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1.
Malar J ; 19(1): 386, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138814

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact on other health programmes in countries, including on malaria, and is currently under much discussion. As many countries are accelerating efforts to eliminate malaria or to prevent the re-establishment of malaria from recently eliminated countries, the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to cause major interruptions to ongoing anti-malaria operations and risk jeopardizing the gains that have been made so far. Sri Lanka, having eliminated malaria in 2012, was certified by the World Health Organization as a malaria-free country in 2016 and now implements a rigorous programme to prevent its re-establishment owing to the high receptivity and vulnerability of the country to malaria. Sri Lanka has also dealt with the COVID-19 epidemic quite successfully limiting the cumulative number of infections and deaths through co-ordinated efforts between the health sector and other relevant sectors, namely the military, the Police Department, Departments of Airport and Aviation and Foreign Affairs, all of which have been deployed for the COVID-19 epidemic under the umbrella of a Presidential Task Force. The relevance of imported infections and the need for a multi-sectoral response are features common to both the control of the COVID-19 epidemic and the Prevention of Re-establishment (POR) programme for malaria. Sri Lanka's malaria POR programme has, therefore, creatively integrated its activities with those of the COVID-19 control programme. Through highly coordinated operations the return to the country of Sri Lankan nationals stranded overseas by the COVID-19 pandemic, many from malaria endemic countries, are being monitored for malaria as well as COVID-19 in an integrated case surveillance system under quarantine conditions, to the success of both programmes. Twenty-three imported malaria cases were detected from February to October through 2773 microscopic blood examinations performed for malaria in quarantine centres, this number being not much different to the incidence of imported malaria during the same period last year. This experience highlights the importance of integrated case surveillance and the need for a highly coordinated multi-sectoral approach in dealing with emerging new infections. It also suggests that synergies between the COVID-19 epidemic control programme and other health programmes may be found and developed to the advantage of both.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
2.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 8205261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134395

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to cause havoc to many countries of the globe, with no end in sight, due to nonavailability of a given vaccine or treatment regimen. The pandemic has so far had a relatively limited impact on the African continent, which contributes more than 93% of global malaria burden. However, the limited burden of COVID-19 pandemic on the African region could have long-term implications on the health and wellbeing of affected inhabitants due to its malaria-endemic status. Malaria causes recurrent insulin resistance with episodes of infection at relatively low parasitaemia. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which is widely distributed in the human body is implicated in the pathogenesis of malaria, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and COVID-19. Use of ACE2 by the COVID-19 virus induces inflammation and oxidative stress, which can lead to insulin resistance. Although COVID-19 patients in malaria-endemic African region may not exhibit severe signs and symptoms of the disease, their risk of exhibiting heightened insulin resistance and possible future development of T2DM is high due to their prior exposure to malaria. African governments must double efforts at containing the continued spread of the virus without neglecting existing malarial control measures if the region is to avert the plausible long-term impact of the pandemic in terms of future development of T2DM.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Malária/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Malária/complicações , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/patologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia
3.
Malar J ; 19(1): 411, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198747

RESUMO

The global COVID-19 pandemic has been affecting the maintenance of various disease control programmes, including malaria. In some malaria-endemic countries, funding and personnel reallocations were executed from malaria control programmes to support COVID-19 response efforts, resulting mainly in interruptions of disease control activities and reduced capabilities of health system. While it is principal to drive national budget rearrangements during the pandemic, the long-standing malaria control programmes should not be left behind in order to sustain the achievements from the previous years. With different levels of intensity, many countries have been struggling to improve the health system resilience and to mitigate the unavoidable stagnation of malaria control programmes. Current opinion emphasized the impacts of budget reprioritization on malaria-related resources during COVID-19 pandemic in malaria endemic countries in Africa and Southeast Asia, and feasible attempts that can be taken to lessen these impacts.


