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1.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 664-670, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895617

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second-leading cause of cancer-related death among women. Inconsistent findings for the relationship between melatonin levels, sleep duration and breast cancer have been reported. We investigated the association of sleep duration at cohort entry and its interaction with body mass index (BMI) with risk of developing breast cancer in the large population-based Multiethnic Cohort study. Among the 74,481 at-risk participants, 5,790 breast cancer cases were identified during the study period. Although we detected no significant association between sleep duration and breast cancer incidence, higher risk estimates for short (HR = 1.03; 95% CI: 0.97-1.09) and long sleep (HR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.95-1.15) compared to normal sleep (7-8 hr) were found. The patterns for models stratified by age, BMI, ethnicity and hormone receptor status were similar but did not indicate significant interaction effects. When examining the combined sleep duration and BMI interaction effect, in comparison to the normal BMI-normal sleep group, risk estimates for underweight, overweight and obesity were similar across categories of sleep duration (≤6, 7-8, and ≥9 hr). The underweight-normal sleep group had lower breast cancer incidence (HR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.50-0.86), whereas the overweight-short sleep, overweight-normal sleep group and all obese women experienced elevated breast cancer incidence. The respective HRs for short, normal and long sleep among obese women were 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20-1.53), 1.27 (95% CI: 1.15-1.42) and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.21-1.76). Future perspectives need to examine the possibility that sleep quality, variations in circadian rhythm and melatonin are involved in breast cancer etiology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , California/epidemiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/complicações , Fatores de Tempo
2.
BMJ ; 367: l6540, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the US government's Feed the Future initiative on nutrition outcomes in children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Difference-in-differences quasi-experimental approach. SETTING: Households in 33 low and lower middle income countries in sub-Saharan Africa. POPULATION: 883 309 children aged less than 5 years with weight, height, and age recorded in 118 surveys conducted in 33 countries between 2000 and 2017: 388 052 children were from Feed the Future countries and 495 257 were from non-Feed the Future countries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A difference-in-differences approach was used to compare outcomes among children in intervention countries after implementation of the initiative with children before its introduction and children in non-intervention countries, controlling for relevant covariates, time invariant national differences, and time trends. The primary outcome was stunting (height for age >2 standard deviations below a reference median), a key indicator of undernutrition in children. Secondary outcomes were wasting (low weight for height) and underweight (low weight for age). RESULTS: Across all years and countries, 38.3% of children in the study sample were stunted, 8.9% showed wasting, and 21.3% were underweight. In the first six years of Feed the Future's implementation, children in 12 countries with the initiative exhibited a 3.9 percentage point (95% confidence interval 2.4 to 5.5) greater decline in stunting, a 1.1 percentage point (0.1 to 2.1) greater decline in wasting, and a 2.8 percentage point (1.6 to 4.0) greater decline in underweight levels compared with children in 21 countries without the initiative and compared with trends in undernutrition before Feed the Future was launched. These decreases translate to around two million fewer stunted and underweight children aged less than 5 years and around a half million fewer children with wasting. For context, about 22 million children were stunted, 11 million children were underweight, and four million children were wasted in the Feed the Future countries at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Feed the Future's activities were closely linked to notable improvements in stunting and underweight levels and moderate improvements in wasting in children younger than 5 years. These findings highlight the effectiveness of this large, country tailored initiative focused on agriculture and food security and have important implications for the future of this and other nutrition interventions worldwide.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estado Nutricional , Magreza/epidemiologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Magreza/terapia
3.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1897-1909, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656473

