Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.127
Filtrar
1.
West Afr J Med ; 38(3): 274-281, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe malaria is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria and concomitant bacteraemia may potentially worsen clinical outcomes. (Duration of admission, Mortality, Fever clearance time and Coma recovery time). OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at identifying the proportion of children with severe malaria who had concomitant bacteraemia, the pathogens implicated and their drug sensitivity pattern, predictors of bacterial co-infection and its effect on treatment outcome. METHODS: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study at the Emergency Paediatric Unit of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. The subjects were children aged 6 months to 14 years with severe malaria and microscopy confirmed parasitemia at admission. All subjects had blood culture samples drawn at admission for identification of bacterial isolates. Relevant clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded on case proformas. RESULTS: A total of 944 children were admitted into the Emergency Paediatric Unit during the study period with 176 (18.6%) managed for severe malaria. Of the 176 children with severe malaria, 41 (23.3%) had concomitant bacteraemia. Gram positive bacteria were the most common (70.7%) isolates with Staphylococcus aureus being the most predominant (65.9%). The bacterial isolates were mostly sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Children with concomitant bacteraemia had a longer duration of admission (p = 0.028) and longer fever clearance time (p=0.015). Increasing duration of coma before presentation was the single independent predictor of bacteraemia (p= 0.010). CONCLUSION: Severe malaria constituted a significant cause of admissions in UITH with approximately a fourth of the subjects having bacterial co-infection and this was associated with a worse prognosis (longer duration of admission and fever clearance time). Increased duration of coma prior to admission was the only predictor of the presence of bacteraemia in children with severe malaria. This highlights the importance of investigating for concomitant bacteraemia, especially in children presenting with coma.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Coinfecção , Malária , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/complicações , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia
2.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(3): 440-453, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487481

RESUMO

The understanding and management of membranous nephropathy, a common cause of nephrotic syndrome that is more frequently encountered in adults than in children, has rapidly evolved over the past decade. Identification of target antigens has allowed for more precise molecular diagnoses, and the ability to monitor circulating autoantibodies has added a new vantage point in terms of disease monitoring and decisions about immunosuppression. Although immunosuppression with alkylating agents combined with corticosteroids, or with calcineurin inhibitor-based regimens, has been the historical mainstay of treatment, observational and now randomized controlled trials with the B-cell-depleting agent rituximab have moved this agent to the forefront of therapy for primary membranous nephropathy. In this Core Curriculum, we discuss the typical features of primary and secondary disease; highlight the target antigens such as the phospholipase A2 receptor, thrombospondin type 1 domain-containing 7A, neural epidermal growth factor-like 1, and semaphorin-3B; describe the relationship between the immunologic and clinical courses of disease; and review modern management with supportive care or immunosuppressive treatment based on these composite parameters.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/tratamento farmacológico , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/etiologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/patologia , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/complicações , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Malária/complicações , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/complicações , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/imunologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Receptores da Fosfolipase A2/imunologia , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Semaforinas/imunologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Trombospondinas/imunologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244272, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 at Clinique Ngaliema, a public hospital, in Kinshasa, in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed medical records including socio-demographics, past medical history, clinical manifestation, comorbidities, laboratory data, treatment and disease outcome of 160 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, with confirmed result of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. RESULTS: The median age of patients was 54 years (IQR: 38-64), and there was no significant gender difference (51% of male). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (55 [34%]), diabetes (31 [19%]) and obesity (13 [8%]). Fever (93 [58%]), cough (92 [57%]), fatigue (87 [54%]), shortness of breath (72 [45%]) and myalgia (33 [21%]) were the most common symptoms, upon admission. Patients were categorized into mild (92 [57%]), moderate (19 [12%]) and severe (49 [31%]). Severe patients were older and were more likely to have comorbidities, compared to mild ones. The majority of patients (92% [147 of 160]) patients received hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine phosphate. Regression model revealed that older age, lower SpO2, higher heart rate and elevated AST at admission were all risk factors associated with in-hospital death. The prevalence of COVID-19 and malaria co-infection was 0.63% and 70 (44%) of all patients received antimalarial treatment before hospitalization. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that the epidemiological and clinical feature of COVID-19 patients in Kinshasa are broadly similar to previous reports from other settings. Older age, lower SpO2, tachycardia, and elevated AST could help to identify patients at higher risk of death at an early stage of the illness. Plasmodium spp co-infection was not common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Coagulação Sanguínea , Cloroquina/administração & dosagem , Cloroquina/análogos & derivados , Coinfecção , Comorbidade , Tosse , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre , Hospitalização , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Inflamação , Testes de Função Hepática , Malária/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Taquicardia/complicações
4.
Malar J ; 19(1): 386, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138814

