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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(4): 353-355, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612666

RESUMO

Following the concerted efforts for nearly 70 years, great achievements have been obtained in parasitic diseases control in China, and some important parasitic diseases have been eliminated or moving towards elimination in the country. With the socioeconomic development, the implementation of the "Road and Belt Initiative" and the increase in the international communication and overseas investment, there is a rise in the number of overseas labors, businessmen, students, travelers, visitors and participants in national and international communication activities, resulting in a gradual increase in the number of cases with parasitic diseases imported from endemic to non-endemic areas of China and from foreign countries to China. The increase in the number of imported cases causes new challenges for the elimination of parasitic diseases in China. The paper describes the current status of malaria, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis, analyzes the challenges for the current control activities, and proposes the control strategies and interventions.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose , Malária , Esquistossomose , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 101, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489079

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite the effectiveness of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP), the uptake and coverage in southwest Nigeria are low. We assessed the factors influencing utilisation of IPTp-SP. Methods: A multistage sampling technique was used to select 400 pregnant women from six primary healthcare centers in Oyo State. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude towards IPTp-SP and its utilisation were obtained using a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Focus group discussions (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII) were held for pregnant women and healthcare workers and analysed thematically. Results: Mean age of respondents was 27.2 (SD ± 5.5) years. Mean gestational age was 29.5 weeks (SD ± 5.4). Overall, 320 (80.0%) took SP, of which 152 (47.5%) took 2 doses and 112 (35.0%) took under directly observed therapy (DOT). We found that early booking for ANC, more than two visits to ANC (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 5.6; 95% CI: 1.2 - 26.6), good knowledge on IPTp (aOR = 9.3; 95% CI: 5.4 - 16.0), positive attitude towards IPTp (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.5 - 2.9) and being employed (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 - 1.7) were factors associated with IPTp-SP utilisation. The FGD and KII revealed that IPTp-SP drugs were mostly taken at home due to stock out. Conclusion: Late ANC booking with stock out of IPTp-SP drugs was responsible for its low utilisation. There is need to encourage pregnant women to book early for ANC. Adherence to the practice of DOT scheme is recommended to improve IPTp-SP utilisation.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Malária/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Pirimetamina/administração & dosagem , Sulfadoxina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Nigéria , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489062

RESUMO

Introduction: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) is among the major vector control strategies recommended for endemic populations by the World Health Organization (WHO). The success of IRS requires high coverage which is dependent on its acceptability. In Nigeria, IRS pilots have been ongoing and rejection has been a major setback to its coverage. We assessed coverage of IRS and determined factors associated with its acceptability in Nasarawa Eggon district, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 409 households selected using multi-stage sampling was carried out. Trained data collectors administered pre-tested structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics of household heads or their representatives, their perceptions on IRS and factors associated with IRS acceptability. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done at 5% level of significance. Results: Majority of respondents were male (79.7%) and married (82.6%), and their mean age was 36.4 ± 13.3 years. Coverage of IRS was 99.3%. However, only 82.6% of those who previously accepted IRS were willing to accept it in again. Factors independently associated with acceptability were perceived effectiveness of IRS (aOR = 21.8; 95%CI = 6.9-68.8) and lower household cost of malaria prevention after IRS (aOR = 5.0; 95%CI = 1.1-21.8). Conclusion: IRS coverage in the communities studied met WHO minimum standard of 85%. However, for similar results to be achieved in future, acceptability must be promoted by providing information on its effectiveness and its ability to reduce household cost of malaria prevention.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 127, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558926

RESUMO

Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW) is an important predictor of newborn survival and development. Given its pathophysiology, malaria is presumed to be one of the risk factors for low birth weight. This study aims to determine the association between malaria in pregnant women (PW) and LBW (weight < 2500 g). Methods: We conducted a case-control analytical study based on the administration of a questionnaire and an observation chart. We calculated the crude odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted odds ratio to determine this association. Logistic regression was applied to recognize the variables which act as determinants of the issue under discussion. Results: This study involved 156 women (78 cases and 78 controls). The prevalence of LBW was 12.32% (105/852); 41.02% (64/156) of women had had malaria during pregnancy and 42.14% of parturients had received three doses of IPT (intermittent preventive treatment). A significant association between malaria and LBW emerged. Crude odds ratio= 3.75 [P = 0.0001 (p < 0.05)] and adjusted OR = 2.82 [P = 0.01 (p < 0.05)] were calculated taking into account the various confusion factors. Conclusion: Malaria during pregnancy is a factor increasing the risk of LBW. Efforts should be made to improve IPT coverage and the use of long lasting impregnated mosquito nets in order to prevent malaria during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Peso ao Nascer , Malária/complicações , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Camarões , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558935