RESUMO

Background: One of the public health problems in developing countries is child malnutrition. An important factor for children's well-being is good nutrition. Therefore, the malnutrition status of children under the age of five is an important outcome measure for children's health. This study uses the proportional odds model to identify risk factors associated with child malnutrition in Ethiopia using the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data. Methods: This study uses the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey results. Based on weight-for-height anthropometric index (Z-score) child nutrition status is categorized into four levels namely- underweight, normal, overweight and obese. Since this leads to an ordinal variable for nutrition status, an ordinal logistic regression (OLR)proportional odds model (POM) is an obvious choice for analysis. Results: The findings and comparison of results using the cumulative logit model with and without complex survey design are presented. The study results revealed that to produce the appropriate estimates and standard errors for data that were obtained from complex survey design, model fitting based on taking the survey sampling design into account is better. It has also been found that for children under the age of five, weight of a child at birth, mother's age, mother's Body Mass Index (BMI), marital status of mother and region (Affar, Dire Dawa, Gambela, Harari and Somali) were influential variables significantly associated with underfive children's nutritional status in Ethiopia. Conclusion: This child's age of a child, sex, weight of child at birth, mother's BMI and region of residence were significant determinants of malnutrition of children under five years in Ethiopia. The effect of these determinants can be used to develop strategies for reducing child malnutrition in Ethiopia. Moreover, these findings show that OLR proportional odds model is appropriate assessing thedeterminants of malnutrition for ordinal nutritional status of underfive children in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/diagnóstico , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) is an important data source for assessing the occurrence of underweight, overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Germany. However, to assess trends over time, it must be considered that methodological changes in the calculation of prevalences have been necessary and that the reference system has been revised. OBJECTIVE: Are the effects of the methodological changes in weighting factors and reference systems so important that they significantly influence the available prevalence estimates and statements on trends over time? MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data are based on valid measurements of body height and weight from the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006, 7531 boys and 7215 girls) and from KiGGS Wave 2 (2014-2017, 1762 boys and 1799 girls). The participants were aged between 3 and 17 years. Prevalences (%, 95% CI) of underweight, overweight and obesity for the KiGGS baseline survey were calculated depending on the reference system and different weighting factors used. RESULTS: The statements on the temporal trend in the prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity remain valid even when methodological changes are taken into account. Only among 16- and especially 17-year-old girls, can a noticeable difference due to the altered reference system be noted. DISCUSSION: With regard to the trend examined here, the methodological changes can be neglected, as long as no small subgroups are analysed. However, this conclusion cannot be generalised; the effects of methodological changes must be re-examined for each study question.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current results of the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents" (KiGGS Wave 2, 2014-2017) indicate that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Germany has hardly changed during this period. OBJECTIVES: What are the current prevalences for the other categories of the BMI distribution (severe underweight, underweight, and extreme obesity) and what changes have occurred between the KiGGS baseline survey (2003-2006) and KiGGS Wave 2 with regard to the BMI categories and the distribution of BMI values? MATERIALS AND METHODS: KiGGS Wave 2 analyses are based on data from 1762 boys and 1799 girls aged 3 to 17 years with valid measurements of height and weight. The KiGGS baseline survey provides information on 7531 boys and 7215 girls for trend evaluations. RESULTS: For underweight prevalence as well as for the prevalence of extreme obesity no change over time can be observed. The BMI percentiles also show only minor differences between the two survey periods with a marginal shift of the upper BMI percentiles downwards before puberty and a slight increase after puberty. There is no clear shift in the BMI distribution towards lower BMI values. DISCUSSION: There are now many activities at the national, regional, and local level that focus on prevention and intervention to reduce overweight and obesity. The marginal shifts in the upper BMI percentiles in the upper BMI percentiles before puberty observed here suggest that some success may have been achieved in obesity prevention among children in Germany.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509998