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact on other health programmes in countries, including on malaria, and is currently under much discussion. As many countries are accelerating efforts to eliminate malaria or to prevent the re-establishment of malaria from recently eliminated countries, the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to cause major interruptions to ongoing anti-malaria operations and risk jeopardizing the gains that have been made so far. Sri Lanka, having eliminated malaria in 2012, was certified by the World Health Organization as a malaria-free country in 2016 and now implements a rigorous programme to prevent its re-establishment owing to the high receptivity and vulnerability of the country to malaria. Sri Lanka has also dealt with the COVID-19 epidemic quite successfully limiting the cumulative number of infections and deaths through co-ordinated efforts between the health sector and other relevant sectors, namely the military, the Police Department, Departments of Airport and Aviation and Foreign Affairs, all of which have been deployed for the COVID-19 epidemic under the umbrella of a Presidential Task Force. The relevance of imported infections and the need for a multi-sectoral response are features common to both the control of the COVID-19 epidemic and the Prevention of Re-establishment (POR) programme for malaria. Sri Lanka's malaria POR programme has, therefore, creatively integrated its activities with those of the COVID-19 control programme. Through highly coordinated operations the return to the country of Sri Lankan nationals stranded overseas by the COVID-19 pandemic, many from malaria endemic countries, are being monitored for malaria as well as COVID-19 in an integrated case surveillance system under quarantine conditions, to the success of both programmes. Twenty-three imported malaria cases were detected from February to October through 2773 microscopic blood examinations performed for malaria in quarantine centres, this number being not much different to the incidence of imported malaria during the same period last year. This experience highlights the importance of integrated case surveillance and the need for a highly coordinated multi-sectoral approach in dealing with emerging new infections. It also suggests that synergies between the COVID-19 epidemic control programme and other health programmes may be found and developed to the advantage of both.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
5.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 8205261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33134395

