Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 604
Filtrar
1.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower weight has historically been equated with more severe illness in anorexia nervosa (AN). Reliance on admission weight to guide clinical concern is challenged by the rise in patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AAN) requiring hospitalization at normal weight. METHODS: We examined weight history and illness severity in 12- to 24-year-olds with AN (n = 66) and AAN (n = 50) in a randomized clinical trial, the Study of Refeeding to Optimize Inpatient Gains (www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT02488109). Amount of weight loss was the difference between the highest historical percentage median BMI and admission; rate was the amount divided by duration (months). Unpaired t tests compared AAN and AN; multiple variable regressions examined associations between weight history variables and markers of illness severity at admission. Stepwise regression examined the explanatory value of weight and menstrual history on selected markers. RESULTS: Participants were 16.5 ± 2.6 years old, and 91% were of female sex. Groups did not differ by weight history or admission heart rate (HR). Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire global scores were higher in AAN (mean 3.80 [SD 1.66] vs mean 3.00 [SD 1.66]; P = .02). Independent of admission weight, lower HR (ß = -0.492 [confidence interval (CI) -0.883 to -0.100]; P = .01) was associated with faster loss; lower serum phosphorus was associated with a greater amount (ß = -0.005 [CI -0.010 to 0.000]; P = .04) and longer duration (ß = -0.011 [CI -0.017 to 0.005]; P = .001). Weight and menstrual history explained 28% of the variance in HR and 36% of the variance in serum phosphorus. CONCLUSIONS: Weight history was independently associated with markers of malnutrition in inpatients with restrictive eating disorders across a range of body weights and should be considered when assessing illness severity on hospital admission.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Magreza/sangue , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17642, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725607

RESUMO

The sleep allows many psychological processes, such as immune system activity, body metabolism and hormonal balance, emotional and mental health, learning, mnemonic processes. The lack of sleep could undermine mental and physical purposes, causing an alteration in cognitive functions or metabolic disorders. In our study, we have examined the irregular sleep effects with the overweight and obesity risk in children and adults.The sample was composed of 199 subjects, of which 71 adults, (29 males and 42 females), and 128 children (73 males and 55 females). We have measured the weight and height with standard techniques; we also have measured the body mass index dividing the weight in kg with the height square expressed in meters (kg/m). Subjects were divided into underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. Were administered some questionnaires to measure the quantity and quality of sleep, and eating habits and individual consumption of food.Analysis of demographic variables not showed significant differences between male and female groups but highlighted a significant trend differences in normal-weight score. The clinical condition has a substantial impact on body mass index score and sleep hours were significant predictor on this.Quantity and quality sleep can also represent a risk factor of overweight and obesity, so sufficient sleep is a factor that influence a normal weight. Adults and children that sleep less, have an increase in obesity and overweight risk with dysfunctional eating behaviors, decreased physical activity, and metabolic changes.