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic predictors of malnutrition in two urbanized economically active provinces (Gauteng N = 733, Western Cape N = 593) in South Africa. A multistage stratified cluster random sampling design was applied. Fieldworkers visited homes, measured children aged 1-<10-years old (N = 1326) and administered a questionnaire (mother/primary caregiver). In under-five year old children (N = 674) 21.6% were stunted [height-for-age z-score < -2 SD], 5.6 % underweight [weight-for-age z-score < -2 SD], 10.3% overweight (body mass index-for-age z-score) (BAZ)> +2 SD ≤ +3 SD] and 7.0% obese (BAZ > +3 SD). In 5-<10-year olds (N = 626) 6.7% were stunted, 6.8% underweight, 13.4% overweight and 6.8% obese. Stunting and overweight in the same child was present in 5.7% under-five year olds and 1.7% in 5-<10-year olds. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified having a mother with a post-grade 12 qualification (OR = 0.34) and having an obese mother (OR 0.46) as protectors and being in the under-five age group (OR = 3.73) as a risk factor for stunting. Being in the under-five age group was also a risk factor for a BAZ > 1 (OR 2.39), while being in the third wealth quintile was protective (OR = 0.62). Results indicate that stunting and overweight/obesity are still present at concerning levels, especially in the under-five age group.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Urbanização
7.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(9): 578-587, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526297

RESUMO

This study aimed to clarify the association between mothers' problematic Internet use (PIU) and the thinness of their children. We analyzed data collected from health examinations of young children aged 4 months, 1.5 years, and 3 years of age performed in Matsue city, Japan, between April 2016 and March 2017. The subjects comprised 1,685 (866 boys, 819 girls) children aged 4 months, 1,728 (898 boys, 830 girls) aged 1.5 years, and 1,672 (802 boys, 870 girls) aged 3 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to clarify the association between mothers' PIU (Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction score: ≥4) and the thinness (body mass index: <15) of their children after adjusting for covariates such as birth weight, nutritional form, parental smoking status, maternal age, skipping breakfast, eating snacks, sleeping late, outdoor play, and daytime caregiver. Analysis after stratification by sex and age revealed that the mothers' PIU was significantly associated with their children's thinness only in boys aged 4 months or 1.5 years (odds ratio [OR] = 3.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-9.96 and OR = 2.68, 95% CI = 1.04-6.89, respectively). Mothers' PIU may promote thinness among boys aged <3 years. As the nutritional status of children aged <3 years is affected by maternal feeding attitudes, our findings suggested that mothers who exhibit PIU do not provide adequate care for their children, particularly regarding feeding. In contrast, no association between mothers' PIU and their children's thinness was observed in girls.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/epidemiologia , Internet , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Food insecurity and pediatric obesity affect young children. We examine how food insecurity relates to obesity, underweight, stunting, health, and development among children <4 years of age. METHODS: Caregivers of young children participated in a cross-sectional survey at medical centers in 5 US cities. Inclusion criteria were age of <48 months. Exclusion criteria were severely ill or injured and private health insurance. The Household Food Security Survey Module defined 3 exposure groups: food secure, household food insecure and child food secure, and household food insecure and child food insecure. Dependent measures were obesity (weight-age >90th percentile), underweight (weight-age <5th percentile), stunting (height/length-age <5th percentile), and caregiver-reported child health and developmental risk. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographic confounders, maternal BMI, and food assistance program participation examined relations between exposure groups and dependent variables, with age-stratification: 0 to 12, 13 to 24, 25 to 36, and 37 to 48 months of age. RESULTS: Within this multiethnic sample (N = 28 184 children, 50% non-Hispanic African American, 34% Hispanic, 14% non-Hispanic white), 27% were household food insecure. With 1 exception at 25 to 36 months, neither household nor child food insecurity were associated with obesity, underweight, or stunting, but both were associated with increased odds of fair or poor health and developmental risk at multiple ages. CONCLUSIONS: Among children <4 years of age, food insecurity is associated with fair or poor health and developmental risk, not with anthropometry. Findings support American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for food insecurity screening and referrals to help families cope with economic hardships and associated stressors.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Arkansas/epidemiologia , Baltimore/epidemiologia , Boston/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Análise de Regressão
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 34, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384349

