemiologia , Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/fisiopatologia , Força da Mão , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/epidemiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Capacidade Vital
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24419, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592890

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Childhood malnutrition is a serious public health problem in Yemen. However, there is a limited information regarding association of malnutrition with different socio-economic factors. This study examines the correlates of socioeconomic and maternal behavioral factors on malnutrition in Yemeni children under 5 years of age.Our study focuses on the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age, and uses the data provided by the cross-sectional study namely Yemen National Demographic and Health Survey. Three anthropometric indicators: stunting, wasting, and underweight were selected for the evaluation of malnutrition. Independent variables include personal and maternal characteristics, socioeconomic and behavioral factors, and illness conditions. The study used the Chi-Squared test to test the significant association between independent variables and logistic regression to estimate the odds of being malnourished.A total of 13,624 Yemeni children under 5 years of age were included in the study. The results show the high malnutrition level - the prevalence of stunting was 47%, wasting was 16%, and underweight was 39%. There is a statistically significant association between socioeconomic status, behavioral factors, and child malnutrition. The odds of malnutrition decreased with the increase in the level of mother's education, economic status, and frequency of prenatal visits. The odds of malnutrition were least for children whose mothers had highest level of education (OR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.55-0.76), who belonged to highest wealth index (OR = 0.41; 95%CI = 0.36-0.47). Moreover, the likelihood of malnutrition was less among the children whose mother had highest number of prenatal visits during the pregnancy (OR = 0.67; 95%CI = 0.59-0.76).The high prevalence of stunting, wasting, and undernutrition were found in Yemeni children. Different factors such as regional variations, socio-economic disparities, and maternal education and health care utilization behavior are found to be associated with high malnutrition. These findings provide important policy implications to improving childhood malnutrition in Yemen.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Iêmen/epidemiologia
4.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021005, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the association between early-life weight status and urinary tract infection (UTI) risk in children. METHODS: A nationwide study was conducted using Korean National Health Screening (NHS) data and National Health Insurance Service data. A sample cohort was selected using data from the 2014 and 2015 NHS for infants and children (4-71 months) and followed up until the end of 2017. Participants were divided into 4 groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) based on the weight-for-age (< 2 years) or body mass index (≥ 2 years). Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing UTIs, cystitis, and acute pyelonephritis (APN) were calculated using a Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Of 1,653,106 enrolled children, 120,142 (7.3%) developed UTIs, cystitis, and APN during follow-up. The underweight, overweight, and obese groups had higher risks of UTIs than the reference group after adjusting for age, sex, birth weight, and preterm birth. Between 2 years and 6 years of age, boys with underweight had a high risk of UTI and APN, while girls with overweight and obesity revealed elevated risks of UTIs, cystitis, and APN. The HRs for APN in boys with underweight and in girls with obesity were 1.46 (95% CI, 1.03 to 2.07) and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.75), respectively, after adjusting for age, sex, birth weight, and preterm birth. The incidence of APN did not decrease with age in underweight and obese children aged 2-6 years. CONCLUSIONS: Children with underweight, overweight, and obesity may be at high risk for UTIs.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
5.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244362, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370352

RESUMO

Anaemia and underweight or overweight/obesity are major public health problems driving maternal and child mortality in low- and middle-income countries. While the burden of these conditions is recognised, the evidence for the co-occurrence of these conditions is fragmented and mixed, especially at the individual level. Further, many studies have focused on families and communities. The different pathways for the occurrence of anaemia and BMI challenges indicate that an individual can potentially live with both conditions and suffer the complications. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with the co-occurrence of anaemia and BMI challenges among a cohort of women in Ghana. Data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey were used. The sample size was 4 337 women aged 15-49 years who were not pregnant during the survey. Women who suffered simultaneously from underweight or overweight/obesity and anaemia were considered as having the double burden of malnutrition. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression in STATA. One-fifth of the participants were overweight (21%), 4% were underweight and about one-tenth were obese (12%). The prevalence of anaemia was 41%. Only one in three women had normal weight and was not anaemic (34%). About 14% of the women experienced the double burden of malnutrition. Being overweight and anaemic (57%) was the most common form of this double burden. Age, marital status, parity, and wealth were t key risk factors associated with the double burden of malnutrition. The findings from this study show that women experience multiple nutritional challenges concurrently and that only a few women had healthy nutritional status. This information is particularly important and can be introduced into health education programmes to help address misconceptions about body weight and health.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338085

