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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 926571, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910935

RESUMO

Background: Bangladesh faces a double burden of malnutrition, with a rising prevalence of overweight and obesity among children parallel to existing undernutrition. Objective: The current study was designed to assess the determinants of double burden of malnutrition among urban school children from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,690 students from 14 schools in Dhaka city from January to June 2018. Anthropometric measurements were taken during school hours, and self-administered questionnaires were sent to the parents. We performed multi-level multiple logistic regression analyses to assess the determinants of underweight, overweight, and obesity. Findings: The prevalence of overweight (33%) and obesity (23%) was highest among children and adolescents from high tuition schools but the prevalence of underweight (4%) was lowest compared to those from low (underweight 19%, overweight 17%, and obesity 6%) and medium (underweight 18%, overweight 15%, and obesity 6%) tuition schools. Children from high-tuition schools had higher odds of being overweight/ obese (AOR: 2.92; 95% CI: 1.90, 4.49). Parental NCDs and overweight were negatively associated with underweight but positively associated with overweight and obesity among children. Lack of physical activity inside schools was positively associated (AOR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.55) with overweight and obesity among school children. Conclusion: Our results point to opportunities in and outside schools to address the rising prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity among urban school children.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Magreza , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272096, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been conflicting findings on the effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung functions in children. Therefore, we studied the relationship between spirometry parameters and BMI among healthy Sri Lankan school children aged 5-7 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 296 school children (5-7-year-old) without apparent lung disease. Recruitment was done with stratified random sampling. Spirometry parameters, FEV1, FVC, PEFR, and FEV1/FVC ratio were determined. The acceptable and reproducible spirometry recordings were included in the analysis. Simple and multivariate linear regression analysis examined possible associations of lung function parameters with BMI, socio-demographic variables and indoor risk factors. Also, the mediator effect of gender on lung function through BMI was explored. RESULTS: The participants' mean age (SD) was 6.4 (0.65) years. One-third were thin/severely thin (37%). A statistically significant difference in FVC (p = 0.001) and FEV1 (p = 0.001) was observed between BMI groups (obesity/overweight, normal, and thinness). Yet, PEFR or FEV1/FVC did not significantly differ among BMI groups (p = 0.23 and p = 0.84). Multivariate regression analysis showed that FEV1 and FVC were significantly associated with BMI, child's age, gender, family income, father's education, having a pet, and exposure to mosquito coil smoke. Interaction between gender and BMI for lung functions was not significant. The thin children had significantly lower FVC (OR: -0.04, 95%CI: -0.077, -0.012, p = 0.008) and FEV1 (OR: -0.04, 95%CI: -0.075, -0.014, p = 0.004) than normal/overweight/obese children. Family income demonstrated the greatest effect on lung functions; FVC and FEV1 were 0.25L and 0.23L smaller in low-income than the high-income families. CONCLUSION: Lower lung function parameters (FVC and FEV1) are associated with thinness than normal/overweight/obese dimensions among children without apparent lung disease. It informs that appropriate nutritional intervention may play a role in improving respiratory health.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Obesidade Pediátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão , Sobrepeso , Espirometria , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Capacidade Vital
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1478, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a significant public health challenge that affects the population of all nations. Anemia among adolescents emerged as an alarming public health issue as it harms an individual's physical capacity and cognitive and work performance. The study aims to determine the effect of changes in individual and household level factors on the prevalence of anemia among adolescent boys and girls. METHOD: The study utilized data from two waves of the "Understanding the lives of adolescent and young adults" (UDAYA) survey, conducted in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh during 2015-16 (wave-1) and 2018-19 (wave-2). The sample size for the present study was 4216 and 5974 unmarried adolescent boys and girls aged 10-19 years in both waves. We performed descriptive analysis to observe the characteristics of adolescents during 2015-16. Further, changes in selected independent variables from wave-1 to wave-2 were examined using the proportion test. Moreover, random-effect regression models were employed to examine the association of changes in individual and household level factors with anemia prevalence among adolescents. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia decreased over time among adolescent boys (33 to 30%), whereas it increased among adolescent girls (59 to 63%). The results from the random-effect model show that adolescent boys who used shared toilets were more anemic than those who used a private restroom [ß:0.05, 95% CI:(0.01, 0.08)]. Moreover, underweight [ß:0.05, CI:(0.01, 0.09)] and thin [ß:0.04, CI:(0.00, 0.07)] adolescent boys were more likely to be anemic compared to their normal counterparts. Additionally, boys who belonged to the poorest [ß:0.08, CI:(0.02, 0.14)] households had a higher risk of anemia than the richest household. CONCLUSION: The anemia prevalence was higher among adolescents aged 10-19 years in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. This study has filled an information gap by providing state-level representative estimates indicating underweight status and thinness as the common factors behind the anemia prevalence among adolescent boys than in girls. Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent in certain age groups in India. Hence, Anemia prevention efforts and iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation programs are currently being strengthened in India, targeting the high-risk population.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Anemia , Adolescente , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807863