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to cause havoc to many countries of the globe, with no end in sight, due to nonavailability of a given vaccine or treatment regimen. The pandemic has so far had a relatively limited impact on the African continent, which contributes more than 93% of global malaria burden. However, the limited burden of COVID-19 pandemic on the African region could have long-term implications on the health and wellbeing of affected inhabitants due to its malaria-endemic status. Malaria causes recurrent insulin resistance with episodes of infection at relatively low parasitaemia. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) which is widely distributed in the human body is implicated in the pathogenesis of malaria, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and COVID-19. Use of ACE2 by the COVID-19 virus induces inflammation and oxidative stress, which can lead to insulin resistance. Although COVID-19 patients in malaria-endemic African region may not exhibit severe signs and symptoms of the disease, their risk of exhibiting heightened insulin resistance and possible future development of T2DM is high due to their prior exposure to malaria. African governments must double efforts at containing the continued spread of the virus without neglecting existing malarial control measures if the region is to avert the plausible long-term impact of the pandemic in terms of future development of T2DM.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Malária/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Malária/complicações , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/patologia , Estado Pré-Diabético/virologia , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 867, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Micronutrients are minerals and vitamins and they are essential for normal physiological activities. The objectives of the study were to describe the progress and determinants of micronutrient levels and to assess the effects of micronutrients in the treatment outcome of kalazar. METHODS: A prospective cohort study design was used. The data were collected using patient interviews, measuring anthropometric indicators, and collecting laboratory samples. The blood samples were collected at five different periods during the leishmaniasis treatments: before starting anti-leishmaniasis treatments, in the first week, in the second week, in the third week, and in the 4th week of anti-leishmaniasis treatments. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the profile of patients and to compare the treatment success rate. The generalized estimating equation was used to identify the determinants of serum micronutrients. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients were 32.88 years [SD (standard deviation) ±15.95]. Male constitute 62.3% of the patients and problematic alcohol use was present in 11.5% of the patients. The serum zinc level of visceral leishmaniasis patients was affected by alcohol (B - 2.7 [95% CI: - 4.01 - -1.5]), DDS (B 9.75 [95% CI: 7.71-11.79]), family size (B -1.63 [95% CI: - 2.68 - -0.58]), HIV (B -2.95 [95% CI: - 4.97 - -0.92]), and sex (B - 1.28 [95% CI: - 2.5 - -0.07]). The serum iron level of visceral leishmaniasis patients was affected by alcohol (B 7.6 [95% CI: 5.86-9.35]), family size (B -5.14 [95% CI: - 7.01 - -3.28]), malaria (B -12.69 [95% CI: - 14.53 - -10.87]), Hookworm (- 4.48 [- 6.82 - -2.14]), chronic diseases (B -7.44 [95% CI: - 9.75 - -5.13]), and HIV (B -5.51 [95% CI: - 8.23 - -2.78]). The serum selenium level of visceral leishmaniasis patient was affected by HIV (B -18.1 [95% CI: - 20.63 - -15.58]) and family size (B -11.36 [95% CI: - 13.02 - -9.7]). The iodine level of visceral leishmaniasis patient was affected by HIV (B -38.02 [95% CI: - 41.98 - -34.06]), DDS (B 25 .84 [95% CI: 22.57-29.1]), smoking (B -12.34 [95% CI: - 15.98 - -8.7]), chronic illness (B -5.14 [95% CI: - 7.82 - -2.46]), and regular physical exercise (B 5.82 [95% CI: 0.39-11.26]). The serum vitamin D level of visceral leishmaniasis patient was affected by HIV (B -9.43 [95% CI: - 10.92 - -7.94]), DDS (B 16.24 [95% CI: 14.89-17.58]), malaria (B -0.61 [95% CI: - 3.37 - -3.37]), and family size (B -1.15 [95% CI: - 2.03 - -0.28]). The serum vitamin A level of visceral leishmaniasis patient was affected by residence (B 0.81 [95% CI: 0.08-1.54]), BMI (B 1.52 [95% CI: 0.42-2.6]), DDS (B 1.62 [95% CI: 0.36-2.88]), family size (B -5.03 [95% CI: - 5.83 - -4.22]), HIV (B -2.89 [95% CI: - 4.44 - -1.34]),MUAC (B 0.86 [95% CI: 0.52-1.21]), and age (B 0.09 [95% CI: 0.07-0.12]). CONCLUSION: The micronutrient levels of visceral leishmaniasis patients were significantly lower. The anti-leishmaniasis treatment did not increase the serum micronutrient level of the patients.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Micronutrientes/sangue , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Malária/complicações , Malária/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Selênio/sangue , Zinco/sangue
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 796, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria infection during pregnancy has negative health consequences for both mothers and offspring. Sub-microscopic malaria infection during pregnancy is common in most African countries. We sought to identify factors associated with sub-microscopic placental malaria, and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-negative pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We recruited a cohort of pregnant women during their first trimester and assessed for the occurrence of placental malaria and pregnancy outcomes. The follow-up was done monthly from recruitment until delivery. Histopathology placental malaria positive results were defined as the presence of malaria pigment or parasitized erythrocytes on the slide (histology-positive (HP)), and the sub-microscopic placental infection was defined as positive Plasmodium falciparum DNA by polymerase chain reaction (DNA PCR) amplification in a negative histopathology test. Adverse pregnancy outcomes investigated included low birth weight (birth weight below 2.5 kg), prematurity (live birth below 37 weeks), and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) (live born with a birth weight below 10th percentile for gestational age and sex). Weighted baseline category logit, log-binomial, and log-Poisson models were used to assess factors associated with placental malaria, and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Among 1115 women who had histopathology and DNA PCR performed, 93 (8%) had HP placental infection, and 136 (12%) had the sub-microscopic placental infection. The risk of sub-microscopic placental malaria was greater in women who did not use mosquito prevention methods such as bed nets, fumigation, or mosquito coils (odds ratio (OR) = 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-2.92; P = 0.03) and in women who were anemic (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.20-2.11; P = 0.001). Women who were underweight had reduced odds of sub-microscopic placental malaria infection (OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.17-0.62; P = 0.001). Women who were overweight/obese had 1.48 times higher the odds of HP placental malaria compared to normal weight (OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.03-2.11; P = 0.03). HP placental malaria infection was associated with an increased risk of SGA births (RR = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.98-1.72, P = 0.07). In contrast, the sub-microscopic infection was associated with a reduced risk of SGA births (RR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.43-0.88, P = 0.01). Placental malaria was not associated with low birth weight or prematurity. CONCLUSION: Malaria prevention methods and maternal nutrition status during early pregnancy were important predictors of sub-microscopic placental malaria. More research is needed to understand sub-microscopic placental malaria and the possible mechanisms mediating the association between placental malaria and SGA.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV , Malária/epidemiologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Anemia/etiologia , Peso ao Nascer , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Malária/complicações , Malária/parasitologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/parasitologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Risco , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 144(3): 95-101, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921396