RESUMO

Introduction: A cross-sectional study was conducted between the months of April to October 2015, to determine the effects of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) on nutritional status of school age children in Owerri and Orlu geographical zones, in Imo State, Nigeria. Methods: Faecal samples were examined using Kato Katz method and formol-ether concentration techniques, while blood samples were examined using cyamethahaemoglobin method. Anthropometric indices were used as indicators of nutritional status, children whose Height-for-Age, Weight-for-Age and Weight-for-Height were <-2 standard deviation (SD) were classified as stunted, wasted, and underweight respectively. Results: Total prevalence rate of 16.6% was recorded in the study areas with Ascaris lumbricoides (4.0%), Trichuris trichiura (0.6%), Hookworm (1.0%) Taenia sp (0.3%), Entaomeba histolytica (5.3%), Entamoeba coli (2.7%) and Giardia lambia (2.7) Majority (73.4%) of the children had light intensity. Anthropometric study results showed that 79(31.3%) of the children were malnourished. The prevalence of stunting, under-weight and wasting were higher in uninfected (86.1%, 90.0% and 10%) respectively than in infected children (13.9%, 10.0% and 0.0%) respectively, although not significant at p = 0.857, 0.587 and 0.368 respectively. Prevalence of anaemia was 17.4%, anaemia was insignificantly (p = 0.09) higher in infected (21.1%) than in uninfected (16.5%) children. Children that had co-infection recorded higher prevalence (2.2%) of severe anaemia. There was an association (p = 0.002) between anaemia and intensity of helminth infection. Malnutrition was insignificantly (p = 0.319) higher in children with heavy (100.0%) and moderate (75.0%) intensity of helminth infection than children that had light intensity (41.7%) of helminth infection. Conclusion: When compared with previous study, there were decline in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and anaemia among school age children. Low intensity parasitemia with intestinal parasites had no significant effect on the malnutrition and haemoglobin profile of the children in the study areas. Therefore, improved sanitation and more deworming efforts should be intensified to ensure further decline in prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Anemia/parasitologia , Criança , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/parasitologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/complicações , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/parasitologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/parasitologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1021, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366336

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and to further explore gender differences in BMI-HRQOL association among adults. METHODS: We used data from the fifth Health Service Survey of Shandong Province, which was part of China's National Health Service Survey (NHSS), a total of 27,257 adults aged 18 and over were interviewed. The HRQOL was measured using the EuroQOL-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) instrument. One-way ANOVA and Post hoc tests were used to compare EQ-5D utility values and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores between BMI categories. Tobit regression models were used to identify the association between BMI and HRQOL for male and female separately after controlling for influential confounders, and to assess gender differences on the relationship between BMI and HRQOL. RESULTS: The prevalence of underweight in men and women were 3.2 and 5.3%, respectively, while the prevalence of overweight/obesity in men and women were 35.7 and 34.6%, respectively. Men had higher EQ-5D utility values and VAS scores than women. The mean EQ-5D utility value and VAS score was highest in obese men and normal-weight women, respectively. After controlling potential confounders, being underweight was significantly and negatively associated with lower HRQOL among adults. The relationship between obesity and gender was that in women obesity was negatively and significantly associated with HRQOL, whereas in men this association was positive but not statistically significant. Results of gender by BMI interaction in regression model showed that this difference between men and women in this respect was significant. CONCLUSIONS: The association between BMI and HRQOL differed by gender and the so-called "obesity-HRQOL paradox" phenomenon was verified in male adults. Gender difference should be considered when implementing targeted weight control programs and appropriate interventions to improve HRQOL.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Magreza/epidemiologia
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(7): 2443-2452, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340263