RESUMO

Under-five years of age is a critical period for children's growth and development. Nutritional deficiency during this period is associated with wasting, underweight and stunting. We aimed to conduct an epidemiological study using data derived from the GBD2019 to found the global distribution and changing trends of nutritional deficiencies among children under 5 years old, as well as the correlation between social development status and nutritional deficiencies. Nutritional deficiencies in children under 5 years has been substantially improved in the past decade; however, the progress has been unevenly distributed globally. The incidence and DALY rate decreased with the increase of socio-demographic index. In 2019, the incidence (51,872.0 per 100,000) was highest in Central Sub-Saharan Africa and the DALY rate (5597.1 per 100,000) was the highest in Western Sub-Saharan Africa. Among five subcategories of nutritional deficiencies in children under 5 years, vitamin A deficiency accounted for the largest proportion of incident cases (100,511,850, 62.1% in 2019), while the proportion of DALYs caused by protein-energy malnutrition was the highest (9,925,276, 62.0%). Nutritional deficiency in some countries remains worrisome, for whom policies guarantees and sustained efforts to control nutritional deficiencies are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Desnutrição , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Magreza/epidemiologia
5.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(2): 159-165, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859498

RESUMO

Background: There is a need to improve their nutritional status of under-five children through specific targeted interventions. The present study discusses the impact of intervention on nutritional status among under-five children in Palghar district from Maharashtra. Objective: The objective is to improve the nutritional status of under-five children by implementing multi-component health and nutrition education intervention, focusing on dietary counseling and modification keeping in view the cultural and socio-economic status of population. Methods: A prospective pre- and post-intervention study was conducted in two tribal blocks. Total 480 under-five children were included in pre- and post-intervention survey each. Results: Exclusive breastfeeding rates improved from 48.9% to 50.5% and initiation of complementary feeding at 6 months improved from 48.3% to 72.5% in post intervention survey as compared to preintervention survey. Among other Infant and Young Child Feeding indicators, Minimum Meal Frequency increased significantly to 67.03% from 5.91% and minimum acceptable diet improved from 5.37% to 47.2% in post intervention survey. The prevalence of Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) reduced from 5.4% to nil whereas severe stunting and underweight significantly decreased by 17% and 8% respectively in post intervention survey. Severe anemia decreased from 16.24% to nil post intervention. Conclusion: The study reveals a substantial improvement in timely initiation of complementary feeds, nil cases of SAM, stunting, and underweight along with severe anemia in postintervention phase. This highlights the impact of multicomponent health and nutrition education interventions which may be adapted at a programmatic level to reduce child mortality and morbidity in India.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Magreza , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Mães/educação , Estudos Prospectivos , Magreza/epidemiologia
6.
Iowa Orthop J ; 42(1): 41-46, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35821914