RESUMO

Introduction: Malaria is a life threatening disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, transmitted through the bites of infected female anopheles' mosquitoes. According to the latest WHO data published in 2017, malaria deaths in Cameroon reached 9.161 deaths accounting for 4.14% of total deaths. The age adjusted death rate is 29.11 per 100,000 and Cameroon is ranked the 30th in the world with a high prevalence of malaria. The aim of this study was therefore, to access the knowledge of the modes of transmission and prevention of malaria among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic (ANC) at the Nkwen Health Center, Bamenda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional hospital based survey study. The researchers recruited 51 eligible women in the Nkwen Health Centre and used a validated and pre-tested questionnaires to collect data. Collected data were entered into Excel and analysed using descriptive statistics and the results presented in tables and figures. Results: Sixty four percent of the women have basic knowledge about the mode of malaria transmission. Thirty six percent of the women had little knowledge about malaria transmission modes and the possible dangers of the disease. Conclusion: Slightly above 50% of pregnant women have basic knowledge on the modes of malaria transmission. Lack of knowledge regarding the modes of malaria transmission can be one of the reasons why there is still quite a high level of malaria prevalence among pregnant women attending ANC at the Nkwen Health Center, Bamenda. There is therefore, a need to educate women on malaria transmission modes.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 315-318, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544416

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemic situation of malaria and explore the targeted control strategy in Guangxi from 2011 to 2018. METHODS: The malaria surveillance data were collected in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from 2011 to 2018, and a descriptive method was employed to analyze the epidemiological features of the malaria cases. RESULTS: A total of 2 944 malaria cases were reported in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from 2011 to 2018, including a case with local infection (0.03%) and 2 943 imported cases (99.97%). There were 2 933 cases (99.63%) positive for Plasmodium confirmed by laboratory testing, including 2 166 cases (73.86%) with P. falciparum malaria, 388 cases (13.23%) with P. ovale malaria, 276 cases (9.41%) with P. vivax malaria, 40 cases (1.36%) with P. malariae malaria and 62 cases (2.11%) with mixed infections, and 11 clinically diagnosed cases (0.37%). The malaria cases were distributed in 91 counties (districts) of 14 cities in Guangxi, with the largest number of cases found in Nanning City (2 515 cases, 85.43%). The malaria cases were originated from 29 countries in Africa (94.67%), 7 countries in Southeast Asia (5.10%), one country in South America (0.07%), 2 countries in South Asia and China (0.10%). In African countries, most malaria cases were from Ghana (1 947 cases, 66.13%), and in Southeast Asian countries, most cases were from Myanmar (75 cases, 2.55%). Most malaria cases were young men, and 2 899 cases (98.13%) were male, while 2 583 cases (87.74%) were at ages of 20 to 49 years. Gold washing and mining was the predominant occupation (2 561 cases, 86.99%), and the malaria cases were reported in each month across the year, with the largest number of cases detected in June (665 cases, 22.59%), while no season-specific distribution was found. There were 1 431 cases (48.61%) reported by disease control and prevention institutions, 1 511 cases (51.30%) reported by medical institutions, and 2 cases (0.07%) reported by inspection and quarantine institutions. During the period from 2011 to 2018, there were 6 deaths of imported malaria cases in Guangxi, and no secondary cases were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemic situation of local malaria has been effectively controlled in Guangxi; however, there is a great challenge for the management of overseas imported malaria. Strengthening the monitoring and management of migrant labors is the key to consolidate the achievements of malaria elimination.