Assuntos
Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/complicações
3.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of evidence on the burden and risk factors for malnutrition among children with cerebral palsy (CP) in Vietnam limits evidence-based interventions. We aimed to define the nutritional status of children with CP in Vietnam. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study utilized data from active prospective hospital-based surveillance modelled on the Pediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance system. Children (0-18 years) with CP attending the National Children's Hospital Hanoi, Vietnam between June-November 2017 were included. Data on demographic, clinical and rehabilitation status were collected following detailed neurodevelopmental assessment. Anthropometric measurements were taken. Nutritional status was determined using the World Health Organization guideline. RESULTS: Of 765 children (the mean (SD) age was 2.6 (2.5) years; 35.8% were female), 28.9% (n = 213) were underweight and 29.0% (n = 214) stunted. The odds of underweight were significantly higher among children aged >5 years and/or having a monthly family income of <50 USD. Underweight and/or stunting was high among children with quadriplegia (81%, n = 60 and 84.5%, n = 87) and/or Gross Motor Functional Classification System (GMFCS) level IV-V (62.5%, n = 45 and 67.0%, n = 67). Nearly one-third of intellectually impaired and more than half of hearing-impaired children were underweight and/or stunted. CONCLUSIONS: Poor economic status and increased motor severity increased vulnerability to malnutrition. Our findings will inform nutritional rehabilitation programs among these vulnerable children.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Crianças com Deficiência , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Paralisia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Paralisia Cerebral/psicologia , Paralisia Cerebral/reabilitação , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/reabilitação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/reabilitação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Desnutrição/reabilitação , Atividade Motora , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16677, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Male infertility has become a worldwide public health problem. However, the effect of low body mass index (BMI) is still controversial. METHODS: Relevant articles in Pubmed, Embase, Web of science, and Wanfang database published until September 2017 were searched without language restriction. We performed a meta-analysis about low BMI and semen parameters containing total sperm count, concentration, semen volume, and sperm motility (overall and progressive), including 709 men with low BMI and 14,622 men with normal BMI. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included in this meta-analysis and a total of 15,331 individuals were accumulated. We pooled data from these articles and found standardized weighted mean differences in semen parameters (total sperm count and semen volume) showed significant difference between low BMI and normal BMI. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review with meta-analysis has confirmed that there was a relationship between low BMI and semen quality, which suggesting low BMI may be a harmful factor of male infertility. Yet lacking of the raw data may influence the accuracy of the results. Further researches are needed to identify the role of underweight in male sterility.


Assuntos
Contagem de Espermatozoides/estatística & dados numéricos , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/complicações
5.
Injury ; 50(8): 1423-1428, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256910

RESUMO

There has been very limited analysis of the relationship between obesity and fractures in the orthopaedic literature. It has been established for some years that underweight individuals are at greater risk of proximal femoral fractures but recently there has been interest in the susceptibility of obese post-menopausal females to fracture. We have undertaken an analysis of 4886 adult patients who presented with a fracture and had their BMI assessed. Analysis has confirmed the relationship between underweight individuals and proximal femoral fractures but there is also a negative association between obesity and clavicle fractures in males and females and with calcaneal fractures in females. There is a positive relationship between obesity and proximal humeral, finger phalangeal and ankle fractures in males and with humeral diaphyseal, carpal and ankle fractures in females. There was no relationship found between open or multiple fractures and obesity.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Calcâneo/lesões , Clavícula/lesões , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Úmero/lesões , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/etiologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Escócia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Ossos do Tarso/lesões , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/fisiopatologia
6.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(6): 845-850, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340315

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its association with sleep quality in university students from the Anhui province in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in China with 1328 participants. The prevalence of underweight and obesity in university students was estimated according to the reference working group on obesity in China. The sleep quality was evaluated using the standard PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index). RESULTS: This study included 470 male and 858 female students from a university in Anhui; 4.4% of the females and 17.7% of the males were overweight or obese. The prevalence of obesity in males was significantly higher than in females, and the prevalence of obesity in higher years was greater than in other years (p<0.05). In general, the mean score for sleep quality was 4.91±2.67; 36.5% of male and 39.1% of female students had poor sleep quality (PSQI score >5). Among the seven components of sleep quality, sleep duration and the use of sleep medication showed significant differences between male and female students and different years (p<0.05). An obvious correlation was found between sleep quality and body mass index (BMI)(p<0.000) in females who took hypnotic drugs. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that the sleep quality of females is probably associated with their BMI. College students are a special group of young adults whose cause of poor sleeping quality and BMI may be significant to study, so the health status of university students can be improved.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219309, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269068