RESUMO

Background: Childhood obesity affects nearly one fifth of all children in the United States. Understanding the unique injury characteristics and treatment of tibia fractures in this population has become increasingly important. This study aims to explore the different injury characteristics between tibia fractures in obese and non-obese children. Methods: 215 skeletally immature children aged 2-18 who sustained tibia fractures between 2007.2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were analyzed by weight group: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese as defined by body mass index (BMI) percentile based upon age. Analyses were performed on dichotomized groups: underweight and normal weight versus overweight and obese. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used to compare differences in categorical outcome between the 2-category BMI class variables; Wilcoxon test was used to compare continuous outcomes. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to evaluate BMI associations while controlling for age, sex, race, and mechanism of injury. Results: Distribution of BMI in the cohort included 6.5% underweight, 45.6% normal weight, 16.7% overweight and 31.2% obese. Overweight and obese children sustained fractures from low energy mechanisms at more than double the rate of normal and underweight children (20.5% versus 9.7%, p=0.028). Overweight and obese children sustained physeal fractures at a rate of 54.4% in comparison with 28.6% in their normal and underweight peers (p<0.0001, OR 2.50 (95% CI, 1.26-4.95)). Overweight and obese children sustained distal 1/3 tibia fractures at a higher rate of 56.9% compared to under and normal weight children at 33.9% (p=0.003, OR 2.24 (95% CI, 1.17-4.30)). Overweight and obese children underwent unplanned changes in treatment at a lower rate than normal and underweight children at 1% versus 8% rates of treatment change, respectively (p=0.013, OR 0.076 (95%CI, 0.009-0.655)). No significant differences were found in the rates of operative treatment, repeat reduction, post treatment complications, or physical therapy. Conclusion: Overweight children sustain tibia fractures from low energy mechanisms at higher rates than their peers. Similarly, obese and overweight patients have higher rates of physeal injuries and higher rates of distal 1/3 tibia fractures. Complication rates are similar between obese and non-obese children undergoing treatment for tibia fractures. Level of Evidence: III.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Fraturas da Tíbia , Criança , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/epidemiologia , Tíbia , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia
7.
Hosp Pediatr ; 12(8): 734-743, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify associations between weight status and clinical outcomes in children with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) or asthma requiring hospitalization. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 2 to 17 year old children hospitalized for LRTI and/or asthma from 2009 to 2019 using electronic health record data from the PEDSnet clinical research network. Children <2 years, those with medical complexity, and those without a calculable BMI were excluded. Children were classified as having underweight, normal weight, overweight, or class 1, 2, or 3 obesity based on Body Mass Index percentile for age and sex. Primary outcomes were need for positive pressure respiratory support and ICU admission. Subgroup analyses were performed for children with a primary diagnosis of asthma. Outcomes were modeled with mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression incorporating age, sex, and payer as fixed effects. RESULTS: We identified 65 132 hospitalizations; 6.7% with underweight, 57.8% normal weight, 14.6% overweight, 13.2% class 1 obesity, 5.0% class 2 obesity, and 2.8% class 3 obesity. Overweight and obesity were associated with positive pressure respiratory support (class 3 obesity versus normal weight odds ratio [OR] 1.62 [1.38-1.89]) and ICU admission (class 3 obesity versus normal weight OR 1.26 [1.12-1.42]), with significant associations for all categories of overweight and obesity. Underweight was also associated with positive pressure respiratory support (OR 1.39 [1.24-1.56]) and ICU admission (1.40 [1.30-1.52]). CONCLUSIONS: Both underweight and overweight or obesity are associated with increased severity of LRTI or asthma in hospitalized children.


Assuntos
Asma , Transtornos Respiratórios , Infecções Respiratórias , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/terapia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso , Estudos Retrospectivos , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/epidemiologia
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 877073, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35784251