Assuntos
Malária , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasmodium , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 81, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448043

RESUMO

Introduction: An estimated 125 million pregnancies around the world are at risk of malaria infection every year. Insecticide Treated Bed Nets is a form of personal protection that has reportedly been shown to reduce severe disease and mortality due to malaria in endemic regions. This study investigated ownership and utilization of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Wa Municipality of Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was adopted to collect data among 394 pregnant women in six antenatal clinics. A two stage sampling technique was adopted and the data collection tool used was a semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics involving logistic regression were performed using Stata 14. Results: More (33.3%) of the pregnant women were aged between 25-29 years with no formal education (29.9%) whiles most (69.6%) of the pregnant women were in Islam religion. About 95.9% have heard about Long Lasting Insecticide Nets and its benefits. Intuitively, ownership of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets was 82.2% with 69.3% utilization of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets. Pregnant women aged 30-34 and 35 years and above were significant predictors, however, less likely to own Long Lasting Insecticide Nets compared to 15-19 years [AOR(95%CI)=0.29(0.10-0.87) and 0.08(0.01-0.72) respectively] whiles pregnant women aged 35 years and above were significantly less likely to utilize Long Lasting Insecticide Nets compared to 15-19 years [OR(95%CI)=0.12(0.03-0.48)]. Conclusion: The study found utilization of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets among pregnant in the Wa Municipality low as compared to the National Malaria Control Program target in Ghana although Long Lasting Insecticide Nets ownership was high. The study recommends that Public Health Nurses and Disease Control Officers should intensify sensitization on the importance and misconception of the use of Long Lasting Insecticide Nets during outreach clinics.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012736, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Larviciding refers to the regular application of chemical or microbial insecticides to water bodies or water containers to kill the aquatic immature forms of the mosquito (the larvae and pupae). OBJECTIVES: To summarize research evidence evaluating whether larviciding with chemical or microbial insecticides prevents malaria transmission. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; Embase; CAB Abstracts; LILACS; the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP); ClinicalTrials.gov; and the ISRCTN registry up to 6 June 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs), interrupted time series (ITS), randomized cross-over studies, non-randomized cross-over studies, and controlled before-and-after studies (CBAs) that compared larviciding with no larviciding. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We independently assessed trials for eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: Four studies (one cRCT, two CBAs, and one non-randomized cross-over design) met the inclusion criteria. All used ground application of larvicides (people hand-delivering larvicides); one evaluated chemical and three evaluated microbial agents. Studies were carried out in The Gambia, Tanzania, Kenya, and Sri Lanka. Three studies were conducted in areas where mosquito aquatic habitats were less extensive (< 1 km²), and one where habitats were more extensive (> 1 km²; a cross-over study from The Gambia).For aquatic habitats of less than 1 km², one cRCT randomized eight villages in Sri Lanka to evaluate chemical larviciding using insect growth regulator; and two CBA studies undertaken in Kenya and Tanzania evaluated microbial larvicides. In the cRCT, larviciding across all villages was associated with lower malaria incidence (rate ratio 0.24, 4649 participants, low-certainty evidence) and parasite prevalence (risk ratio (RR) 0.26, 5897 participants, low-certainty evidence) compared to no larviciding. The two CBA studies reported lower malaria prevalence during the intervention period (parasite prevalence RR 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71 to 0.89; 70,902 participants; low-certainty evidence). The Kenyan study also reported a reduction in the incidence of new malaria cases (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.01; 720 participants; very low-certainty evidence).For aquatic habitats of more than 1 km², the non-randomized cross-over trial using microbial larvicides did not detect an effect for malaria incidence (RR 1.58, 95% CI 0.94 to 2.65; 4226 participants), or parasite prevalence (RR 1.15, 95% CI 0.41 to 3.20; 3547 participants); both were very low-certainty evidence. The Gambia trial also reported the mean haemoglobin level, and there was no difference across the four comparisons (mean difference -0.13, 95% CI -0.40 to 0.13; 3586 participants).We were unable to summarize or pool entomological outcomes due to unreported and missing data. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Most controlled studies on larviciding have been performed with microbial agents. Ground larviciding for non-extensive larval habitats may have an effect on malaria transmission, and we do not know if there is an effect in large-scale aquatic habitats. We found no studies using larviciding application techniques that could cover large aquatic habitats, such as aerial spraying using aircraft.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Animais , Culicidae , Ecossistema , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
14.