RESUMO

The lung clearance index (LCI), measured by multiple breath washout (MBW), reflects global ventilation inhomogeneity and is a sensitive marker of early obstructive airway disease. For the MBW test to accurately reflect a subject's gas mixing within the lungs, the breathing pattern should represent physiologically appropriate tidal volumes (VT) and respiratory rate (RR). We aimed to assess whether changes in VT impact MBW outcome measures with a series of prospective and retrospective studies. MBW testing was performed using the Exhalyzer ® D (EcoMedics AG, Switzerland). Healthy adult subjects performed MBW with uninstructed tidal breathing and a series of instructed tidal breathing tests, designed to isolate specific features of the breathing pattern. In addition, we retrospectively analyzed MBW data from two pediatric multi-centre interventional studies of cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects to determine the range of VT observed during uninstructed breathing, and whether breathing outside this range impacted results. The LCI was lower, but not significantly different between deep breathing at 20 ml/kg body weight and uninstructed tidal breathing; whereas LCI was significantly higher during shallow breathing compared with normal tidal breathing. For the majority of subjects with CF (80%), VT ranged from 9-15mL/kg. Within the observed VT range, LCI was similar in trials with mean VT /kg below this range compared to trials with VT /kg within the range. If subjects breathe naturally and are not instructed to use specific targets, the range of VT is within physiologically appropriate limits and normal variations observed do not impact MBW outcomes.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Taxa Respiratória , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
8.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185656

RESUMO

The present study investigated the association of maternal dietary patterns with pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and total gestational weight gain (GWG), using data of 232 women from the "Mamma & Bambino" cohort. Dietary patterns were derived by a food frequency questionnaire and principal component analysis. Self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were calculated according to the World Health Organization and Institute of Medicine guidelines, respectively. The adherence to the "Western" dietary pattern-characterized by high intake of red meat, fries, dipping sauces, salty snacks and alcoholic drinks-was associated with increased GWG (ß = 1.217; standard error [SE] = 0.487; p = 0.013), especially among obese women (ß = 7.363; SE = 1.808; p = 0.005). In contrast, the adherence to the "prudent" dietary pattern-characterized by high intake of boiled potatoes, cooked vegetables, legumes, pizza and soup-was associated with reduced pre-pregnancy BMI (ß = -0.631; SE = 0.318; p-trend = 0.038). Interestingly, the adherence to this pattern was positively associated with GWG among underweight (ß = 4.127; SE = 1.722; p = 0.048), and negatively among overweight and obese individuals (ß = -4.209; SE = 1.635; p = 0.016 and ß = -7.356; SE = 2.304; p = 0.031, respectively). Our findings point out that the promotion of a healthy diet might represent a potential preventive strategy against inadequate weight gain, even during the periconceptional period.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Magreza/complicações , Magreza/fisiopatologia
9.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-Celiac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS) is still a largely undefined condition, due to the lack of a diagnostic marker. Few data are available about the nutritional characteristics of NCWS patients at diagnosis. AIMS: To evaluate the proportion of NCWS patients who were underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese at diagnosis, and to search for possible correlations between their Body Mass Index (BMI) and other NCWS-related disease characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical charts of 145 NCWS patients (125 F, 20 M, mean age 37.1 ± 11.4 years), diagnosed between January 2012 and March 2018, were reviewed. As a comparison, 84 celiac disease (CD) patients (73 F, 11 M, mean age 39.8 ± 13.9 years) were evaluated. All NCWS diagnoses were based on a double-blind placebo-controlled wheat challenge (DBPCWC) method. RESULTS: BMI distribution was similar in the NCWS (6.2% underweight and 15.2% obese subjects) and CD patients (6% underweight and 7.1% obese subjects). Underweight NCWS subjects were significantly younger and had a shorter clinical history than the overweight or obese ones. Unlike the other NCWS patients, none of them had a DQ2 and/or DQ8 haplotype. Overweight and obese NCWS patients were more frequently suffering from associated autoimmune diseases than the other BMI categories (P = 0.05). Compared to the CD controls, NCWS patients showed a higher frequency of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)-like (P = 0.01) and extraintestinal symptoms (P = 0.03) and a longer clinical history (P = 0.04), whereas weight loss was more frequent in CD (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: NCWS patients showed a BMI distribution similar to CD patients. However, NCWS was found to be a heterogenous condition that regards BMI, and clinical characteristics differed between the underweight and overweight/obese patients.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Autoimunidade , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DQ/genética , Antígenos HLA-DQ/imunologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/imunologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Trigo/imunologia
10.
Fertil Steril ; 111(6): 1054-1064, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036339