RESUMO

Introduction: Malnutrition among adolescents is a persistent problem with a profound impact on different dimensions of health. The objective of this analysis is to assess the burden of malnutrition (Stunting, Thinness, Overweight, and Obesity) and their associated socio-demographic factors among Indian adolescents (10-19 years) from the Comprehensive National Nutritional Survey (CNNS 2016-18) data. Methods: We used Individual-level data of 35,831 adolescents from the CNNS conducted in 2016-18 for this analysis. CNNS collected data on the nutritional status of adolescents along with socio-demographic variables from all states of India. Burden of stunting (Height for age Z score, HAZ < -2 SD), thinness (BMI for age Z score, BAZ < -2 SD), overweight (BAZ > 1 SD) and obesity (BAZ > 2 SD) were estimated for the entire country and individual states. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the socio-demographic factors associated with stunting, thinness, and overweight. Results: CNNS collected data from 35,831 adolescents, of which 31,941 with BAZ scores, and 32,045 with HAZ scores were included in the final analysis. The burden of stunting and thinness among Indian adolescents was 27.4% (95% CI 26.4, 28.4%) and 24.4% (23.5, 25.4%), respectively. The burden of overweight and obesity was 4.8% (4.5, 5.1%) and 1.1% (0.9, 1.3%), respectively. Adolescents in the age group of 15-19 years (AOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11, 1.36) compared to 10-14 years, females (AOR 1.20; 1.08, 1.33) compared to males, were at increased odds of getting stunted. Adolescents from lowest wealth index families (AOR 1.66; 1.33, 2.07) were at increased odds of thinness compared to peers of higher wealth index families. Adolescents of 10-14 years (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06, 1.49) compared to 15-19 years, urban residents (AOR 1.43, 95% CI 1.19, 1.71) compared to rural residents, were at increased odds of overweight. Conclusion: Indian adolescents face the double burden of malnutrition that is undernutrition (stunting and thinness) alongside overnutrition (overweight and obesity) that are linked with socio-demographic factors. The National Nutritional Programs (POSHAN Abhiyan) should prioritize high-risk groups specifically older age group (15-19 years), females, and low wealth Index quintile families identified in this analysis.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 445, 2022 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35879700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child health, especially childhood mortality, is one of the critical indicators of human development. No child mortality is desirable, but it is still high in Bangladesh. We aimed to assess the effect of the child's desired status on childhood morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh. METHODS: We used the data from the nationally representative cross-sectional Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2017-18 and restricted the analyses to children born in the past five years preceding the survey. We estimated the undesired status (excess in boy, girl, both, and parity) by subtracting an ideal number of children from the total live birth. We measured childhood mortality (perinatal, early neonatal, neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child, and under-five mortality), morbidity (fever, diarrhea, cough, and acute respiratory infectious-ARI), nutritional problems (stunting, wasting, underweight, and low birth weight), and treatments (postnatal care, treatment for fever, diarrhea/cough, and vitamin A supplementation). Finally, we utilized the chi-square test and multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence of undesired children was 19.2%, 21.5%, 3.7%, and 25.4% for boys, girls, both boys and girls, and parity, respectively. Age, education, residence, division, and wealth index were significantly associated with undesired children. The prevalence of under-five mortality was 3.3% among desired children, almost double (5.4%) among undesired children. The likelihood of under-five mortality was [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.05, p ≤ 0.001] higher among undesired children. Despite lower under-five mortality among higher socioeconomic status, the relative contribution of undesired children to under-fiver mortality was substantial. The undesired girl children were associated with an increased likelihood of moderately wasting (aOR: 1.28, p = 0.072), severely underweight (aOR: 1.41, p = 0.066), and low birth weight (aOR: 1.50, p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the undesired children were 19% (p ≤ 0.05) more likely to be infected with fever. The undesired children had lower treatment for diarrhea and fever/cough and were less likely to get vitamin A supplementation (aOR: 0.71, p ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The share of childhood morbidity, mortality, and malnutrition were higher among undesired children. Every child should be wanted, and no unwanted pregnancies are desirable; thereby, the government should reemphasize the proper use of family planning methods to reduce child mortality and malnutrition.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Magreza , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Tosse , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Vitamina A
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2224417, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35904782