Assuntos
Orçamentos/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Doenças Endêmicas/economia , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Malária/economia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , África , Ásia Sudeste , Orçamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Recursos em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/economia , Controle de Mosquitos/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
4.
Malar J ; 19(1): 410, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the past decade substantial reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality has been observed through well-implemented case management and vector control strategies. India has also achieved a significant reduction in malaria burden in 2018 and has committed to eliminate malaria by 2030. The Mandla Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project (MEDP) was started in 2017 in 1233 villages of District Mandla to demonstrate malaria elimination in a tribal district with hard-to-reach areas was possible using active and passive surveillance, case management, vector control, and targeted information, education and communication campaigns. An operational plan was developed to strengthen the existing surveillance and malaria elimination systems, through fortnightly active case detection to ensure that all cases including those that are introduced into the communities are rapidly identified and treated promptly. The plan also focused on the reduction of human-mosquito contact through the use of Long-Lasting Insecticial Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual Spray (IRS). The operational plan was modified in view of the present COVID-19 pandemic by creating systems of assistance for the local administration for COVID-related work while ensuring the operational integrity of malaria elimination efforts. RESULTS: The use of MEDP study design and operational plan, with its built-in management control systems, has yielded significant (91%) reduction of indigenous cases of malaria during the period from June 2017 to May 2020. The malaria positivity rate was 0.33% in 2017-18, 0.13% in 2018-19, and 0.06% in 2019-20. Mass screening revealed 0.18% malaria positivity in September-October 2018, followed by 0.06% in June 2019, and 0.03% in December 2019, and these were mostly asymptomatic cases in the community. The project has been able to sustain the gains of the past three years during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: This paper provides the study design and the operational plan for malaria elimination in a high-burden district of Central India, which presented difficulties of hard to reach areas, forest malaria, and complex epidemiology of urban and rural malaria. The lessons learned could be used for malaria elimination efforts in rest of the country and other parts of South Asia with comparable demography and epidemiology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População/métodos , Altitude , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Florestas , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária/epidemiologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Chuva , População Rural , População Urbana
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 835, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spatial distribution and burden of dengue in sub-Saharan Africa remains highly uncertain, despite high levels of ecological suitability. The goal of this study was to describe the epidemiology of dengue among a cohort of febrile children presenting to outpatient facilities located in areas of western Uganda with differing levels of urbanicity and malaria transmission intensity. METHODS: Eligible children were first screened for malaria using rapid diagnostic tests. Children with a negative malaria result were tested for dengue using a combination NS1/IgM/IgG rapid test (SD Bioline Dengue Duo). Confirmatory testing by RT-PCR was performed in a subset of participants. Antigen-capture ELISA was performed to estimate seroprevalence. RESULTS: Only 6 of 1416 (0.42%) children had a positive dengue rapid test, while none of the RT-PCR results were positive. ELISA testing demonstrated reactive IgG antibodies in 28 (2.2%) participants with the highest prevalence seen at the urban site in Mbarara (19 of 392, 4.9%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these findings suggest that dengue, while present, is an uncommon cause of non-malarial, pediatric febrile illness in western Uganda. Further investigation into the eocological factors that sustain low-level transmission in urban settings are urgently needed to reduce the risk of epidemics.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Febre/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/virologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/efeitos adversos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Plasmodium/imunologia , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Uganda/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0236616, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044964

RESUMO

Asexual blood stages of the malaria parasite are readily amenable to genetic modification via homologous recombination, allowing functional studies of parasite genes that are not essential in this part of the life cycle. However, conventional reverse genetics cannot be applied for the functional analysis of genes that are essential during asexual blood-stage replication. Various strategies have been developed for conditional mutagenesis of Plasmodium, including recombinase-based gene deletion, regulatable promoters, and mRNA or protein destabilization systems. Among these, the dimerisable Cre (DiCre) recombinase system has emerged as a powerful approach for conditional gene deletion in P. falciparum. In this system, the bacteriophage Cre is expressed in the form of two separate, enzymatically inactive polypeptides, each fused to a different rapamycin-binding protein. Rapamycin-induced heterodimerization of the two components restores recombinase activity. We have implemented the DiCre system in the rodent malaria parasite P. berghei, and show that rapamycin-induced excision of floxed DNA sequences can be achieved with very high efficiency in both mammalian and mosquito parasite stages. This tool can be used to investigate the function of essential genes not only in asexual blood stages, but also in other parts of the malaria parasite life cycle.