RESUMO

Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health problems. The prevalence of obesity among children is increasing and may negatively affect their immediate health, but it can also lead to obesity in adulthood. The aim of the study was to compare BMI cut-off points by examining three main international references: the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Task Force Obesity (IOTF) and the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ultimately, the study group consisted of 18,144 children and adolescents aged 6.5-17.5 years. Body mass was measured on medical scales with an accuracy of ± 100 g and height measurement was taken using a height meter with an accuracy of ± 0.1 cm three times. Underweight, overweight and obesity were calculated according to WHO, IOTF and CDC BMI international references. There were differences in the incidence of underweight between the classifications: 16.8% according to IATF, 5.3% according to WHO and 9.9% according to CDC. There were also differences in the incidence of overweight and obesity between the classifications: 13% according to IOTF, 19.7% according to WHO and 14.1% according to CDC. In the CDC and WHO studies, a significantly higher prevalence of childhood obesity (4.0% and 4.7%, respectively) was observed compared with IOTF (2.1%). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in this study was higher among boys compared to girls. However, estimates of prevalence of overweight and obesity differ in methods and reference cut-off points. Higher prevalence was obtained in IOTF classification, followed by the WHO and CDC classification.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade Pediátrica/classificação , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/classificação , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Magreza/classificação , Magreza/epidemiologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327389

RESUMO

Previous studies have reported the association of obesity with increased morbidity or mortality due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aims to investigate the relationship of obesity, as defined by the body mass index (BMI), with morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. Data from 5628 confirmed COVID-19 patients were collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Korea. The hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality in the BMI groups were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for covariates. The odds ratios (ORs) of morbidity and diabetes in the BMI groups were analyzed using logistic regression adjusted for the same covariates. Both underweight and obesity were associated with a higher HR for mortality (adjusted HR = 2.28, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 1.23-4.25, p = 0.009 for underweight and adjusted HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.10-2.66, p = 0.017 for obese). Obesity was related to higher odds of morbidity (adjusted OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.32-2.21, p < 0.001). Underweight and obesity were associated with high mortality and/or morbidity due to COVID-19 in Korea.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Morbidade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus/virologia , Humanos , Obesidade/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/virologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960921