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have examined the association between underweight in the first 2 years and growth in later childhood in high-income countries. Objective: To evaluate the associations of underweight in the first 2 years of life with body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) z score (zBMI), weight-for-age z score (WAZ), and height-for-age z score (HAZ) from ages 2 to 10 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study was conducted between February 2008 to September 2020 in The Applied Research Group for Kids! practice-based research network in Toronto, Canada. Participants included healthy children aged 0 to 10 years. Data were analyzed from October 2020 to December 2021. Exposures: Underweight (ie, zBMI less than -2, per the World Health Organization) in the first 2 years of life. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was zBMI from ages 2 to 10 years. Linear mixed-effects models were used to account for multiple growth measures over time. Results: A total of 5803 children were included in the primary analysis. At baseline, the mean (SD) age was 4.07 (5.62) months, 2982 (52.2%) were boys, and 550 children (9.5%) were underweight. Underweight in the first 2 years was associated with lower zBMI (difference, -0.39 [95% CI, -0.48 to -0.31]) at 10 years and lower HAZ (difference, -0.24 [95% CI, -0.34 to -0.14]) at age 2 years. Stratified by sex, at age 10 years, girls and boys with underweight in the first 2 years both had lower zBMI (girls: difference, -0.47 [95% CI, -0.59 to -0.34]; boys: difference, -0.32 [95% CI, -0.44 to -0.20]). At age 10 years, children with underweight and a lower zBMI growth rate in the first 2 years had lower zBMI (difference, -0.64 [95% CI, -0.77 to -0.53) and HAZ (difference, -0.12 [-0.24 to -0.01]), while children with underweight and a higher zBMI growth rate in the first 2 years had similar zBMI (difference, -0.11 [95% CI, -0.22 to 0.001]) and higher HAZ (difference, 0.16 [95% CI, 0.05 to 0.27]) compared with children who did not have underweight in the first 2 years. Conclusions and Relevance: In this prospective cohort study, children with underweight in the first 2 years of life had lower zBMI and HAZ in later childhood. These associations were attenuated among children with a higher growth rate in the first 2 years.


Assuntos
Estatura , Magreza , Índice de Massa Corporal , Canadá , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Magreza/epidemiologia
11.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 26(7): 688-697, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842759

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our study aims to explore the association between ultra-processed foods (UPFs) and frailty in participants with different body mass indexes (BMIs). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2000 and 2001-2002. PARTICIPANTS: We analyzed data from 2,329 participants. MEASUREMENTS: Dietary data were obtained using 24-h dietary recall method. Frail status was assessed by modified Fried frailty phenotype. The association between the grams, energy, and energy proportion of UPFs and the risk of pre-frailty/frailty was estimated using logistic regression analysis, and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Participants were categorized into underweight-normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m2), overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2), and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) groups. The multiplicative interaction between BMIs and UPFs on pre-frailty/frailty was assessed using the logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 2,329 participants, and 2,267 (97.77%) of whom consumed UPFs. There were 1,063 participants in pre-frailty or frailty group and 1,266 participants in non-frailty group. In underweight-normal weight participants, every 100 kcal increase in energy of UPFs intake was associated with increased 0.08 times of pre-frailty or frailty risk (OR: 1.08, 95%CI: 1.00-1.16, P = 0.045), and every 10% increase in energy proportion of UPFs intake was correlated with a 0.02-fold increase in pre-frailty or frailty risk (OR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00-1.03, P = 0.018). Similar results were found in overweight participants, with OR of 1.06 (95%CI: 1.01-1.10) and 1.01 (95%CI: 1.00-1.02) for energy and energy proportion, respectively (both P < 0.05). This association was not found in obesity participants. CONCLUSION: The energy and energy proportion of UPFs intake was positively associated with the frailty risk in underweight-normal weight and overweight people, indicating that population with BMI less than 30 kg/m2 should pay more attention to reasonable diet and balanced source of energy intake.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Sobrepeso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/etiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 26(7): 706-713, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Investigate trends in the prevalence of obesity and malnutrition among very old adults (age ≥ 85 years) between 2000 and 2017. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, MEASUREMENTS: A study with data from the Umeå 85+/Gerontological regional database population-based cohort study of very old adults in northern Sweden. Every 5 years from 2000-2002 to 2015-2017, comprehensive assessments of participants were performed during home visits (N=1602). Body mass index (BMI) classified participants as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores classified participants as malnourished (0 to <17), at risk of malnutrition (17-23.5), and having good nutritional status (24-30). Prevalence and trends were examined using analysis of variance and chi-squared tests, including subgroup analyses of nursing home residents. RESULTS: Between 2000-2002 and 2015-2017, the mean BMI increased from 24.8± 4.7 to 26.0± 4.7 kg/m2. The prevalence of obesity and underweight were 13.4% and 7.6%, respectively, in 2000-2002 and 18.3% and 3.0%, respectively, in 2015-2017. The mean MNA score increased between 2000-2002 and 2010-2012 (from 23.2± 4.7 to 24.2± 3.6), and had decreased (to 23.3± 4.2) by 2015-2017. The prevalence of malnutrition was 12.2%, 5.1%, and 8.7% in 2000-2002, 2010-2012, and 2015-2017, respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed similar BMI and MNA score patterns among nursing home residents. CONCLUSIONS: Among very old adults, the mean BMI and prevalence of obesity seemed to increase between 2000-2002 and 2015-2017. Meanwhile, the nutritional status (according to MNA scores) seemed to improve between 2000-2002 and 2010-2012, it declined by 2015-2017.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Magreza , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Casas de Saúde , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886516