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of underweight among older adults according to socio-demographic characteristics in different regions of Brazil as well as determine associated contextual and individual factors. Cross-sectional population-based study with older adults (≥ 65 years) interviewed by telephone survey in 2014. The body mass index was calculated based on weight and height. Associations were determined using Pearson's chi-square test, considering a 5% significance level. Adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using multilevel Poisson regression. Mean age was 73.3 years and the prevalence of underweight was 15.6% (95%CI: 14.1-17.1%). Higher prevalence rates of underweight were found among women, individuals aged ≥ 80 years, smokers and those who reported the regular consumption of beans. The prevalence rate of underweight was lower among those who reported abusive alcohol intake and those with a medical diagnosis of hypertension. The northern region of the country had the highest prevalence of underweight after adjusting for associated individual factors. The findings demonstrate the subgroups with higher prevalence rates of underweight that demand greater attention from the health services in terms of recovering of an adequate nutritional status.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(6): 845-850, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with sleep quality in university students from the Anhui province in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in China with 1328 participants. The prevalence of underweight and obesity in university students was estimated according to the reference working group on obesity in China. The sleep quality was evaluated using the standard PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). RESULTS: This study included 470 male and 858 female students from a university in Anhui; 4.4% of the females and 17.7% of the males were overweight or obese. The prevalence of obesity in males was significantly higher than in females, and the prevalence of obesity in higher years was greater than in other years (p<0.05). In general, the mean score for sleep quality was 4.91±2.67; 36.5% of male and 39.1% of female students had poor sleep quality (PSQI score >5). Among the seven components of sleep quality, sleep duration and the use of sleep medication showed significant differences between male and female students and different years (p<0.05). An obvious correlation was found between sleep quality and body mass index (BMI)(p<0.000) in females who took hypnotic drugs. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the sleep quality of females is probably associated with their BMI. College students are a special group of young adults whose cause of poor sleeping quality and BMI may be significant to study, so the health status of university students can be improved.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 391, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296269

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for malnutrition among children aged 0-59 months in Ethiopia. The analyzed data were obtained from the 2016 EDHS and 9495 under-5 years' children were considered in this analysis. The data was extracted, edited and analyzed by using SPSS Version 23.0. Both bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression model was used to identify the determinants of children malnutrition. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight were 38.3%, 10.1%, and 23.3%, respectively. About 19.47% of children were both stunted and underweighted, and only 3.87% of children had all the three conditions. Among the factors that considered in this study, age of a child, residence region, mothers' education level, mothers' BMI, household wealth index, sex of a child, family size, water and toilet facility were significantly associated with malnutrition in Ethiopia. The authors concluded that malnutrition among under-five children was one of the public health problems in Ethiopia. Therefore, the influence of these factors should be considered to develop strategies for reducing malnutrition in Ethiopia.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Crescimento/diagnóstico , Estado Nutricional , Magreza/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Magreza/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 968, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopian, the prevalence of anemia among preschool aged children widely varied across regions. Since anemia adversely affects the cognitive and physical development of the children, it is important to determine its burden for implementing appropriate measurements. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the anemia prevalence and associated factors among preschool aged children. METHOD: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 432 preschool children in Menz Gera Midir district from January to May, 2017. A multi stage sampling procedure was applied to select the target groups. Hemocue analyzer for Haemoglobin determination; anthropometric measurements for assessment nutritional status, structured questionnaires for socio-demographic and economic variables were used for data collection. The morphological appearance of red blood cell was assessed microscopically to determine type of anemia. Descriptive statistics were employed to summarize the data and binary logistic regression was used for inferential statistics. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULT: The overall prevalence of anemia was 123 (28.5%); of which 38 (30.9%) and 85 (69.1%) were moderate and mild, respectively. Morphologically about 50.4, 37.4 and 12.2% were microcytic hypochromic, normocytic normochromic and macrocytic anemias, respectively. Child age 6-11 months (COR: 5.67, 95% CI: 2.2, 14.86), child age 12-23 months (COR: 5.8, 95% CI: 2.3, 14.7), wasting (COR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 9.8), stunting (COR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.92, 7.77), underweight (COR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.38), MUAC measurement below 13 cm (COR: 5.6, 95% CI: 2.83, 11.15), household headed by female (COR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.63), maternal anemia (COR: 4, 95% CI: 2.2, 7.23) and household food insecurity (COR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.12) were significantly associated with anemia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia among the children was found to be high and associated with child age group, child nutritional status, house hold headed by female, maternal anemia and household food insecurity. Further studies on nutritional anemia, community based nutritional education, iron supplementation to children at risk should be promoted.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330765