RESUMO

Parental excess weight and especially pregestational maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy have been related to an increased risk of metabolic (obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome) and nonmetabolic (cancer, osteoporosis, asthma, neurologic alterations) diseases in the offspring, probably mediated by epigenetic mechanisms of fetal programming. Maternal underweight is less common in developed societies, but the discrepancy between a poor nutritional environment in utero and a normal or excessive postnatal food supply with rapid growth catch-up appears to be the main candidate mechanism of the development of chronic diseases during the offspring's adulthood. The role of the postnatal environment in both scenarios (parental overweight or underweight) also seems to influence the offspring's health. Lifestyle interventions before and during pregnancy in both parents, but especially in the mother, as well as in children after birth, are advisable to counteract the many undesirable chronic conditions described.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Saúde Materna , Sobrepeso/complicações , Magreza/complicações , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/fisiopatologia
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(9)2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31052569

RESUMO

Abnormal excess or lack of body mass can influence gait patterns, but in some cases such differences are subtle and not easy to detect, even with quantitative techniques for movement analysis. In these situations, the study of trunk accelerations may represent an effective way to detecting gait anomalies in terms of symmetry through the calculation of Harmonic Ratio (HR), a parameter obtained by processing trunk accelerations in the frequency domain. In the present study we used this technique to assess the existence of differences in HR during gait in a cohort of 75 healthy children and early adolescents (aged 7-14 years) stratified into 3 equally-sized age and gender-matched groups (Underweight: UW; Normal Weight: NW; Overweight: OW). The accelerometric signal, acquired using a single wearable inertial sensor, was processed to calculate stride length, speed, cadence and HR in antero-posterior, vertical and medio-lateral directions. No differences in spatio-temporal parameters were found among groups, while the HR in the medio-lateral direction was found significantly lower in UW children, while OW exhibited the highest values. On the basis of the results obtained, HR appears capable of discriminating gait symmetry in children with different body mass even when conventional gait parameters are unchanged.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Antropometria , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Caminhada/fisiologia
12.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 62, 2019 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relationships between low forced vital capacity (FVC), and morbidity have previously been studied but there are no data available for the Caribbean population. This study assessed the association of low FVC with risk factors, health variables and socioeconomic status in a community-based study of the Trinidad and Tobago population. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study protocol. Participants aged 40 years and above were selected using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling. Generalized linear models were used to examine associations between FVC and risk factors. RESULTS: Among the 1104 participants studied a lower post-bronchodilator FVC was independently associated with a large waist circumference (- 172 ml; 95% CI, - 66 to - 278), Indo-Caribbean ethnicity (- 180 ml; 95% CI, - 90 to - 269) and being underweight (- 185 ml; 95% CI, - 40 to - 330). A higher FVC was associated with smoking cannabis (+ 155 ml; 95% CI, + 27 to + 282). Separate analyses to examine associations with health variables indicated that participants with diabetes (p = 0∙041), history of breathlessness (p = 0∙007), and wheeze in the past 12 months (p = 0∙040) also exhibited lower post-bronchodilator FVC. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that low FVC in this Caribbean population is associated with ethnicity, low body mass index (BMI), large waist circumference, chronic respiratory symptoms, and diabetes.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Capacidade Vital , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espirometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6921312, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868070