Assuntos
Deleção de Genes , Edição de Genes , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Integrases/metabolismo , Malária/parasitologia , Mutagênese , Plasmodium berghei/genética , Animais , Feminino , Integrases/química , Integrases/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Malária/genética , Malária/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 757, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals that work and sleep in remote forest and farm locations in the Greater Mekong Subregion continue to remain at high risk of both acquiring and transmitting malaria. These difficult-to-access population groups largely fall outside the reach of traditional village-centered interventions, presenting operational challenges for malaria programs. In Vietnam, over 60% of malaria cases are thought to be individuals who sleep in forests or on farms. New malaria elimination strategies are needed in countries where mobile and migrant workers frequently sleep outside of their homes. The aim of this study was to apply targeted surveillance-response based investigative approaches to gather location-specific data on confirmed malaria cases, with an objective to identify associated malaria prevention, treatment and risk behaviors of individuals sleeping in remote forest and farms sites in Vietnam. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using novel targeted reactive investigative approaches at remote area sleeping sites was conducted in three mountainous communes in Phu Yen province in 2016. Index cases were defined as individuals routinely sleeping in forests or farms who had tested positive for malaria. Index cases and non-infected neighbors from forest and farm huts within 500 m of the established sleeping locations of index cases were interviewed at their remote-area sleeping sites. RESULTS: A total of 307 participants, 110 index cases and 197 neighbors, were enrolled. Among 93 participants who slept in the forest, index cases were more likely to make > 5 trips to the forest per year (prevalence odds ratio (POR) 7.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.66-20.63), sleep in huts without walls (POR 44.00, 95% CI 13.05-148.33), sleep without mosquito nets (POR 2.95, 95% CI 1.26-6.92), and work after dark (POR 5.48, 95% CI 1.84-16.35). Of the 204 farm-based respondents, a significantly higher proportion of index cases were involved in non-farming activities (logging) (POR 2.74, 95% CI 1.27-5.91). CONCLUSION: Investigative approaches employed in this study allowed for the effective recruitment and characterization of high-priority individuals frequently sleeping in remote forest and farm locations, providing relevant population and site-specific data that decision makers can use to design and implement targeted interventions to support malaria elimination.


Assuntos
Florestas , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquiteiros , Razão de Chances , Assunção de Riscos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Vietnã/etnologia
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1494-1498, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076605

RESUMO

Objective: To understand epidemiological characteristics of imported cases of malaria in Shandong province and provide scientific basis for timely adjustment of prevention and control measures. Methods: The incidence data of malaria, case investigation data and case review data by Shandong Provincial Reference Laboratory for Malaria Diagnosis from 2017 to 2018 were collected. Software SPSS 18.0 was used for statistical analysis and software QGIS 2.18 was used for mapping. Results: A total of 442 imported cases of malaria were reported in Shandong from 2017 to 2018, and the main infection source was in Africa (97.96%, 433/442). All the 17 prefectures in Shandong reported imported malaria cases, mainly in Jining (88 cases), Yantai (65 cases), Weihai (46 cases), Qingdao (44 cases) and Dezhou (42 cases), accounting for 64.48% (285/442). The cases were distributed in 77.37%(106/137) of counties of the province. The cases were reported in every month without seasonal characteristics. The median (M) of time interval between onset and the first medical care seeking was 2 days, and the interquartile range (IQR) was 3 days. The M of time interval between the first medical care seeking and final diagnosis was 0 day, and the IQR was 3 days. The proportion of medical care seeking on onset day was only 27.83% (123/442). Only 69.68% (308/442) of cases were diagnosed with malaria in the first medical care seeking, and the diagnostic accuracy of medical institutions below the county level was lower than other medical institutions (all P<0.01). Only 51.13% (226/442) of cases were diagnosed with malaria in the first medical care seeking, the differences in the rates among medical institutions at different levels were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusions: The imported malaria in Shandong was characterized by a large number of cases, multiple infection sources and wide area distribution during 2017-2018. The awareness of timely medical care seeking in the cases was low, meanwhile the awareness and ability of malaria diagnosis and treatment in primary medical institutions were still inadequate. It is necessary to adjust the prevention and control measures accordingly.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Malária , África , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/epidemiologia
10.
Tex Med ; 116(9): 4, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023284