RESUMO

Anemia among under-five children is the major health problem in Nepal. The lack of nutritional supplementation and lack of healthcare facilities are influential factors of anemia. Thus, the main objective of this study is to explore spatial variations and determinants of anemia among under-five children in Nepal. Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data from 2006 to 2016 were used in this study, which includes: household and individual-level data of 8555 under-five children, whose anemia was measured. In addition, a total of 260 (2006), 281 (2011), and 383 DHS clusters (2016) were taken in consideration for spatial analysis. The overall prevalence of anemia was 48.9%, 46.4%, and 52.2% in 2006, 2011, and 2016 respectively. The spatial analysis revealed a nonrandom spatial distribution, where statistically significant hotspots and coldspots were detected in different parts of the country. The results also identified mother's age, mother's educational level, socioeconomic status of household, number of under-5 children, household size, birth weight, underweight, stunting, diarrhea, and fever as associated factors of anemia among under-5 children. These findings may provide assistance to concerned health officials in adopting anemia-related programs and policies to address the anemia problems that plague Nepalese children under the age of five.


Assuntos
Anemia , Transtornos do Crescimento , Anemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Nepal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia
14.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889779

RESUMO

China is confronted with a "double burden" of underweight and overweight/obesity in children and adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of meeting 24 h movement and dietary guidelines among Chinese children and adolescents. Further, the study aimed to examine the association of meeting 24 h movement and dietary guidelines with weight status in Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 34,887 Chinese children and adolescents were involved. Only 2.1% of participants met the 24 h movement guidelines. Compared to those who met all three 24 h movement guidelines, those who only met the sleep duration guideline was significantly associated with a higher risk of underweight (p < 0.05), and those who only met the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, or screen time guidelines were significantly associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity (p < 0.05). Compared with those meeting the dietary guidelines, those who did not meet the soft drink intake guideline had a significantly lower risk of underweight (p < 0.05), those who did not meet the fruit intake guideline had a significantly lower risk of overweight/obesity (p < 0.05), and those who did not meet the milk intake guideline showed a significantly higher risk of overweight/obesity (p < 0.001). These findings indicate a significant association between meeting the 24 h movement and dietary guidelines and weight status among Chinese children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Sono , Magreza/epidemiologia
15.
Nutrients ; 14(14)2022 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35889888