RESUMO

Patients living with HIV in malarial endemic regions may experience clinically significant drug interaction between antiretroviral and antimalarial drugs. Effects of nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPVr) on lumefantrine (LM) therapeutic concentrations and toxicity were evaluated. In a four-arm parallel study design, the blood samples of 40 participants, treated with artemether/lumefantrine (AL), were analysed. Lumefantrine Cmax was increased by 32% (p = 0.012) and 325% (p < 0.0001) in the NVP and LPVr arms respectively but decreased by 62% (p < 0.0001) in the EFV-arm. AUC of LM was, respectively, increased by 50% (p = 0.27) and 328% (p < 0.0001) in the NVP and LPVr arms but decreased in the EFV-arm by 30% (p = 0.019). Median day 7 LM concentration was less than 280 ng/mL in EFV-arm (239 ng/mL) but higher in control (290 ng/mL), NVP (369 ng/mL, p = 0.004) and LPVr (1331 ng/mL, p < 0.0001) arms. There were no clinically relevant toxicities nor adverse events in both control and test arms. Artemether/lumefantrine is safe and effective for treatment of malaria in PLWHA taking NVP and LPVr based ART regimen but not EFV-based regimen.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Interações Medicamentosas , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Nevirapina/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alquinos , Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Antirretrovirais/sangue , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/sangue , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/administração & dosagem , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/sangue , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/sangue , Ciclopropanos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Lopinavir , Malária/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevirapina/administração & dosagem , Nevirapina/sangue , Nigéria , Ritonavir , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria in pregnancy remains a major public health problem in Africa and Ghana and has been associated with a variety of pregnancy-related adverse complications. The development of effective and timely health policies for the prevention and control of malaria and anemia in pregnancy; requires current and consistent data on the prevalence and risk factors. We report the prevalence and risk factors of malaria and anemia from three major hospitals across three regions in Ghana. METHODS: This multicenter cross-sectional study comprising a total of 628 pregnant women was conducted at the antenatal care units of the Achimota Hospital in the Greater Accra Region (n = 199), St. Michael's Hospital in the Ashanti Region (n = 221), and Effia Nkwanta Regional Hospital in the Western Region (n = 211). Questionnaires were administered to obtain socio-demographic, obstetrics and clinical data. Venous blood, stool and urine samples were collected for hematological profile and parasite identification using microscopy. Risk factors were evaluated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of P. falciparum malaria was 8.9%. Factors independently associated with malaria were self-reported mosquito exposure (moderate exposure: aOR = 3.11, 95% CI (1.12-8.61) and severe exposure: aOR = 10.46, 95% CI (3.86-28.34)) and non-use mosquito repellents (aOR = 3.29, 95% CI (1.70-6.39)). Multiparty (parity of 2: aOR = 0.19, 95% CI (0.05-0.70) and parity ≥3: aOR = 0.11, 95% CI (0.03-0.45)) and age (20-30 years old: aOR = 0.22, 95% CI (0.09-0.56)) reduced the odds of infection. The overall prevalence of anemia was 42.4%. The prevalence of mild, moderate and severe anemia were 35.7%, 6.1% and 0.6%, respectively. The use of water other than purified water (tap water: aOR = 3.05, 95% CI (2.06-4.51) and well water: aOR = 2.45, 95% CI (1.35-4.44)), increasing gestational age (second trimester: aOR = 2.05, 95% CI (1.41-2.97) and third trimester: aOR = 7.20, 95% CI (3.06-16.92)) and malaria (aOR = 2.40, 95% CI (1.27-4.53)) were independent risk factors for anemia. CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of malaria is relatively low, that of anemia remains high. We recommend increasing efforts to make ITNs more available to strengthen malaria prevention. Public health education programs could help improve uptake and proper use of ITNs. To help reduce anemia in pregnancy, women should be empowered economically and interventions that reduce malnutrition should be encouraged. Women should be educated on early initiation of antenatal care to enhance surveillance, identification and treatment of anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia/diagnóstico , Malária/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Med ; 26(9): 1411-1416, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770167