Malar J ; 18(1): 261, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More than 200 medicinal plants including Euphorbia abyssinica are utilized for treatment of malaria in Ethiopian traditional medical practices. However, the safety, efficacy and quality of these medicinal plants are largely unknown. Pharmacological and toxicological investigations of these plants are among the prioritized issues in every country. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the anti-malarial activity of Euphorbia abyssinica root extract against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. METHODS: The fresh roots of Euphorbia abyssinica were identified and collected. They were dried and extracted by 80% methanol using maceration. Acute toxicity of the extract was done using female Swiss albino mice. Anti-malarial activity of the extract was done by a standard 4-day suppressive test using chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei. Twenty-five male Swiss albino mice were randomly grouped into 5 groups of 5 mice each. Group I was treated with distilled water (10 ml/kg), group II, III, and IV were treated with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg of extract, respectively and group V was treated with chloroquine (25 mg/kg). The level of parasitaemia, survival time, and variation in weight were utilized to determine the anti-malarial activity of the extract. Data was analysed using ANOVA followed by Tukey test. RESULTS: The plant extract did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality at 2000 mg/kg. The 4-day chemosuppressive anti-malarial activities produced by the crude extract were 66.87% (P < 0.001), 84.94% (P < 0.001) and 93.69% (P < 0.001) at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg extract, respectively, compared to distilled water treated group. Mice treated with 400 mg/kg (P < 0.01), and 600 mg/kg extract (P < 0.001) showed significant chemosuppressive anti-malarial activity variations as compared to mice treated with 200 mg/kg extract. Mice treated with 600 mg/kg extract significantly (P < 0.001) lived longer than distilled water treated mice. However, the crude extract did not cause any significant change on body weights of mice. CONCLUSIONS: From this study, it can be concluded that the root of Euphorbia abyssinica showed very good 4-day chemosuppressive anti-malarial activity. The plant might contain biologically active compounds which are relevant for treatment of malaria. Further phytochemical, toxicological and pharmacological investigations are, therefore, required to evaluate its anti-malarial potential.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Euphorbia/química , Malária/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/toxicidade , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Parasitemia/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Raízes de Plantas/química , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 659, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that over a third of the world population is infected by malaria and helminthiases mainly among communities with high poverty indices. The distribution of these parasitic infections overlaps in many epidemiological settings and have varying outcomes in the host. In this paper we report the prevalence of malaria and intestinal helminthiases coinfections among malaria suspected patients and the association of helminthiases with the occurrence of malaria and its outcomes in Wondo Genet, southern Ethiopia. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study conducted from December 2009 to July 2010 in Kella, Aruma and Busa Health Centers in Wondo Genet, a total of 427 consenting febrile patients were screened for malaria and intestinal helminths infections. Malaria parasite detection and quantification were done using Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films. Helminth infections were screened and quantified by Kato-Katz thick smear method. Haemoglobin level was assessed using haemocue machine (HemoCue HB 201+). Difference in proportions and means were tested by Student's t test and ANOVA while logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between variables. RESULTS: Of the total examined, 196 (45.90%) were positive for at least one helminth infection while 276 (64.64%) were positive for malaria. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections were 47.31 and 16.62%, respectively. The most common helminth parasites detected were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.96%), Trichuris trichiura (21.55%), Schistosoma mansoni (13.35%), and hookworms (6.79%). The overall malaria-helminthiases coinfection was 33.96%. The prevalence of anaemia was 43.12%. Helminthiases coinfection showed a positive correlation with the occurrence of malaria (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.44-3.28; P < 0.001). Schistosoma mansoni coinfection was associated with the increased risk of developing malaria associated anaemia (OR = 14.4, 95% CI: 1.37-150.80; P = 0.026). CONCLUSION: Malaria and helminth coinfections are important causes of morbidities among the population in Wondo Genet necessitating integrated control measures. Nevertheless, further detailed studies on the consequences and pathogenesis of these coinfections are needed to institute sound control and intervention measures.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Viverridae , Adulto Jovem
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 329, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wickerhamomyces anomalus is a yeast associated with different insects including mosquitoes, where it is proposed to be involved in symbiotic relationships with hosts. Different symbiotic strains of W. anomalus display a killer phenotype mediated by protein toxins with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. In particular, a killer toxin purified from a W. anomalus strain (WaF17.12), previously isolated from the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi, has shown strong in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against early sporogonic stages of the murine malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. RESULTS: Here, we provide evidence that WaF17.12 cultures, properly stimulated to induce the expression of the killer toxin, can directly affect in vitro P. berghei early sporogonic stages, causing membrane damage and parasite death. Moreover, we demonstrated by in vivo studies that mosquito dietary supplementation with activated WaF17.12 cells interfere with ookinete development in the midgut of An. stephensi. Besides the anti-sporogonic action of WaF17.12, an inhibitory effect of purified WaF17.12-killer toxin was observed on erythrocytic stages of P. berghei, with a consequent reduction of parasitaemia in mice. The preliminary safety tests on murine cell lines showed no side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the anti-plasmodial activity of WaF17.12 against different developmental stages of P. berghei. New studies on P. falciparum are needed to evaluate the use of killer yeasts as innovative tools in the symbiotic control of malaria.