RESUMO

Weight-related status has been associated with the physical and psychological health of adolescents. This cross-sectional study evaluated three different kinds of weight-related statuses (Body Mass Index (BMI), weight self-perception and weight teasing from others) among Chinese adolescents and identified their associations with health risk behaviors (lack of healthy dietary behavior, unhealthy dietary behavior, binge eating behavior, lack of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors (SB) and sleep disturbance). A stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select 10,070 students aged 11-18 years old from schools in Shanghai. Self-reported questionnaires were collected, weight-related statuses were divided into three categories and six specific health risk behaviors were classified into two groups: positive or negative. Overall, 27.82% of the adolescents were classified as being overweight and obese (35.61% of boys and 18.21% of girls), 43.45% perceived themselves as too heavy and 30.46% experienced weight teasing in the past. Among overweight or obese participants, 50.55% have been teased about their weight, and 77.48% perceived themselves as too heavy. Weight perception and weight teasing were significantly associated with health risk behaviors rather than the actual body weight status based on BMI, especially regarding binge eating behavior (body weight status (BMI): p > 0.05, underweight perception: OR = 1.18, 95%CI 1.03-1.34; weight teasing for more than once a year: OR = 2.00, 95%CI 1.76-2.27). In addition, weight perception and weight teasing were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, mainly in normal and overweight/obese groups but not in underweight groups. Weight teasing and weight self-perception play an independent and stronger role than actual body weight in the health behaviors of adolescents. This calls for more attention and intervention to reduce peer bullying and stigmas on weight among adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Percepção de Peso , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Imagem Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia
16.
Vopr Pitan ; 91(3): 64-72, 2022.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35852979

RESUMO

The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity is an urgent problem not only in adults but also in children in both developed and developing countries. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of overweight and obesity and other forms of nutritional disorders in Russian children. Material and methods. The nutritional status of 17 329 children aged 2-18 years was assessed on the basis of anthropometric data, obtained by the Federal State Statistics Service during the "Sample Survey of the Population's Diet" in 2018. The prevalence of various forms of malnutrition was assessed by the Z-score categories: underweight, stunted growth (short stature), thinness, overweight, obesity. Results. Population mean and median values of Z-scores in all sex-age groups do not exceed ±0.5 in relation to WHO standards, which indicates the applicability of the standards to assessing the nutritional status of Russian children population. High body weight (WAZ>2) occurs in 7.6% of children, underweight in 2.6%. The incidence of short stature in boys and girls is 7.0 and 6.8%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in boys is 20.4 and 10.4%, respectively, while in girls, 15.4 and 7.6%. In general, in the population of children 2-18 years old, the prevalence of overweight is 18%, and obesity is 9.1%. The index of malnutrition, including the sum of the frequency of various combinations of low Z-scores (<-2), characterizing underweight, short stature, thinness, and their combinations was 8.0%. The multilevel logistic regression showed that overweight and obesity inversely depend on age; the risk of developing these conditions is lower in the city, but higher in male children compared to female children. Conclusion. The population of children 2-18 years old in the Russian Federation is characterized by a low incidence of forms of malnutrition, such as underweight and thinness. However, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is higher than in European countries.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e052822, 2022 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the association of overweight and obesity with hypertension, diabetes and comorbidity among the adults of Bangladesh. STUDY DESIGN: This study used cross-sectional data from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 2017-2018. The main outcome variables were hypertension, diabetes and comorbidity. Comorbidity was defined as the coexistence of hypertension and diabetes. Overweight and obesity, as measured by body mass index, were the main explanatory variables. The strength of the association was determined using the adjusted multiple logistic regression models. SETTING: Rural and urban areas in Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: The study included a total of 11 881 adults (5241 men and 6640 women) aged 18 years or older. RESULTS: The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and comorbidity among the sample population were 28.5%, 9.9% and 4.5%, respectively. Among the respondents, 20.1% were overweight and 4.1% were obese. The risk of hypertension was 2.47 times more likely in the overweight group (adjusted OR (AOR) 2.47; 95% CI 2.22 to 2.75) and 2.65 times more likely in the obese group (AOR 2.65; 95% CI 2.16 to 3.26) compared with the normal or underweight group. Adults who were overweight and obese had 59% (AOR 1.59; 95% CI 1.37 to 1.84) and 88% (AOR 1.88; 95% CI 1.46 to 2.42) higher odds of having diabetes, respectively, than normal or underweight adults. Moreover, the risk of comorbidity was 2.21 times higher in overweight adults (AOR 2.21; 95% CI 1.81 to 2.71) and 2.86 times higher in obese adults (AOR 2.86; 95% CI 2.09 to 3.91) compared with normal or underweight adults. CONCLUSIONS: Using large-scale nationally representative data, we found that overweight and obesity were significantly associated with hypertension, diabetes and comorbidity. So, nationally representative data can be used for programme planning to prevent and treat these chronic conditions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/epidemiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0272038, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35877657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and poor nutritional status are growing health problems in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Moreover, violence against women has been shown to be associated with poor nutrition. This study investigated the relationship between IPV and nutritional status (i.e., underweight, overweight, and obesity) among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in Zimbabwe. METHODS: Pooled data from the 2005/2006, 2010/2011, and 2015 Zimbabwe Demographic Health Surveys (ZDHS) on 13,008 married/cohabiting women were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between the various forms of IPV and the nutritional status of women. We further estimated the prevalence of BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 (overweight and obesity) by intimate partner violence type. RESULTS: The mean BMI of women was 24.3 kg/m2, more than one-fifth (24%) were overweight and about 12% were obese. Forty-three percent (43%) of women reported to have ever experienced at least one form of intimate partner violence. More than one-third (35%) of women who reported to have ever experienced at least one form of intimate partner violence had a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 (p< 0.01). Relative to normal weight, women who had ever experienced at least one form of IPV (i.e., physical, emotional, or sexual) were more likely to be obese (aOR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.05-6.39). Women's exposure to any form of intimate partner violence was not significantly associated with the likelihood of being underweight or overweight relative to normal weight. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings show that women of reproductive age in Zimbabwe are at high risk of both IPV and excess weight. Moreover, we found a positive relationship between exposure to at least one form IPV and obesity. Public health interventions that target the well-being, empowerment and development of women are needed to address the complex issue of IPV and adverse health outcomes, including obesity.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
19.
East Mediterr Health J ; 28(6): 407-417, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815872