RESUMO

The burden of malaria is heavily concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where cases and deaths associated with COVID-19 are rising1. In response, countries are implementing societal measures aimed at curtailing transmission of SARS-CoV-22,3. Despite these measures, the COVID-19 epidemic could still result in millions of deaths as local health facilities become overwhelmed4. Advances in malaria control this century have been largely due to distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs)5, with many SSA countries having planned campaigns for 2020. In the present study, we use COVID-19 and malaria transmission models to estimate the impact of disruption of malaria prevention activities and other core health services under four different COVID-19 epidemic scenarios. If activities are halted, the malaria burden in 2020 could be more than double that of 2019. In Nigeria alone, reducing case management for 6 months and delaying LLIN campaigns could result in 81,000 (44,000-119,000) additional deaths. Mitigating these negative impacts is achievable, and LLIN distributions in particular should be prioritized alongside access to antimalarial treatments to prevent substantial malaria epidemics.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/parasitologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Malária/complicações , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/virologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/parasitologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1958-1968, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840198

RESUMO

Hookworm is an intestinal parasite that infects nearly 230 million people, with another 5.1 billion at risk, especially in poverty-stricken tropical and subtropical regions. Pregnancy is an especially vulnerable time for hookworm infection because of its effect on both maternal and subsequently fetal health. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted. The meta-analysis was performed on the association between maternal hookworm and maternal anemia, as well as maternal hookworm coinfection with malaria. The prevalence of hookworm ranged from 1% to 78% in pregnant women, whereas malaria prevalence ranged from 11% to 81%. Pregnant women with hookworm infection were more likely to have anemia (combined odds ratio [cOR] 2.55 [2.20, 2.96], P < 0.001). In addition, pregnant woman with hookworm were more likely to have malaria coinfection (cOR 1.60 [1.38, 1.86], P < 0.001). Other effects on maternal and child health were investigated and summarized without systematic review or meta-analysis because of the limited study numbers. Despite current deworming recommendations in pregnant women, heavy hookworm burden, coinfection with malaria, and subsequent anemia persist. Although this is likely due, in part, to a lack of implementation of preventive chemotherapy, additional interventions such as health education, proper waste management, or linking malaria and soil-transmitted helminth treatment and prevention programs may also be needed. Further investigations on maternal-child outcomes as a result of hookworm infection during pregnancy will highlight public health interventional targets to reduce morbidity in pregnant women and children globally.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Infecções por Uncinaria/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Saúde Materna , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Ancylostomatoidea , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/parasitologia , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Infecções por Uncinaria/complicações , Infecções por Uncinaria/parasitologia , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/parasitologia , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/parasitologia , Saúde Pública
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 503, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the relationship between malaria infection risk and disease outcomes represents a fundamental component of morbidity and mortality burden estimations. Contemporary data on severe malaria risks among populations of different parasite exposures are scarce. Using surveillance data, we compared rates of paediatric malaria hospitalisation in areas of varying parasite exposure levels. METHODS: Surveillance data at five public hospitals; Jinja, Mubende, Kabale, Tororo, and Apac were assembled among admissions aged 1 month to 14 years between 2017 and 2018. The address of each admission was used to define a local catchment population where national census data was used to define person-year-exposure to risk. Within each catchment, historical infection prevalence was assembled from previously published data and current infection prevalence defined using 33 population-based school surveys among 3400 children. Poisson regression was used to compute the overall and site-specific incidences