RESUMO

Objectives: Childhood malnutrition is major health concern in many low- and middle-income countries, including Vietnam. It was a major risk factor for child mortality and adult ill-health. Malnutrition could increase the risk of serious infections; conversely current diseases also had a negative impact on the growth of child. This study, therefore, examines the prevalence of stunting and underweight among 6-59-month-old outpatient children in District 2 Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study involved a sample of 225 children aged 6-59 months who were randomly selected from the Outpatient Department in District 2 Hospital. Anthropometric measurements and blood test of children were taken to assess the nutritional status and anaemia. A structured questionnaire was also used to collect mothers' and children's characteristics to examine associated risk factors. Results: The prevalence of stunting, underweight, overweight, and anaemia among children aged 6-59 months was 9.8%, 8.4%, 25.8%, and 30.7%, respectively. Underweight significantly correlated only to having breastfeeding in the first hour after birth (RR: 0.02; 95% CI: 0.01-0.17; p<0.001), while stunting was related to age of starting complementary foods from equal to/more than 6 months (RR=0.70, 95%CI=0.50-0.99, p<0.05) and normal birth weight (RR = 0.29, 95%CI = 0.15-0.56, p<0.001). Conclusions: This study emphasized the importance of measuring the overall nutritional status for children, who have coexisting infectious diseases and anaemia. The high prevalence of malnutrition and anaemia underlined the need for routine screening as well as treatment of children. Additionally, health information strategies should be focused on young children feeding practices to minimize stunting and underweight.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
14.
Obes Facts ; 12(2): 150-156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865949

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity contributes to the risk of numerous health problems and has become a major global health concern. This study aimed to establish the association between obesity and cognitive function among healthy school adolescents. METHODS: This study was carried out by taking school adolescents (n = 400) from June 2016 to December 2017. The mean age of the participants was 13.93 ± 0.81 years. The students were divided into group A (obese, n = 223) and B (non-obese, n = 177). Cognitive functions were recorded as per study tool of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). RESULTS: Severely obese students showed a significant delay in cognitive functions as compared to students with normal BMI. Attention Switching Task (AST)-Latency among students with normal BMI was 647.88 ± 137.59 compared to the students with high BMI (685.08 ± 115.92, p = 0.05), AST-Incongruent was 680.78 ± 142.07 versus 726.76 ± 122.31 (p = 0.02), AST-Percent correct trials was 84.31 ± 10.45 versus 78.09 ± 14.87 (p = 0.001), and Intra-Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED) Total errors among students with normal BMI was 33.93 ± 21.53 compared to the students with high BMI (42.86 ± 37.27, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Cognitive functions including AST-Latency, AST-Incongruent, AST-Percent correct trials, and IED Total errors were significantly weakened in markedly obese students. Significant impairments in their cognitive functions, especially attention, retention, intelligence, and cognitive flexibility, were observed. The findings of this study emphasize the need to involve school adolescents in physical activities to reduce body weight in order to have cognitive functions within normal range and also to minimize obesity-associated complications.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Estudantes , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Peso Corporal Ideal/fisiologia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/fisiopatologia , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Magreza/psicologia
15.
Br J Nutr ; 121(8): 866-876, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739617