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor access to water, sanitation, and handwashing (WASH) facilities frequently contribute to child growth failure. The role of access to WASH facilities on child growth outcomes in Ethiopia is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine individual and combined effects of access to WASH facilities on child growth outcomes. METHODS: Data for this analysis was sourced from the recent Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2016. A multivariable logistic regression model was applied to identify the separate and combined association of access to WASH facilities with child growth outcomes. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. Statistical significance was declared at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Included in the analyses were data for children 0-59 months of age, which amounted to valid data for 9588 children with a height-for-age z-score (HAZ), 9752 children with a weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) and 9607 children with a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ). Children with access to improved combined sanitation with handwashing facilities had 29% lower odds of linear growth failure (stunting) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.51-0.99) compared with those with unimproved. Children with access to combined improved WASH facilities were 33% less likely to have linear growth failure (AOR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45-0.98). Access to improved handwashing alone reduced the odds of being underweight by 17% (AOR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98) compared with unimproved. Improved water and sanitation separately as well as combined WASH were not associated with decreased odds of underweight and wasting. CONCLUSIONS: Combined access to improved water, sanitation and handwashing was associated with reduced child linear growth failure. Further research with robust methods is needed to examine whether combined WASH practices have synergistic effect on child growth outcomes.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Saneamento/normas , Magreza/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Higiene , Lactente , Masculino , População Rural , Magreza/prevenção & controle , Água
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition on the background of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a complex medical condition that carries significant morbidity and mortality for affected children, with greater mortality from SAM (Severe Acute Malnutrition) among HIV-positive children than their HIV-negative peers. HIV-induced immune impairment heightened risk of opportunistic infection and can worsen nutritional status of children. HIV infection often leads to nutritional deficiencies through decreased food intake, mal-absorption and increased utilization and excretion of nutrients, which in turn can hasten death. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the magnitude of underweight, wasting and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa. METHODS: The authors systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed studies that assessed the prevalence of underweight, wasting and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Gray Literatures using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guideline. The last search date was December 30/2019. The data was extracted in excel sheet considering country, study design, year of publication, prevalence reported. Then the authors transformed the data to STATA 14 for analysis. Heterogeneity across the studies was assessed by the Q and the I2 test. A weighted inverse variance random-effects model was used to estimate the magnitude of underweight, wasting and stunting. The subgroup analysis was done by country, year of publication, and study design. To examine publication bias, a funnel plot and Egger's regression test were used. RESULTS: For the analysis a total of 22 studies with 22074 patients were used. The pooled prevalence of under-weight, wasting, and stunting among HIV positive children in East Africa was found to be 41.63% (95%CI; 35.69-47.57; I2 = 98.7%; p<0.001), 24.65% (95%CI; 18.34-30.95; I2 = 99.2%; p<0.001), and 49.68% (95%CI; 42.59-56.77; I2 = 99.0%; p<0.001) respectively. The prevalence of under-weight among HIV positive children was found to be 49.67% in Ethiopia followed by 42.00 in Rwanda. It was high among cohort studies (44.87%). Based on the year of publication, the prevalence of under-weight among HIV positive children was found to be 40.88% from studies conducted from January 2008-December 2014, while it was 43.68% from studies conducted from 2015-2019. The prevalence of wasting among HIV positive children was found to be 29.7% in Tanzania followed by 24.94% in Ethiopia. Based on the study design, the prevalence of wasting among HIV positive children was found to be high in cohort studies (31.15%). The prevalence of stunting among HIV positive children was found to be 51.63% in Ethiopia, followed by 48.21% in Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: The results presented above provide evidence of a higher prevalence of under nutrition among HIV positive children in East Africa. Despite the country level variations of child under nutrition in East Africa, still it is high in all aspects compared to the studies from other parts of Africa. It is recommended that further systematic review and meta-analysis need to be conducted on magnitude of malnutrition among HIV positive children in Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Síndrome de Emaciação por Infecção pelo HIV/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/etiologia , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/etiologia , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/mortalidade
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966286

RESUMO

In dogs, optimal growth is critical for future health and wellbeing. Recently, a series of evidence-based growth standards, based on bodyweight, were developed for male and female dogs across 5 different size categories. The aim of the current study was to compare growth curves depicted by the standards with patterns of growth in dogs that were either healthy, had abnormal body condition, or had various diseases with the potential to affect growth. The data came from 2 research colonies in Europe (France and UK), and a large corporate network of primary care veterinary hospitals across the USA. Age and bodyweight data were used to model growth in healthy dogs, in dogs that became overweight or underweight by 3 years of age, and in dogs with diseases associated with altered growth. Centile line crossing during the growth phase was uncommon in healthy dogs, with <5% of dogs crossing >2 centile lines. In contrast, centile line crossing was more frequent in dogs with abnormal growth patterns or abnormal body condition. Dogs that developed obesity by 3 years grew faster than the growth standards predicted, and 68% crossed ≥2 centile lines in an upwards direction. Dogs with conditions associated with accelerated growth also grew faster than expected, and 54% crossed ≥2 centile lines. In contrast dogs that became underweight by 3 years gained weight slower than expected, and 49% crossed ≥2 centile lines in a downwards direction. These results suggest that the growth standards are useful for monitoring healthy growth in dogs. Prospective studies are now required to confirm these findings and to determine whether early intervention can prevent the development of diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sobrepeso/veterinária , Magreza/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães/fisiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238641, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881937