with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Both current and historical Plasmodium falciparum prevalence varied across the five sites. Current prevalence ranged from < 1% in Kabale to 54% in Apac. Overall, the malaria admission incidence rate (IR) was 7.3 per 1000 person years among children aged 1 month to 14 years of age (95% CI: 7.0, 7.7). The lowest rate was described at Kabale (IR = 0.3; 95 CI: 0.1, 0.6) and highest at Apac (IR = 20.3; 95 CI: 18.9, 21.8). There was a correlation between IR across the five sites and the current parasite prevalence in school children, though findings were not statistically significant. Across all sites, except Kabale, malaria admissions were concentrated among young children, 74% were under 5 years. The median age of malaria admissions at Kabale hospital was 40 months (IQR 20, 72), and at Apac hospital was 36 months (IQR 18, 69). Overall, severe anaemia (7.6%) was the most common presentation and unconsciousness (1.8%) the least common. CONCLUSION: Malaria hospitalisation rates remain high in Uganda particularly among young children. The incidence of hospitalized malaria in different locations in Uganda appears to be influenced by past parasite exposure, immune acquisition, and current risks of infection. Interruption of transmission through vector control could influence age-specific severe malaria risk.


Assuntos
Anemia/etiologia , Hospitalização , Hospitais Pediátricos , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Inconsciência/etiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Masculino , Morbidade , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
16.
Galicia clin ; 81(3): 85-86, jul. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monomicrobial imported infection by Plasmodium ovale is very rare. Case presentation: We report a case of complicated imported malaria by Plasmodium ovale in a man who suffered from subacute recurrent fever, thrombocytopenia and splenomegaly. CONCLUSION: Both the patient history and a search of epidemiological medical history were fundamental for confirming the suspicion


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Malária/complicações , Plasmodium ovale/isolamento & purificação , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Malária/microbiologia , Plasmodium ovale/patogenicidade , Esplenomegalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Espanha/epidemiologia
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2): 887-893, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588795

RESUMO

Increasing access to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) has raised awareness of the challenges healthcare workers face in managing non-malarial febrile illnesses (NMFIs). We examined NMFI prevalence, clinical diagnoses, and prescribing practices in outpatient clinics across different malaria transmission settings in Malawi. Standardized facility-based malaria surveillance was conducted at three facilities one of every 4 weeks over 2 years. Information on demographics, presenting symptoms, temperature, clinical diagnosis, and treatment were collected from outpatients presenting with malaria-like symptoms. Of the 25,486 patients with fever, 69% had NMFI. Non-malarial febrile illness prevalence was lower in 5- to 15-year-old patients (55%) than in children < 5 years (72%) and adults > 15 years of age (77%). The most common clinical diagnoses among febrile patients with negative mRDTs in all age-groups and settings were respiratory infections (46%), sepsis (29%), gastroenteritis (13%), musculoskeletal pain (9%), and malaria (5%). Antibiotic prescribing was high in all age-groups and settings. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (40%) and amoxicillin (29%) were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics and were used for nearly all clinical diagnoses. In these settings with minimal access to diagnostic tools, patients with fever and a negative mRDT received a limited number of clinical diagnoses. Many were likely to be inaccurate and were associated with the inappropriate use of the limited range of available antibiotics. Prescription and diagnostic practices for NMFIs in the facilities require research and policy input. Resource-limited malaria-endemic countries urgently need more point-of-care diagnostic tools and evidence-based diagnosis and treatment algorithms to provide effective and cost-efficient care.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Febre/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Assistência Ambulatorial , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Gerenciamento Clínico , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/diagnóstico , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Dor Musculoesquelética/complicações , Dor Musculoesquelética/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/complicações , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(9): 721-723, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507384