Assuntos
Anopheles/microbiologia , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/farmacologia , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomycetales/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Feminino , Malária/parasitologia , Malária/transmissão , Camundongos , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Simbiose
17.
Parasite ; 26: 40, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298995

RESUMO

A better understanding of malaria transmission at a local scale is essential for developing and implementing effective control strategies. In the framework of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), we aimed to provide an updated description of malaria transmission in the Korhogo area, northern Côte d'Ivoire, and to obtain baseline data for the trial. We performed human landing collections (HLCs) in 26 villages in the Korhogo area during the rainy season (September-October 2016, April-May 2017) and the dry season (November-December 2016, February-March 2017). We used PCR techniques to ascertain the species of the Anopheles gambiae complex, Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite infection, and insecticide resistance mechanisms in a subset of Anopheles vectors. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was the predominant malaria vector in the Korhogo area. Overall, more vectors were collected outdoors than indoors (p < 0.001). Of the 774 An. gambiae s.l. tested in the laboratory, 89.65% were An. gambiae s.s. and 10.35% were An. coluzzii. The frequencies of the kdr allele were very high in An. gambiae s.s. but the ace-1 allele was found at moderate frequencies. An unprotected individual living in the Korhogo area received an average of 9.04, 0.63, 0.06 and 0.12 infected bites per night in September-October, November-December, February-March, and April-May, respectively. These results demonstrate that the intensity of malaria transmission is extremely high in the Korhogo area, especially during the rainy season. Malaria control in highly endemic areas such as Korhogo needs to be strengthened with complementary tools in order to reduce the burden of the disease.