RESUMO

The associations between growth during early life and subsequent cognitive development and physical outcomes are not widely known in low-resource settings. We examined postnatal weight and height gain through early life and related these measurements to the nutritional status and intellectual development of the same children when they were between 7 and 9 years old. Mothers had enrolled in an randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on birth weight. Their children were born in 2004, their height and weight were measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age and were followed up between October 2012 and September 2013 (at ages 7-9 years, n 650). Height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to describe the nutritional status, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children fourth edition was used to measure the intellectual function. Multilevel linear and logistic modelling was used to estimate the association between early growth and subsequent growth and intellectual function. After adjustment, weight gain from 6 to 12 months of age was associated with Full-scale Intelligence Quotient, Verbal Comprehension Index, Working Memory Index and Perceptual Reasoning Index. Weight gain during early life was associated with subsequent nutritional status. For every 1 kg increase in weight during the 0- to 6-month period, the OR for underweight, thinness and stunting at 7-9 years of age were 0·19 (95 % CI 0·09, 0·37), 0·34 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·59) and 0·40 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·83), respectively. Weight gain during the periods of 6-12 months of age and 18-24 months of age was also associated with a lower risk of being underweight. Weight gain during early life was associated with better growth outcomes and improved intellectual development in young school-aged children.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inteligência/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Magreza/etiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Escalas de Wechsler , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(4): 367-377, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) are at risk of overweight and obesity, two major health problems, though underweight can be a negative prognostic factor too. Awareness of the body mass index (BMI) in ACHD is very limited. The present study describes the use and prevalence of BMI in Italian symptomatic hospitalized ACHD patients in relation to complexity by Bethesda system classification, diagnosis, sex and age. METHODS AND RESULTS: We classified 1388 ACHD patients, aged 18-69 years, on the basis of their BMI, and compared them to the Italian reference population. In our total ACHD population we found a significantly higher prevalence of underweight compared to the Italian reference population (6.34% vs 3.20%). ACHD women were more underweight than men. Underweight decreased with age. Overweight was significantly less frequent in the total ACHD population (26.73% compared to 31.70%) in the Italian reference population. Men were more likely to be overweight than women. In statistical terms obesity was similar in the Italian reference population (10.50%) and our ACHD population (9.58%). Both overweight and obesity increased with age. Results were comparable using a diagnostic anatomical-functional classification and the Bethesda system classification. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of ACHD the prevalence of underweight was double that of the Italian reference population. The prevalence of overweight was lower, while obesity was similar. Since BMI does not account for differences in body fat distribution, a future aim will be to quantify the visceral component of the adipose tissue in ACHD patients and examine their body composition in order to reflect their risk of acquired cardiovascular disease better, and either to maintain or achieve an adequate visceral component.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Congenit Heart Dis ; 14(3): 479-486, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30681771

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of body mass index (BMI) in adult people with congenital heart disease (ACHD). METHODS: Five hundred thirty-nine adults with CHD (53.8% men) were seen in the outpatient clinic from 2013 to 2015 and compared to a reference population (n = 1737). The severity of CHD was categorized as mild, moderate, and severe according to standard guidelines. Patients were categorized based on BMI as underweight (<18.5), overweight (25-30), or obese (>30). Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging were used to measure ventricular function while exercise capacity was estimated via cardiopulmonary exercise test. RESULTS: Adults with CHD had slightly lower BMI than the reference group (24.1 ± 4.3 vs 24.6 ± 4.3; P = .012). Men in the mild and severe group (23.9 ± 3.6; 23.3 ± 4.4 vs 25.1 ± 3.7; P = .007; P = .023) and women in the severe group (21.6 ± 3.3 vs 24.2 ± 4.7; P < .001) had lower BMI compared to the reference group. In the subgroups, men with ventricular septal defect, coarctation of aorta/ventricular septal defect and Fontan circulation and women with Fontan circulation had lower BMI than the reference group. Underweight was more prevalent in women with severe lesions compared to the reference group (22.2% vs 3.8%; P < .001). BMI was associated with age and exercise capacity in patients with mild and moderate lesions, while higher BMI was related to better ventricular function in women with Fontan circulation. CONCLUSION: Underweight was more prevalent in ACHD patients with severe lesions. Special attention should be paid to the possible existence of underweight-related comorbidities.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bélgica , Comorbidade , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Magreza/diagnóstico , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Genet ; 15(1): e1007603, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677029

RESUMO

The variation in weight within a shared environment is largely attributable to genetic factors. Whilst many genes/loci confer susceptibility to obesity, little is known about the genetic architecture of healthy thinness. Here, we characterise the heritability of thinness which we found was comparable to that of severe obesity (h2 = 28.07 vs 32.33% respectively), although with incomplete genetic overlap (r = -0.49, 95% CI [-0.17, -0.82], p = 0.003). In a genome-wide association analysis of thinness (n = 1,471) vs severe obesity (n = 1,456), we identified 10 loci previously associated with obesity, and demonstrate enrichment for established BMI-associated loci (pbinomial = 3.05x10-5). Simulation analyses showed that different association results between the extremes were likely in agreement with additive effects across the BMI distribution, suggesting different effects on thinness and obesity could be due to their different degrees of extremeness. In further analyses, we detected a novel obesity and BMI-associated locus at PKHD1 (rs2784243, obese vs. thin p = 5.99x10-6, obese vs. controls p = 2.13x10-6 pBMI = 2.3x10-13), associations at loci recently discovered with much larger sample sizes (e.g. FAM150B and PRDM6-CEP120), and novel variants driving associations at previously established signals (e.g. rs205262 at the SNRPC/C6orf106 locus and rs112446794 at the PRDM6-CEP120 locus). Our ability to replicate loci found with much larger sample sizes demonstrates the value of clinical extremes and suggest that characterisation of the genetics of thinness may provide a more nuanced understanding of the genetic architecture of body weight regulation and may inform the identification of potential anti-obesity targets.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Obesidade Mórbida/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Magreza/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Mórbida/fisiopatologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Magreza/fisiopatologia
19.
Obes Rev ; 20(3): 472-486, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536891