RESUMO

While the World Health Organization estimates that climate change will cause approximately 250,000 additional deaths per year worldwide from malnutrition, malaria, diarrhea, and heat stress, these estimates are based on assumptions using models that have not been validated using real world, observational data.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Aquecimento Global , Educação em Saúde , Saúde , Causas de Morte , Diarreia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Malária , Desnutrição , Texas
11.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 12(1): e1-e3, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054263

RESUMO

For Africa, the backdrop1 against which COVID-19 emerged is a stark one. Although sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 11% of the world's population, it bears 24% of the global disease burden. The continent is home to 60% of the people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and over 90% of malarial patients. In this region, infectious diseases such as malaria and HIV cause 69% of deaths. As states respond to COVID-19, we need to keep our eyes open to what effective responses are notifying us about our healthcare systems, so that we can craft sustainable interventions as a result and uphold the right to health. This is especially true in the light of the ongoing nature of pandemics on the continent, making urgent the need to maximise the value of our health system and its resources, as we seek lasting transformation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pobreza , Privatização , Direito à Saúde , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Defesa do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
12.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(4): 504-506, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031767

RESUMO

Whole-organism vaccination is a promising approach to prevent malaria. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, McNamara and colleagues identify epitope masking as a hindrance to antibody boosting after repeated administration of attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccine.


Assuntos
Complexo Burkholderia cepacia , Vacinas Antimaláricas , Malária , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI , Animais , Pseudomonas aeruginosa
13.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200229, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053077

RESUMO

Malaria and tuberculosis are no longer considered to be neglected diseases by the World Health Organization. However, both are huge challenges and public health problems in the world, which affect poor people, today referred to as neglected populations. In addition, malaria and tuberculosis present the same difficulties regarding the treatment, such as toxicity and the microbial resistance. The increase of Plasmodium resistance to the available drugs along with the insurgence of multidrug- and particularly tuberculosis drug-resistant strains are enough to justify efforts towards the development of novel medicines for both diseases. This literature review provides an overview of the state of the art of antimalarial and antituberculosis chemotherapies, emphasising novel drugs introduced in the pharmaceutical market and the advances in research of new candidates for these diseases, and including some aspects of their mechanism/sites of action.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
14.
Global Health ; 16(1): 101, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081805

RESUMO

Corruption is recognized by the global community as a threat to development generally and to achieving health goals, such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal # 3: ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all. As such, international organizations such as the World Health Organizations and the United Nations Development Program are creating an evidence base on how best to address corruption in health systems. At present, the risk of corruption is even more apparent, given the need for quick and nimble responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, which may include a relaxation of standards and the rapid mobilization of large funds. As international organizations and governments attempt to respond to the ever-changing demands of this pandemic, there is a need to acknowledge and address the increased opportunity for corruption.In order to explore how such risks of corruption are addressed in international organizations, this paper focuses on the question: How are international organizations implementing measures to promote accountability and transparency, and anti-corruption, in their own operations? The following international organizations were selected as the focus of this paper given their current involvement in anti-corruption, transparency, and accountability in the health sector: the World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank Group, and the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Our findings demonstrate that there has been a clear increase in the volume and scope of anti-corruption, accountability, and transparency measures implemented by these international organizations in recent years. However, the efficacy of these measures remains unclear. Further research is needed to determine how these measures are achieving their transparency, accountability, and anti-corruption goals.