Assuntos
Anopheles/parasitologia , Ecologia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas , Malária/transmissão , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Costa do Marfim , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estações do Ano
18.
Malar J ; 18(1): 220, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zanzibar has maintained malaria prevalence below 1% for the past decade, yet elimination remains elusive despite high coverage of core vector control interventions. As part of a study investigating the magnitude and drivers of residual transmission in Zanzibar, qualitative methods were utilized to better understand night time activities and sleeping patterns, individual and community-level risk perceptions, and malaria prevention practices. METHODS: A total of 62 in-depth interviews were conducted with community members and local leaders across six sites on Unguja Island, Zanzibar. Twenty semi-structured community observations of night-time activities and special events were conducted to complement interview findings. Data were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analysed using a thematic approach. RESULTS: Participants reported high levels of ITN use, but noted gaps in protection, particularly when outdoors or away from home. Routine household and community activities were common in evenings before bed and early mornings, while livelihood activities and special events lasted all or most of the night. Gender variation was reported, with men routinely spending more time away from home than women and children. Outdoor sleeping was reported during special events, such as weddings, funerals, and religious ceremonies. Participants described having difficulty preventing mosquito bites while outdoors, travelling, or away from home, and perceived higher risk of malaria infection during these times. Travel and migration emerged as a crucial issue and participants viewed seasonal workers coming from mainland Tanzania as more likely to have a malaria infection and less likely to be connected to prevention and treatment services in Zanzibar. Some community leaders reported taking the initiative to register seasonal workers coming into their community and linking them to testing and treatment services. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting malaria interventions effectively is critical and should be informed by a clear understanding of relevant human behaviour. These findings highlight malaria prevention gaps in Zanzibar, and the importance of identifying new approaches to complement current interventions and accelerate the final phases of malaria elimination. Development and deployment of complementary interventions should consider human behaviour, including gender norms, that can influence exposure to malaria vectors and prevention practices. Expansion of community-level programmes targeting travellers and seasonal workers should also be explored.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Malária/transmissão , Sono , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 478, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to place a high burden on communities due to challenges reaching intervention target levels in Chikwawa District, Malawi. The Hunger Project Malawi is using a health animator approach (HA) to address gaps in malaria control coverage. We explored the influence of community-based volunteers known as health animators (HAs) in malaria control. We assessed the impact of HAs on knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards malaria interventions. METHODS: This paper draws on the qualitative data collected to explore the roles of communities, HAs and formal health workers attending and not attending malaria workshops for malaria control. Purposive sampling was used to select 78 respondents. We conducted 10 separate focus group discussions (FGDs)-(n = 6) with community members and (n = 4) key informants. Nine in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with HAs and Health Surveillance Assistants (HSAs) in three focal areas near Majete Wildlife Reserve. Nvivo 11 was used for coding and analysis. We employed the framework analysis and social capital theory to determine how the intervention influenced health and social outcomes. RESULTS: Using education, feedback sessions and advocacy in malaria workshop had mixed outcomes. There was a high awareness of community participation and comprehensive knowledge of the HA approach as key to malaria control. HAs were identified as playing a complementary role in malaria intervention. Community members' attitudes towards advocacy for better health services were poor. Attendance in malaria workshops was sporadic towards the final year of the intervention. Respondents mentioned positive attitudes and practices on net usage for prevention and prompt health-seeking behaviours. CONCLUSION: The HA approach is a useful strategy for complementing malaria prevention strategies in rural communities and improving practices for health-seeking behaviour. Various factors influence HAs' motivation, retention, community engagement, and programme sustainability. However, little is known about how these factors interact to influence volunteers' motivation, community participation and sustainability over time. More research is needed to explore the acceptability of an HA approach and the impact on malaria control in other rural communities in Malawi.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Papel Profissional , Voluntários , Adolescente , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Voluntários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 850, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria in Cape Verde is unstable, with a sporadic and seasonal transmission of low endemicity. In this sense, the community perceptions regarding malaria transmission, their attitudes and practices against the disease are very important to understand and to better develop the best strategical policies to achieve malaria elimination goal. This study aim to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of Cape Verdean population about malaria, a country in the elimination step of disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional malaria KAP Survey was performed at the household level. A structured open questionnaire was developed and applied to residents of randomly selected households from 5 islands and 15 municipalities in Cape Verde. Correlation analyses were performed using a logistic regression model to determine the factors that are associated with the complete knowledge of the population about malaria. RESULTS: A total of 1953 fully completed questionnaires were analysed, with majority of questionnaires administered in Santiago island (68.3%), mainly in the capital city of Praia, 38.43%. About 88% of the population knew the correct form of transmission, 96% had knowledge that the entire population is at risk of malaria and identified the main symptoms. Regarding the attitudes, 58% seek treatment atthe nearest health structure upon the apparition of the symptoms, 64% in the first 24 h and 88% within the first 48 h. More than 97% have heard about mosquito nets but only 19% used it. In practice, 53% use coils, 45% rely on household sprays and 43% have benefited from IRS. About 90% received information about malaria from media, mainly the TV and the radio (83 and 43%, respectively). In summary, 54% of the population has complete knowledge of the disease. CONCLUSION: The population of Cape Verde has a high level of knowledge about malaria, including its transmission, main symptoms and preventive and control measures. However, some gaps and misunderstandings have been noticed and contribute to the insufficient community involvement in actions against malaria. Therefore, is necessary to increase the knowledge of the population, leading to their full ownership and participation in community actions to contribute to the malaria elimination in the country.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Cabo Verde , Estudos Transversais , Erradicação de Doenças , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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