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the prepregnancy BMI on the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Five electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, were searched for literature published until 1 January 2018. The two-stage, random effect meta-analysis was performed to compare the dose-response relationship between BMI and GDM. As well as studies with categorized BMI, studies that treat BMI as a continuous variable were analysed. A total of 33 observational studies with an overall sample size of 962 966 women and 42 211 patients with GDM were included in analysis. The pooled estimate of GDM risk in the underweight, overweight, and obese pregnant women was 0.68, 2.01, and 3.98 using the adjusted OR and 0.34, 1.52, and 2.24 using the adjusted RR. The GDM risk increased 4% per unit of increase in BMI with both the crude and adjusted OR/RR models. Also, the risk of GDM increased 19% with the crude model and 14% with the adjusted model. The existence of dose-response relationship between the pre-pregnancy BMI and GDM can strengthen the scientific background for vigorous public health interventions for the control of pre-pregnancy BMI as well as the weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/etiologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Magreza/complicações , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Diabetes Gestacional/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/fisiopatologia
20.
Hum Reprod ; 34(1): 155-162, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407511

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What is the relationship between abnormal BMI and semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER: Underweight was significantly associated with lower sperm concentration, total sperm number and total motile sperm count, while overweight was significantly associated with lower semen volume, total sperm number and total motile sperm count. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Abnormal BMI has been associated with lower semen quality, but the results remain somewhat controversial. In addition, most previous studies have focused on the influence of obesity or overweight on semen quality, and evidence on the association between underweight and semen quality is rare. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This research was an observational study investigating 3966 sperm donors from a large sperm bank in Wuhan city, China. These donors passed the screening for sperm donation and underwent 29 949 semen examinations between 1 January 2013 and 9 April 2018. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: BMI was categorized into four groups: underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (≥30 kg/m2). Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm number, total motility, progressive motility and total motile sperm count were determined by trained clinical technicians. Linear mixed models were used to conduct dose-response analyses between BMI and semen quality parameters. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Underweight was significantly associated with a 3.0% (95% CI: 0.1%, 5.8%), 6.7% (1.9%, 11.3%) and 7.4% (2.2%, 12.4%) reduction in sperm concentration, total sperm number and total motile sperm count, respectively. Overweight was significantly associated with a 4.2% (1.6%, 6.8%), 3.9% (0.9%, 6.9%) and 3.6% (0.2%, 6.9%) reduction in semen volume, total sperm number and total motile sperm count, respectively. Non-linear models including continuous BMI as a natural cubic spline function yielded similar results. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Our study subjects were sperm donors who are typically young and healthy, and therefore not representative of the general male population. Caution should be paid in generalizing our results to other populations. Furthermore, we did not measure the donors' weight repeatedly along with each semen donation; instead, we only measured it once during the screening, which may cause bias due to the variations of weight across time. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our study provides evidence that underweight and overweight are associated with lower semen quality, and highlights the importance of maintaining a normal weight for men. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by the Health and Family Planning Commission of Hubei Province (Grant number WJ2015MA027), the Hubei Provincial Committee of the Communist Youth League of China, and Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research at the University of Iowa. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Sêmen/fisiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Doadores de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA