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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46937

RESUMO

Folder que contém informações sobre a doença e as formas de prevenção, atendimento e orientações à saúde do viajante e da população que vivem nas áreas endêmicas.


Assuntos
Malária , Saúde do Viajante , Prevenção de Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas
6.
Science ; 367(6473): 22-23, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896702
7.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828371

RESUMO

Globally, 3.1 billion people live in areas endemic for malaria (the tropics and subtropics). Annually, around 200 million fall ill, and around 500,000 persons die as a result of this infection. Mainly children are the victims. In order to control and eventually prevent any new infection, the development of effective vaccines is pivotal. In this review, background information about the history of vaccine development and malaria disease as well as possibilities for therapy and control is given. In the main part of the article, an update on the development of vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum is provided followed by an extensive discussion.Malaria is a parasitic infectious disease caused by the single cell organism Plasmodium. Five different Plasmodium species can induce disease in humans with P. falciparum being the origin for more than 99% of infections in Africa. The vector is the Anopheles mosquito. The life cycle of Plasmodium offers several approaches for vaccines to have an impact. Out of around 70 candidates, pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidates interfering with the liver phase of the parasite are the most developed. However, a vaccine with more than 75% efficacy, as required by the World Health Organization (WHO), is not yet in sight.Currently, for the first time, a moderately efficacious vaccine (RTS,S/AS01) is being applied in large-scale operations. But it is obvious that malaria can only be controlled in combination with concurring measures. For example, the use of impregnated mosquito nets, indoor residual spraying, elimination of vector breeding sites, rapid diagnosis, and therapy of the infection as well as a functioning health system are important elements, which can hardly be guaranteed in areas characterized by poverty.


Assuntos
Vacinas Antimaláricas , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Animais , Criança , Alemanha , Humanos , Plasmodium falciparum
8.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 252: 131-171, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463624

RESUMO

Anurans from the genus Xenopus have long been used as standard testing organisms and occur naturally in tropical and sub-tropical areas where malaria vector control pesticides are actively used. However, literature on the toxic effects of these pesticides is limited. This review analyses the available data pertaining to both Xenopus and the pesticides used for malaria vector control in order to determine the pesticides that have the greatest potential to influence amphibian health while also identifying gaps in literature that need to be addressed. Amphibian diversity has shown the fastest decline of any group, yet there are still voids in our understanding of how this is happening. The lack of basic toxicity data on amphibians with regard to pesticides is an issue that needs to be addressed in order to improve effectiveness of amphibian conservation strategies. Meta-analyses performed in this review show that, at current usage, with the available acute toxicity literature, the pyrethroid pesticide group could hold the highest potential to cause acute toxicity to Xenopus sp. in relation to the other MVCPs discussed, but the lack of data cripples the efficacy with which meta-analyses can be performed and conclusions made from such analyses. Several studies have shown that DDT accumulates in Xenopus sp. from malaria vector control areas, but accumulation of other MVCPs in frogs is still largely unknown. Through this review we hope to encourage future research into the field of amphibian ecotoxicology and to promote the use of the Xenopus standard model in order to build comprehensive datasets that may be used in amphibian conservation.


Assuntos
Ecotoxicologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Malária , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Anopheles , Xenopus , Xenopus laevis
11.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800921

RESUMO

Malaria, a mosquito-borne infectious disease, is considered a significant global health burden. Climate changes or different weather conditions may impact infectious diseases, specifically those transmitted by insect vectors and contaminated water. Based on the current predictions for climate change associated with the increase in carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and the increase in atmospheric temperature, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that in 2050, malaria may threaten some previously unexposed areas worldwide and cause a 50% higher probability of malaria cases. Climate-based distribution models of malaria depict an increase in the geographic distribution of the disease as global environmental temperatures and conditions worsen. Researchers have studied the influence of changes in climate on the prevalence of malaria using different mathematical models that consider different variables and predict the conditions for malaria distribution. In this context, we conducted a mini-review to elucidate the important aspects described in the literature on the influence of climate change in the distribution and transmission of malaria. It is important to develop possible risk management strategies and enhance the surveillance system enhanced even in currently malaria-free areas predicted to experience malaria in the future.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Mudança Climática , Malária/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Dinâmica Populacional
12.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190419, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800925

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The fish farming program in Acre is as an alternative program to generate income and employment and has promising regional, national, and international markets. While the economic importance of fish farming in the Jurua Region is clear, one must address its contribution to increase malaria transmission. METHODS: This was a qualitative study. The answers of the 16 key informants were organized into the following: (1) the healthcare services structure; (2) conscience, perception, and behaviors; and (3) socioeconomic and political issues. Each answer was classified as weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and threats. RESULTS: Regarding healthcare services, the frequency of household visits was reduced, and subjects presenting with malaria symptoms were required to visit a healthcare unit to be diagnosed and treated. Regarding individual's conscience, perception, and behavior, malaria was considered an insignificant disease, and a large proportion of the population were engaged in health practices that put them at risk in contacting with malaria vectors. Regarding political and economic issues, there were economic and infrastructure barriers for the development of a productive activity, and the insufficient credit or formalization of their properties prevented their access to governmental incentives and the financial market. CONCLUSIONS: Support to fish farmers for low-cost inputs was not observed, and appropriate knowledge regarding the impact of the absence of maintenance and abandonment of fish tanks was insufficient. Moreover, insufficient healthcare services prevented not only the treatment of individuals with malaria but also the control of this disease.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Malária/transmissão , Animais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa
14.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(3): 30-41, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782629

RESUMO

Maternal mortality is attracting attention worldwide, but maternal health problems after delivery have received less attention. Most studies focus on prenatal maternal health problems. We aimed to identify factors associated with postpartum health problems among married women of reproductive age in Democratic Republic of the Congo. We employed a cross-sectional study design and randomly enrolled 700 married women of reproductive age in Kenge city. Data collection instrument was developed using the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. T-test, chi-square test, and binary logistic regression analysis were performed using the SPSS version 24.0. Significant risk factors associated with postpartum health problems were initial postnatal care period; within 24 hours (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.197, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.156-4.174], p=.016); within 7 days (OR=1.972, 95% CI: [1.102-3.528, p=.022]; within 14 days (OR=2.124, 95% CI: [1.082-4.172], p=.029) among reproductive health and health service utilization characteristics. Health education by RECO (Relais Cmunataure) was associated with postpartum health problems including PCIME (Prise en Charge Integree des Maladies de l'Enfant; OR=1.845, 95% CI: [1.038- 3.282], p=.037); hand washing (OR=1.897, 95% CI: [1.060-3.396], p=.031); malaria (OR=2.003, 95% CI: [1.192-3.366], p=.009) among Maternal and Child Health intervention characteristics. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop and promote health policies and educational programs focusing on PNC service within 24 hours, PNC services within 7 days, PCIME, hand washing, prevention of malaria.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pós-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(46): 1062-1068, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751320

RESUMO

An estimated 219 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide in 2017, causing approximately 435,000 deaths (1). Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium transmitted to humans through the bite of an infective Anopheles mosquito. Five Plasmodium species that regularly cause illness in humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi (2). The parasite first develops in the liver before infecting red blood cells. Travelers to areas with endemic malaria can prevent malaria by taking chemoprophylaxis. However, most antimalarials do not kill the liver stages of the parasite, including hypnozoites that cause relapses of disease caused by P. vivax or P. ovale. Therefore, patients with these relapsing species must be treated with two medications: one for the acute infection, and another to treat the hypnozoites (antirelapse therapy). Until recently, primaquine was the only drug available worldwide to kill hypnozoites. Tafenoquine, a long-acting 8-aminoquinoline drug related to primaquine, was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on July 20, 2018, for antirelapse therapy (Krintafel) and August 8, 2018, for chemoprophylaxis (Arakoda) (3,4). This report reviews evidence for the efficacy and safety of tafenoquine and provides CDC guidance for clinicians who prescribe chemoprophylaxis for travelers to areas with endemic malaria and treat malaria.


Assuntos
Aminoquinolinas/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Prevenção Secundária , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medicina de Viagem , Estados Unidos
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 988, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection constitute public health problems in Cameroon including the South West Region (SWR). This study determined the prevalence of malaria parasites and haematological abnormalities in HIV positive patients in Limbe, Cameroon from April-July 2014. METHODS: The study was cross-sectional and involved 411 participants who were administered structured questionnaires to record socio-demographic and clinical data. Three hundred and nine (309) HIV positive patients and one hundred and two (102) HIV negative individuals were examined clinically and venous blood collected for malaria parasite detection, HIV infection diagnosis and full blood count analysis. RESULTS: Overall malaria parasite prevalence was 14.1% (58/411). This prevalence was significantly higher (P <  0.001) in the HIV negative participants (33.3%, 34/102) compared to the HIV positive patients (7.8%, 24/309). Amongst HIV positive participants, malaria parasite prevalence was significantly higher in female patients (P = 0.003), febrile patients (P <  0.001), anaemic patients (P = 0.015) and in patients who were not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) (P = 0.03) when compared with their respective counterparts. Among the HIV negative group, though not significant, malaria parasite prevalence was higher in females, febrile and anaemic patients when compared with their respective counterparts. Overall anaemia prevalence was 52.1% (214/309) and was significantly higher (P = 0.004) in HIV positive patients (56%, 173) than in HIV negative participants (40.2%, 41). Malaria/HIV co-infected patients had a significantly lower mean value of Hb (P = 0.002), RBC (P = 0.002) and Hct (P = 0.001) when compared with HIV-infected patients. CONCLUSION: HIV negative participants had a higher prevalence of malaria parasites than their HIV positive counterparts. Anaemia prevalence was higher in HIV positive patients than in HIV negative participants. Malaria/HIV co-infected patients presented with more red blood cell abnormalities than HIV-infected patients.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Camarões/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 922, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In southern Papua, Indonesia, malaria is highly prevalent in young children and is a significant cause of morbidity and early mortality. The association between malaria and delayed mortality is unknown. METHODS: Routinely-collected hospital surveillance data from southern Papua, Indonesia, were used to assess the risk of recurrent malaria and mortality within 12 months of an initial presentation with malaria in all children younger than 5 years old attending the local hospital. Analysis was primarily by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression methods. RESULTS: In total 15,716 children presenting with malaria between April 2004 and December 2013 were included in the analysis; 6184 (39.3%) with Plasmodium falciparum, 7499 (47.7%) with P. vivax, 203 (1.3%) with P. malariae, 3 with P. ovale and 1827 (11.6%) with mixed infections. Within 1 year, 48.4% (7620/15,716) of children represented a total of 16,957 times with malaria (range 1 to 11 episodes), with the incidence of malaria being greater in patients initially presenting with P. vivax infection (1334 [95%CI 1307-1361] per 1000 patient years) compared to those with P. falciparum infection (920 [896-944]). In total 266 (1.7%) children died within 1 year of their initial presentation, 129 (48.5%) within 30 days and 137 (51.5%) between 31 and 365 days. There was no significant difference in the mortality risk in patients infected with P. vivax versus P. falciparum either before 30 days (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.02 [0.69,1.49]) or between 31 and 365 days (HR = 1.30 [0.90,1.88]). Children who died had a greater incidence of malaria, 2280 [95%CI 1946-2671] per 1000 patient years preceding their death, compared to 1141 [95%CI 1124-1158] per 1000 patient years in those surviving. CONCLUSIONS: Children under-5 years old with P. vivax malaria, are at significant risk of multiple representations with malaria and of dying within 1 year of their initial presentation. Preventing recurrent malaria must be a public health priority in this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Malária/mortalidade , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/mortalidade , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/mortalidade , Masculino , Morbidade , Prevalência
18.
Hum Genet ; 138(11-12): 1341-1357, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667592

RESUMO

Recent research efforts to identify genes involved in malaria susceptibility using genome-wide approaches have focused on severe malaria. Here, we present the first GWAS on non-severe malaria designed to identify genetic variants involved in innate immunity or innate resistance mechanisms. Our study was performed on two cohorts of infants from southern Benin (525 and 250 individuals used as discovery and replication cohorts, respectively) closely followed from birth to 18-24 months of age, with an assessment of a space- and time-dependent environmental risk of exposure. Both the recurrence of mild malaria attacks and the recurrence of malaria infections as a whole (symptomatic and asymptomatic) were considered. Post-GWAS functional analyses were performed using positional, eQTL, and chromatin interaction mapping to identify the genes underlying association signals. Our study highlights a role of PTPRT, a tyrosine phosphatase receptor involved in STAT3 pathway, in the protection against both mild malaria attacks and malaria infections (p = 9.70 × 10-8 and p = 1.78 × 10-7, respectively, in the discovery cohort). Strong statistical support was also found for a role of MYLK4 (meta-analysis, p = 5.29 × 10-8 with malaria attacks), and for several other genes, whose biological functions are relevant in malaria infection. Results shows that GWAS on non-severe malaria can successfully identify new candidate genes and inform physiological mechanisms underlying natural protection against malaria.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Benin/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1443, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684923

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, malaria infections and other complications during pregnancy contribute to the high burden of maternal morbidity and mortality. Preventive measures are available, however little is known about the factors influencing the uptake of maternal health services and interventions by pregnant women in Ethiopia. METHODS: We analyzed data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2016 in three rural districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, with 3784 women who had a pregnancy outcome in the year preceding the survey. We used multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering to identify the determinants of antenatal care (ANC) attendance and insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use, and the prevalence and predictors of malaria infection among pregnant women. RESULTS: Eighty-four percent of interviewed women reported receiving at least one ANC visit during their last pregnancy, while 47% reported attending four or more ANC visits. Common reasons for not attending ANC included women's lack of awareness of its importance (48%), distance to health facility (23%) and unavailability of transportation (14%). Important determinants of ANC attendance included higher education level and wealth status, woman's ability to make healthcare decisions, and pregnancy intendedness. An estimated 48% of women reported owning an ITN during their last pregnancy. Of these, 55% reported to have always slept under it during their last pregnancy. Analysis revealed that the odds of owning and using ITNs were respectively 2.07 (95% CI: 1.62-2.63) and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.32-2.27) times higher among women who attended at least one ANC visit. The self-reported prevalence of malaria infection during pregnancy was low (1.4%) across the three districts. We found that young, uneducated, and unemployed women presented higher odds of malaria infection during their last pregnancy. CONCLUSION: ANC and ITN uptake during pregnancy in Jimma Zone fall below the respective targets of 95 and 90% set in the Ethiopian Health Sector Transformation Plan for 2020, suggesting that more intensive programmatic efforts still need to be directed towards improving access to these health services. Reaching ANC non-users and ITN ownership and use as part of ANC services could be emphasized to address these gaps.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 109-113, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687960

RESUMO

Malaria is a parasitic disease. It is one of blood infections caused by malaria plasmodia. The disease is transmitted to a human by a bite of a female mosquito of Anopheles genus. Local malaria transmission in Ukraine has not been registered since 1956, however, every year some imported cases occur. In 2017, 45 cases of malaria were imported to Ukraine: 80% of them were caused by P. falciparum. The aim of the research is to present a case of imported tropical malaria in a pregnant woman with the development of malaria coma. An unusual course of the illness made diagnoses difficult due to partial immunity of the patient caused by multiple previous invasions of malaria plasmodia. The diagnosis was confirmed by blood microscopy. A literature on epidemiology, clinical findings and current tropical malaria course has been scanned as well. In the presence of an appropriate epidemiological anamnesis, the patients with fever of unknown genesis should first of all be examined for malaria, the most socially significant tropical disease. It is necessary to define the type of malarial plasmodium by repeated blood parasitoscopy by a thick-blood film and blood smear coloured by Gimza-Romanovsky method. Doctors' vigilance against malaria allows preventing complicated forms and late relapses of this malignant invasion. The countries free of malaria can also face this problem and therefore they should be ready to diagnose and treat this disease effectively. The infectious diseases hospitals of Ukraine should be supplied with antimalarial drugs.


Assuntos
Coma/parasitologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Coma/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Gravidez , Gestantes , Viagem , Ucrânia
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