RESUMO

Data on the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have accumulated, but little has been reported about this association in terms of lean T2DM. The present study analyzed 10-year longitudinal data to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and T2DM risk among lean individuals. This prospective study included 2,366 male and female Koreans aged 40-69 years who were free of DM and had a body mass index (BMI) <23 kg/m2 during the baseline period between 2001 and 2012. Information on alcohol consumption, BMI, and incident cases of T2DM were identified by interviews and health examinations. To analyze the association between alcohol consumption and T2DM risk, Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used. Alcohol drinkers consuming at least 16 g/day of alcohol (2 units/day) who maintained a BMI <23 kg/m2 over 10 years had a significantly higher T2DM risk even after controlling for BMI and potential risk factors. Compared with lifetime abstainers, multivariate hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval] of T2DM were 1.74 [1.02, 2.95] for 16-30 g/day, 2.09 [1.16, 3.77] for 31-60 g/day, and 1.94 [1.07, 3.51] for >60g/day among alcohol drinkers. No protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption <16 g/day on T2DM risk was observed. Age, parental history of DM, and physical inactivity were also significant risk factors for lean T2DM. Alcohol consumption of at least 2 units/day increased T2DM risk among lean individuals. Abstaining from alcohol and physical activity may be beneficial for the prevention of lean T2DM.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 134: 130-137, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919617

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a complex condition that arises due to pulmonary vascular disease, heart disease, lung disease, chronic thromboembolism, or several rare causes. Regardless of underlying cause, PH increases mortality, yet there are no directed treatments for the most common forms of PH due to left heart or lung disease. Because metabolic factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PH, we used a large administrative cohort to assess diabetes and weight, potentially modifiable risk factors, on PH outcome. We analyzed 110,495 veterans diagnosed with PH from January 1, 2003 to September 30, 2015 in the Veterans Health Affairs system. Veterans with PH survived an average of 3.88 [IQR 3.85, 3.92] years after PH diagnosis. Diabetes occurred in 36% and increased risk of death by 31% (95% confidence interval 28% to 33%, multivariate adjusted). Higher body mass index was associated with lower mortality in a J-shaped pattern with highest risk in underweight and normal weight veterans. Improved survival in obesity has been referred to as the obesity paradox in heart failure and other diseases. These data show that lower weight and diabetes are strong risk factors for mortality in PH. Our results underscore the importance of systemic conditions on outcome in PH.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Veteranos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Causas de Morte , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Proteção , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
14.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 9718714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802085

RESUMO

Background: Underweight is defined as being below the healthy weight range. Underweight in reproductive age group women not only affects women but also increases the risk of an intergenerational cycle of malnutrition and child mortality. Various factors are linked with underweight among women. However, studies on the prevalence of underweight and its associated factors among women are limited in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of underweight and its associated factors among reproductive age group women in Ethiopia. Methods: For this study, data were drawn from the 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey (EDHS). From the total, 15,683 women participants of the 2016 EDHS; a subsample of 2,848 participants aged 15-49 years who had a complete response to all variables of interest were selected and utilized for analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software program. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to assess the frequency distribution of underweight and is presented with different sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression models were applied for analysis. A two-sided p value of less than 0.05 was used to declare a statistically significant association between the independent variables and underweight among women. Results: The prevalence of underweight among reproductive age group women in Ethiopia was 17.6%. The majority, 78.3% of underweight women, were rural dwellers. The odds of being underweight was higher among the young aged women, among those residing in rural areas, in those with higher educational status, and in those who have one or more children. On the other hand, the odds of underweight among respondents living in Benishangul, SNNPR, and Addis Ababa were less compared to those living in Dire Dawa. Similarly, the odds of underweight among participants with a higher level of husband or partner educational status and among those who chew Khat were less compared to their counterparts. Conclusion: Underweight among reproductive age group women in Ethiopia is still a major public health problem, particularly among rural dwellers. Underweight was significantly associated with different sociodemographic variables. Hence, context-based awareness creation programs need to be designed on the prevention methods of underweight in Ethiopia, giving especial emphasis to those residing in rural areas.