Assuntos
Revelação , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/economia , Responsabilidade Social , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 796, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria infection during pregnancy has negative health consequences for both mothers and offspring. Sub-microscopic malaria infection during pregnancy is common in most African countries. We sought to identify factors associated with sub-microscopic placental malaria, and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-negative pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We recruited a cohort of pregnant women during their first trimester and assessed for the occurrence of placental malaria and pregnancy outcomes. The follow-up was done monthly from recruitment until delivery. Histopathology placental malaria positive results were defined as the presence of malaria pigment or parasitized erythrocytes on the slide (histology-positive (HP)), and the sub-microscopic placental infection was defined as positive Plasmodium falciparum DNA by polymerase chain reaction (DNA PCR) amplification in a negative histopathology test. Adverse pregnancy outcomes investigated included low birth weight (birth weight below 2.5 kg), prematurity (live birth below 37 weeks), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (live born with a birth weight below 10th percentile for gestational age and sex). Weighted baseline category logit, log-binomial, and log-Poisson models were used to assess factors associated with placental malaria, and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Among 1115 women who had histopathology and DNA PCR performed, 93 (8%) had HP placental infection, and 136 (12%) had the sub-microscopic placental infection. The risk of sub-microscopic placental malaria was greater in women who did not use mosquito prevention methods such as bed nets, fumigation, or mosquito coils (odds ratio (OR) = 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-2.92; P = 0.03) and in women who were anemic (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.20-2.11; P = 0.001). Women who were underweight had reduced odds of sub-microscopic placental malaria infection (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.17-0.62; P = 0.001). Women who were overweight/obese had 1.48 times higher the odds of HP placental malaria compared to normal weight (OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.03-2.11; P = 0.03). HP placental malaria infection was associated with an increased risk of SGA births (RR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.98-1.72, P = 0.07). In contrast, the sub-microscopic infection was associated with a reduced risk of SGA births (RR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43-0.88, P = 0.01). Placental malaria was not associated with low birth weight or prematurity. CONCLUSION: Malaria prevention methods and maternal nutrition status during early pregnancy were important predictors of sub-microscopic placental malaria. More research is needed to understand sub-microscopic placental malaria and the possible mechanisms mediating the association between placental malaria and SGA.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV , Malária/epidemiologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Anemia/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Malária/complicações , Malária/parasitologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/parasitologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048941

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: School-aged children become a highly vulnerable group for malaria, yet they are less likely to use malaria prevention interventions. Previous studies exploring perception on cause of malaria mainly focused on pregnant mothers or parents of children under age five years. Exploring parent's perception on cause of malaria and their experiences on the prevention of malaria and associated challenges among school-aged children is important to develop a malaria prevention education package for school-aged children to reduce malaria and malaria related morbidities among school-aged children. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study is conducted in Kutcha district by recruiting 19 parents of school-aged children for semi-structured interviews, 6 key informants and 6 focus group discussion which consists of parents, health development army and health extension workers. A semi-structured interview guide is used to guide the interview process. The collected data is analyzed thematically with a focus on the three major areas of concern: perceived cause of malaria, experience of malaria prevention and challenges of bed net use for prevention of malaria. RESULTS: Five causes of malaria were identified, namely hunger, mosquito bite, exposure to hot sunshine, poor sanitation and hygiene and eating some sweet foods and unripe maize. Participants perceived that eating sweet foods and unripe maize lead to enlargement of the spleen that ends in malaria while poor hygiene and sanitation leads to either development of the ova of mosquito and the landing of the housefly to contaminate food for consumption. The experiences of malaria prevention were largely influenced by their perceived cause of malaria. The malaria prevention measures undertaken by parents were vectors control measures, homemade herbal remedies and restricting children from eating sweet foods. The challenges of malaria prevention by using bed nets were related to a negative attitude, sleeping behaviors of children; use of bed nets for unintended purposes, shortage of bed nets and delays in the distribution of bed nets. CONCLUSION: There were misconceptions about the cause of malaria and associated experiences of malaria prevention. Control of malaria among school-aged children need health education targeting the challenges and correcting identified misconceptions by parents in Kutcha district and in other similar settings.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária/etiologia , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Pais/educação , Pesquisa Qualitativa
17.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-10-26. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/20-133).
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52945

RESUMO

Estas Pranchas para o diagnóstico microscópico da malária servem como guia para laboratoristas e técnicos de campo responsáveis por diagnóstico microscópico da malária pelo método de Giemsa. Também devem ser úteis para professores e alunos de disciplinas correlatas. As pranchas mostram fotomicrografias coloridas de lâminas de sangue (esfregaços e gotas espessas), coradas, e texto explicativo sobre as quatro espécies de parasitos causadores da malária humana e sua morfologia. São fornecidas descrições completas de cada espécie, bem como instruções sobre o preparo de lâminas e esfregaços, o uso de soluções tampão, o método de coloração Giemsa, o exame das lâminas e procedimentos para estimar a densidade parasitária. Nada será adicionado sobre knowlesi e simium? Acho importante até para que as pessoas saibam com o que se parecem. Também são descritos outros elementos celulares observados no sangue, bem como vários contaminantes comuns que podem ser confundidos com parasitos da malária. Outros parasitos que podem ocorrer em esfregaços de sangue periférico também são apresentados. As boas práticas de biossegurança para o manuseio de amostras de sangue são claramente abordadas...