RESUMO

The study objectives were to determine the nutritional status of children between the ages of 12-60 months and to establish the association between attending preschool and the prevalence of undernutrition. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in health facilities in Tshwane district in South Africa, consisting of both a questionnaire and anthropometric measures of 1256 mothers and their children. Weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were calculated and bivariate and multivariable analysis was performed to establish association. The results showed that child-related factors, namely birthweight, age, gender, and attending preschool increased the risk of undernutrition. Children over the age of 24 months were likely to be stunted and underweight. Maternal education reduced the odds of underweight. Children who stayed at home had reduced odds of underweight and stunting. High birthweight reduced the odds of wasting and underweight. The risks for undernutrition are multifaceted, but children who attend preschool have an increased risk of undernutrition. The risk of undernutrition increased with age and coincided with the time of cessation of breast-feeding and attendance at daycare or preschool. The complementary role of quality childcare in preschools and daycare centers is vital in alleviating the problem of undernutrition in underprivileged communities.


Assuntos
Creches , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Instituições Acadêmicas , Magreza/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Creches/classificação , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Setor Informal , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/classificação , África do Sul/epidemiologia
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 98, 2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rapid growth and changes that occur in adolescents increase the demand for macro and micronutrients and addressing their needs particularly in females would be an important step to break the vicious cycle of intergenerational malnutrition. Thus we evaluated the status of anemia and its anthropometric, dietary and socio demographic determinants in female adolescents, west Ethiopia. METHODS: A school based cross-sectional study was conducted among school going adolescent girls of Wayu Tuqa district, south west Ethiopia and a 3-stage random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using STATA version12. Haemoglobin was measured by HemoCue 301+ photometer and WHO Anthro-plus software Version 1.0.4 was used to calculate BMI for age z-score. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to check associations and control confounding. A p-value <0.05 was considered statistically. RESULT: The overall prevalence of anemia was 27% (95% CI: 22.9-31%) of which 23, and 4% had mild and moderate anemia respectively. The proportion of thinness and overweight girls based on the BMI for age z-score was 33 and 3.6%, respectively. The odds of developing anemia were almost four times more likely among late adolescents as compared to early adolescents (AOR = 3.8 95%CI = 2.3 to 8.5).Adolescents from rural areas were 3.4 times more likely to have anemia as compared to their urban counterparts (AOR = 3.4 95%CI = 1.9 to7) and adolescents those who attained menarche were two times more likely to develop anemia compared to those who did not attained menarche (AOR = 2.3 95%CI = 1.34 to 4.2). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls was a moderate public health problem. To improve the prevailing nutritional problem, there must be inter-sectorial collaboration among health sectors and education sectors in providing nutritional education and counseling based on age and menarche status.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Antropometria , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 402, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status of adolescents in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. A secondary data was used to assess the association between dietary diversity and nutritional status of adolescents in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents in the age of 13-17 years old included in the analysis. The data cleaned, coded and analyzed using Stata version 14. RESULTS: Over all prevalence of stunting and thinness were 26.1% and 25.3%. Stunting was higher among female adolescents (23.8%) than male (21.9%), while thinness was higher among male (27.5%) than female (25.3%) adolescents. In multivariate binary logistic regression model, being female adolescents were 98% (AOR = 1.98; 95% CI 1.6, 2.4] higher odd of stunted compared with those male adolescents, households had food insecurity were 67% [AOR = 1.67; 95% CI 0.6, 0.9] more likely to be associated with stunted than with those households which had secure foods. Adolescents who had high workload were 2.6 times [AOR = 2.6; 95% CI 1.2, 3.1] more likely to be associated with thinness compared with those adolescents who didn't had high workload.