Assuntos
Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia remains a major public health challenge with high prevalence among women in South and Southeast Asian countries. Reductions in anemia rates have been stalled, despite the implementation of different maternal health and nutrition programs. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with anemia among women of reproductive age in seven selected South and Southeast Asian countries. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis utilized data from the most recent demographic and health surveys from seven selected South and Southeast Asian countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Timor-Leste) between 2011 and 2016. This study included 726,164 women of reproductive age. Multiple logistic regression was performed to assess the factors associated with anemia among women for each country separately. RESULTS: The combined prevalence of anemia was 52.5%, ranged from 22.7% in Timor-Leste to 63% in the Maldives. Results from multiple logistic regression suggest that likelihood of anemia is significantly higher among younger women (15-24 years), women with primary or no education, women from the poorest wealth quintile, women without toilet facilities and improved water sources, underweight women, and women with more than one children born in last five years in most of the countries. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of anemia is high among women of reproductive age in the seven selected South and Southeast Asian countries. The results of this study suggest that various household, environmental and individual factors contribute to the increased likelihood of anemia. Evidence-based, multidisciplinary policies and programs targeting mothers' health and nutrition status, in addition to scaling-up women's education and socioeconomic status, are warranted to combat anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ásia/epidemiologia , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pobreza , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Public Health ; 185: 381-385, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Both maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking during pregnancy have been associated with a range of adverse maternal and infant birth outcomes. This study aimed to identify whether these independent variables had an interacting relationship with small for gestational age in an Australian obstetric cohort. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort design used data from the Birthing Outcomes System of a major tertiary hospital in Australia. METHODS: A total of 14,487 singleton births between January 2008 and December 2013 were included in the analysis. Chi-squared tests and one-way analysis of variance were used for the comparison of categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated to determine the association of smoking status with the outcome variable of interest, and these are reported for each maternal BMI category. RESULTS: Of the 14,487 women, 716 (4.9%) were underweight (BMI ≤18 kg/m2), 7268 (50.2%) had healthy weight (BMI = 19-24 kg/m2), 3658 (25.3%) were overweight (BMI = 25-29 kg/m2), 1558 (10.8%) had class I obesity (BMI = 30-34 kg/m2), 711 (4.9%) had class II obesity (BMI = 35-39 kg/m2) and 576 (3.9%) had class III obesity (BMI = 40+ kg/m2). Of all women, 10.8% reported being current smokers, 82.0% reported to have never smoked and 4.0% reported to have stopped smoking during or before pregnancy. Smokers with a BMI ≥40 kg/m2 were 4.5 (AOR = 4.508; 95% confidence interval: 2.068-9.828) times more likely to give birth to a small-for-gestational-age infant than non-smokers within the same BMI category. This increased risk was not observed in women who ceased smoking before or during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports the efficacy of antismoking policies within maternal public health. In addition, greater support with respect to smoking cessation is indicated for women during pregnancy with an elevated BMI.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Razão de Chances , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Magreza/epidemiologia
17.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(4): 281-288, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749445