RESUMO

Background: There is a paucity of data on the secular trends of stunting and overweight among children aged < 5 years in oil-rich countries in the Middle East. Aims: To examine the secular trends of stunting, underweight and overweight in children aged < 5 years in Kuwait between 2007 and 2019. Methods: We used large individual data records (n=48 108) from the Kuwait Nutritional Surveillance System (KNSS) to calculate height/length-for-age z score (HAZ), weight-for-age z score and body mass index (BMI)-for-age z score using World Health Organization growth references. Stunting and underweight were defined as < -2 standard deviation (SD) and overweight (including obesity) as ≥ +2 SD. Trends of stunting, underweight and overweight were investigated using logistic regression models. Results: The prevalence of stunting, underweight and overweight was 5.15%, 2.33% and 10.78%, respectively. Stunting increased during the study period, among children aged < 2 years. There was no increasing trend in overweight during the study period. These findings were corroborated by the distribution of HAZ and BMI-for-age z scores. Current prevalence of combined stunting and overweight was 1.53% in boys and 1.98% in girls. Conclusion: Current prevalence of stunting and underweight is low in Kuwait indicating that undernutrition is no longer a major public health issue. There is a tendency for stunting to increase in children aged < 2 years, highlighting the need to investigate early causes of stunting such as maternal and pregnancy-related factors.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Magreza , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Kuweit/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1334, 2022 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35831815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study explores inequality of opportunity in terms of the health of adult Indonesian people, associated with household and parental circumstances in childhood and adolescence. METHODS: Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, this study measures inequalities relating to being underweight, overweight, hypertensive and diabetic across adult Indonesians aged between 20 and 35 through the dissimilarity index. This study explores their determinants by decomposing the observed inequality levels into contributing factors. Moreover, this study sheds light on the underlying mechanisms through which early-life circumstances influence the health of grown-up respondents, by estimating the intermediate effects of early-life circumstances on current lifestyles. RESULTS: For all health conditions, health risks are unequally distributed (all p<0.01). Demographic factors and parental health are major contributors to inequalities relating to being underweight, overweight and hypertensive. Family structure and parental occupation are major contributors to inequality in diabetes. The greater part of this inequality is explained by the indirect pathways through which early-life circumstances mediate current diet and exercise habits. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that such interventions that compensate for disadvantaged early-life circumstances would be essential in reducing future health risks and mitigating health inequality.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Magreza , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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