Assuntos
Malária , Doenças Transmissíveis , Plasmodium , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico
18.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-10-26.
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52944

RESUMO

O volume de capacitação em Bases do diagnóstico microscópico da malária é composto por dois módulos, que servem como uma estrutura para que os instrutores montem o curso. Ele fornece as informações mínimas necessárias para capacitar alunos em diagnóstico microscópico da malária pelo método de Giemsa. O volume destina-se principalmente a pessoas com escolaridade relativamente baixa no momento do início do curso; os instrutores podem ajustar o curso para participantes com níveis mais altos de escolaridade. Técnicos atualmente responsáveis pelo diagnóstico microscópico da malária também se beneficiarão da leitura do Guia do aluno. Eles podem aprender o processo que leva à identificação dos parasitos da malária, seja participando de um curso de capacitação básica ou de um curso de reciclagem. O Guia do instrutor (Bases do diagnóstico microscópico da malária, Parte II) foi elaborado para ajudar os instrutores a capacitar profissionais de saúde em microscopia básica da malária. O ideal é que cada aluno também receba um exemplar das Pranchas para o diagnóstico microscópico da malária da OMS . Se isso não for possível, vários exemplares devem ser disponibilizados como material de referência para uso dos alunos.


Assuntos
Malária , Microscopia , Doenças Transmissíveis , Controle de Infecções
19.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2020-10-26.
em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-52941

RESUMO

Este manual (Parte I dos módulos de capacitação em Bases do diagnóstico microscópico da malária) ajudará os participantes durante seu treinamento em diagnóstico microscópico da malária humana. O manual foi concebido como base para um treinamento formal de quatro a cinco semanas de duração e destina-se a alunos com conhecimentos rudimentares de ciência. Ao concluir a capacitação, o aluno será responsável pelo diagnóstico de malária com lâminas de sangue de casos suspeitos na sua comunidade. Desse modo, decisões importantes referentes ao tratamento dependem da sua competência em garantir o diagnóstico de malária sem supervisão. Para ganhar a confiança do público e do sistema de saúde, a qualidade da formação desses agentes deve ser a mais alta possível e deve poder ser demonstrada. A estrutura do curso é “baseada em competências”, ou seja, apresenta informações técnicas essenciais para a aquisição de habilidades e instruções passo a passo em um formato facilmente compreensível. O treinamento é principalmente prático. Ao final do curso, os alunos devem demonstrar ter adquirido um alto nível de competência. A educação baseada em competências é uma maneira eficaz e comprovada para a aquisição das habilidades essenciais aos serviços públicos de saúde e de atenção à saúde. Além de capacitar os profissionais de saúde nos fundamentos do diagnóstico microscópico da malária, os módulos podem ser usados para a reciclagem de agentes já formados que realizam microscopia padrão da malária pelo método de Giemsa. Como esse pessoal já tem uma formação sólida e ampla experiência de trabalho, devem conseguir atingir os objetivos do curso em 11 ou 12 dias úteis. Para os laboratoristas e microscopistas de hospitais distritais ou estaduais/regionais já familiarizados com os procedimentos de laboratório, um curso mais curto pode ser benéfico, pois embora o diagnóstico microscópico da malária faça parte da rotina diária desses profissionais, os cursos de reciclagem ajudam a garantir a exatidão. Este manual está dividido em unidades de aprendizagem. As observações e instruções contidas em cada unidade são suficientes para reduzir ao mínimo possível a quantidade de anotações a serem tomadas pelos alunos, permitindo desse modo que participem plenamente das palestras e discussões. Ainda assim, há uma página em branco para anotações no final de cada unidade...


Assuntos
Malária , Microscopia , Doenças Transmissíveis
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