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to calculate and compare the prevalence of thinness in children born in 1990 and in 1996 in Vilnius, Lithuania. The study was longitudinal as the data used for calculation were obtained by measuring every child's height and weight at least once per year from birth to the age of 17. The measurements were transcribed from the children's personal health records from the same outpatient clinic. The prevalence of overall thinness and grade 1 thinness in children that were born in 1996 was considerably lower compared to the children that were born in 1990. The prevalence of grade 1 thinness comprised the majority of all thinness cases in girls and boys alike. In conjunction with another study (Suchomlinov et al. 2016), which assessed the same children and discovered an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity, a clear trend of a decrease in the prevalence of thinness and normal BMI, while an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children born in 1996 compared to 1990, emerged.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Magreza , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Underweight, overweight, and obesity are major public health challenges among reproductive-age women of lower- and middle-income countries (including Tanzania). In those settings, obesogenic factors (attributes that promote excessive body weight gain) are increasing in the context of an existing high burden of undernutrition. The present study investigated factors associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive age women in Tanzania. METHODS: This study used 2015-16 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 11735). To account for the hierarchical nature of the data (i.e., reproductive age women nested within clusters), multilevel multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between individual-level (socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural) and community-level factors with underweight, overweight, and obesity. RESULTS: Reproductive age women who were informally employed (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64, 0.96), those who were currently married (RRR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.82) and those who used contraceptives (RRR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.90) were less likely to be underweight. Reproductive age women who attained secondary or higher education (RRR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.96), those who resided in wealthier households (RRR = 2.31; 95% CI: 1.78, 3.03) and those who watched the television (RRR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.50) were more likely to be overweight. The risk of experiencing obesity was higher among reproductive age women who attained secondary or higher education (RRR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.61), those who were formally employed (RRR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.98), those who resided in wealthier households (RRR = 4.77; 95% CI: 3.03, 7.50), those who used alcohol (RRR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.82) and/or watched the television (RRR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.35, 2.13). CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that relevant government jurisdictions need to identify, promote, and implement evidence-based interventions that can simultaneously address underweight and overweight/obesity among reproductive age women in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/organização & administração , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Magreza/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
19.
Public Health ; 186: 137-143, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of parental international migration on health care seeking for common childhood illnesses (diarrhoea, fever, and acute respiratory infections) and nutritional status (stunting, underweight and wasting) in young children in Nepal using the most recent nationally representative Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. STUDY DESIGN: Nationally representative cross-sectional survey. METHODS: We used multiple logistic regression models to examine the association between parental international migration and the study outcomes adjusting for a range of potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 5310 children, 23.5% had at least one parent living abroad. Health care for common childhood illnesses was sought for 52.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45.0%-59.2%) and 47.0% (95% CI: 42.7%-51.1%) of children from migrant and non-migrant families, respectively. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting among left-behind children were 35.3% (95% CI: 31.5%-39.1%), 28.3% (95% CI: 24.2%-32.2%) and 11.8% (95% CI: 8.8%-14.7%), respectively. In adjusted analyses, there were no statistically significant differences in health care seeking or nutritional status by parent's migration status. CONCLUSIONS: Despite large economic benefits to Nepal due to international labour migration, we did not observe any apparent differences in young left-behind children in terms of seeking health care for common childhood illnesses or prevalence of under-nutrition. Longitudinal studies are needed to accurately measure whether migration has any substantial temporal effect on the nutritional status of young children or seeking for health care.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração , Estado Nutricional , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiologia , Pais , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia , Migrantes
20.
Ann Epidemiol ; 49: 36-41, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711054

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the association between body mass index and incident or persistent cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection. METHODS: This cohort study included 6809 women from the general Danish population who participated in two clinical visits (in 1991-1993 and in 1993-1995). Height and weight were measured by nurses, lifestyle data were obtained by structured interviews, and cervical cytology samples were obtained for hrHPV DNA testing. We conducted log-binomial regression to estimate risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of incident and type-specific persistent hrHPV infection according to body mass index, adjusting for age, education, smoking, and the number of sexual partners in the past year. RESULTS: We found no increased risk of incident hrHPV infection in women who were underweight (RRadjusted, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.64-1.48), overweight (RRadjusted, 0.98, 95% CI, 0.82-1.17), or obese (RRadjusted, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.63-1.36) compared with women of normal weight. The risk of hrHPV persistence was similar in overweight (RRadjusted, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.71-1.34) and obese (RRadjusted, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.56-1.79) women compared with women of normal weight, whereas underweight women had a lower risk (RRadjusted, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.11-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity were not associated with HPV incidence or persistence when adjusting for sexual behavior.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/diagnóstico , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/epidemiologia , Colo do Útero/virologia , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto , Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Programas de Rastreamento , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Vigilância da População , Magreza/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia
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