Assuntos
Dieta , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 627, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition and diabetes are risk factors for active tuberculosis (TB), possible risk factors for latent TB infection (LTBI), and may interact to alter their effect on these outcomes. Studies to date have not investigated this interaction. METHODS: We enrolled 919 newly diagnosed active TB patients and 1113 household contacts at Primary Health Centres in Puducherry and Tamil Nadu, India from 2014 to 2018. In cross-sectional analyses, we used generalized estimating equations to measure additive and multiplicative interaction of body mass index (BMI) and diabetes on two outcomes, active TB and LTBI. RESULTS: Among overweight or obese adults, active TB prevalence was 12-times higher in diabetic compared to non-diabetic participants, 2.5-times higher among normal weight adults, and no different among underweight adults (P for interaction < 0.0001). Diabetes was associated with 50 additional active TB cases per 100 overweight or obese participants, 56 per 100 normal weight participants, and 17 per 100 underweight participants (P for interaction < 0.0001). Across BMI categories, screening 2.3-3.8 active TB patients yielded one hyperglycemic patient. LTBI prevalence did not differ by diabetes and BMI*diabetes interaction was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: BMI and diabetes are associated with newly diagnosed active TB, but not LTBI. Diabetes conferred the greatest risk of active TB in overweight and obese adults whereas the burden of active TB associated with diabetes was similar for normal and overweight or obese adults. Hyperglycemia was common among all active TB patients. These findings highlight the importance of bi-directional diabetes-active TB screening in India.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/etiologia
19.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(5): 1875-1883, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166520

RESUMO

This study evaluates the nutritional status of children and women of an indigenous Yanomamigroup, and seeks to clarify associated factors. It was a cross-sectional study, carried out in 17 villages, in 2014. For evaluation of nutritional status we used 2006 growth standards to assign height-for-age (stunting)Z-scores (Z), weight-for-age Z (underweight) and weight-for-height Z (wasting and overweight), using the software WHO-Anthro and WHO-AnthroPlus. Short stature (SS) was defined as values lower 145cm for mothers over the age of 18. The Poisson regression was made in R software. Among children under 60 months the prevalences were: stunting 83.8%; underweight 50%; wasting 5.4%; and overweight 2.7%. In 59.5% of the children there was severe stunting, and 68.1% of the mothers were SS. Prevalence ratio (PR) for severe stunting was higher in age group 36-59 months, in comparison with age group 0.1-23 (PR = 1.3; CI 95%: 1.1-2.3), as did also children of mothers with SS, when compared to the children of mothers without SS (PR = 2.1; CI 95%; 1.2-3.6). The alarming rates of stunting and severe stunting reveal the seriousness of the nutritional situation children. The association of severe stunting in infants and in mothers reflects the intergenerational nature of the problem.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Perinat Med ; 47(6): 585-591, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150361

RESUMO

Background Identifying the risk factors for preeclampsia (PE) is essential for the implementation of preventive actions. In the present study, we aimed at exploring the association between total gestational weight gain (GWG) and PE. Methods We performed a population-based cohort survey of 98,820 women with singleton pregnancies who delivered in Slovenia from 2013 to 2017. Aggregated data were obtained from the National Perinatal Information System (NPIS). The main outcome measure was the incidence of PE. The main exposure variable was total GWG standardized for the gestational duration by calculating the z-scores. The associations between total GWG and PE stratified by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories adjusted for a variety of covariates were determined using multivariable logistic regression. We calculated the crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with a 95% confidence interval using a two-way test. Results Excessive GWG was associated with increased odds of PE in all pre-pregnancy BMI categories. The increase in the odds of PE by 445% was the highest in underweight women and by 122% was the lowest in obese women. Low GWG was associated with decreased odds of PE in all pre-pregnancy BMI categories except in normal-weight women with a GWG below -2 standard deviation (SD) and underweight women. The decrease in the odds of PE by 67% was the highest in obese women and by 41% was the lowest in normal-weight women. Conclusion Excessive GWG is a significant risk factor for PE, especially in underweight women, while low GWG is an important protective factor against PE, especially in obese women.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Sobrepeso , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Complicações na Gravidez , Magreza , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Eslovênia/epidemiologia , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/epidemiologia
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