RESUMO

Occasionally, Plasmodium falciparum malaria is apparently precipitated by traumatic events (e.g., a landmine accident) or by noninfectious events (e.g., pregnancy). The authors reporting such cases often seem as baffled as many of their readers probably are. However, the case reports may contain important clues regarding malaria pathogenesis and immunity.


Assuntos
Malária , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/imunologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/patogenicidade , Baço/parasitologia , Esplenopatias/etiologia , Esplenopatias/parasitologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 655-662, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This retrospective analysis performed in Manhiça, Southern Mozambique, aimed to describe the frequency of post-malarial anemia (measured as a decrease of hematocrit ≥10%) and the need for blood transfusions in children with severe malaria treated with intravenous quinine or parenteral artesunate. METHODS: All children <15 years admitted with a parasitologically-confirmed diagnosis of malaria from 1st January 2003 to 31st December 2017, alive at hospital discharge, and with at least one measurement of hematocrit within 28 days after hospital discharge, detected by passive case detection, were included. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of post-malarial anemia observed in the study was 23.13%, with an estimated incidence rate of 288.84 episodes/1,000 children-month at risk in the follow-up period (28 days after discharge). There were no differences between treatment groups, although the study showed a higher association between blood transfusions and artesunate treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In this setting, children with severe malaria frequently present a meaningful decrease of hematocrit (>=10%) in the first weeks after their episode, sometimes requiring blood transfusions. Because of the high underlying prevalence of anemia in malaria-endemic settings, all children with severe malaria need to be actively followed up, irrespective of the treatment received.


Assuntos
Anemia/etiologia , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Artesunato/administração & dosagem , Malária/complicações , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Quinina/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Anemia/epidemiologia , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Artesunato/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Quinina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 485-493, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372751

RESUMO

Tropical splenomegaly is often associated with malaria and schistosomiasis. In 2014 and 2015, 145 Congolese refugees in western Uganda diagnosed with splenomegaly during predeparture medical examinations underwent enhanced screening for various etiologies. After anecdotal reports of unresolved splenomegaly and complications after U.S. arrival, patients were reassessed to describe long-term clinical progression after arrival in the United States. Post-arrival medical information was obtained through medical chart abstraction in collaboration with state health partners in nine participating states. We evaluated observed splenomegaly duration and associated clinical sequelae between 130 case patients from eastern Congo and 102 controls through adjusted hierarchical Poisson models, accounting for familial clustering. Of the 130 case patients, 95 (73.1%) had detectable splenomegaly after arrival. Of the 85 patients with records beyond 6 months, 45 (52.9%) had persistent splenomegaly, with a median persistence of 14.7 months (range 6.0-27.9 months). Of the 112 patients with available results, 65 (58.0%) patients had evidence of malaria infection, and the mean splenomegaly duration did not differ by Plasmodium species. Refugees with splenomegaly on arrival were 43% more likely to have anemia (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.04-1.97). Those with persistent splenomegaly were 60% more likely (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.15-2.23) to have a hematologic abnormality, particularly thrombocytopenia (aRR: 5.53, 95% CI: 1.73-17.62), and elevated alkaline phosphatase (aRR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03-2.40). Many patients experienced persistent splenomegaly, contradicting literature describing resolution after treatment and removal from an endemic setting. Other possible etiologies should be investigated and effective treatment, beyond treatment for malaria and schistosomiasis, explored.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Refugiados , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esplenomegalia/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Anemia/sangue , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , República Democrática do Congo/etnologia , Progressão da Doença , Eosinofilia/sangue , Feminino , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M , Lactente , Malária/complicações , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esquistossomose/complicações , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esplenomegalia/sangue , Esplenomegalia/etiologia , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...