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1.
J Water Health ; 17(5): 813-825, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638031

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the Acanthamoeba genotypes and their pathogenic potential in five recreational hot springs in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifty water samples were collected between April and September 2018. Physical parameters of water quality were measured in situ while chemical and microbiological analyses were performed in the laboratory. All samples were filtered through the nitrocellulose membrane and tested for Acanthamoeba using both cultivation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by targeting the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. The pathogenic potential of all positive isolates was identified using thermo- and osmotolerance tests. Thirty-eight (76.0%) samples were positive for Acanthamoeba. Water temperature (P = 0.035), chemical oxygen demand (P = 0.026), sulphate (P = 0.002) and Escherichia coli (P < 0.001) were found to be significantly correlated with the presence of Acanthamoeba. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 24 samples belonged to genotype T4, nine (T15), two (T3) and one from each genotype T5, T11 and T17. Thermo- and osmotolerance tests showed that 6 (15.79%) of the Acanthamoeba strains were highly pathogenic. The existence of Acanthamoeba in recreational hot springs should be considered as a health threat among the public especially for high-risk people. Periodic surveillance of hot spring waters and posting warning signs by health authorities is recommended to prevent disease related to pathogenic Acanthamoeba.


Assuntos
Acanthamoeba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fontes Termais/parasitologia , Acanthamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Malásia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(663): 1671-1674, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532119

RESUMO

The expression «â€…To run amok ¼ describes bouts of murderous madness. This clinical entity was originally described in the Malay Peninsula. Associated with a form of exoticism, literary and historical descriptions are available. For about twenty years, amok has been included in psychiatric classifications as a culture-bound syndrome. In the last quarter of the 20th century, some parallels were observed between amok and mass shootings. Although the weapon of choice has changed from dagger to gun, common traits are clearly identifiable. Anger, feelings of prejudice and paranoid thoughts -dominate the picture. The absence of an ideological claim distinguishes the mass shooter from the terrorist. The psychiatrist may have a role in prevention, but these acting outs -remain difficult to anticipate.


Assuntos
Psicopatologia , Atuação (Psicologia) , Homicídio/psicologia , Humanos , Malásia , Terminologia como Assunto
3.
Waste Manag ; 100: 128-137, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536923

RESUMO

Oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) is the most significant waste generated from the agricultural industry in Malaysia. Composting is one of the potential approaches to utilize EFB. However, composting of EFB is a time-consuming process, thus impractical for industrial application. The composting process can be shortened by introducing competent fungi into an optimal EFB composting system. This study was conducted to isolate and identify competent fungi that can naturally compost EFB. Samplings were carried out at eight different time points over a 20-weeks experimental period. The physical properties of EFB samples such as pH, residual oil content, and moisture content were measured and the EFB composting process that was indicated by the contents of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin were assessed. The fungal growth, distribution, and lignocellulolytic enzyme activities were evaluated. The results indicated that the changes in physical properties of EFB were correlated to the fungal growth. The gradual reduction in moisture content and residual oil, and the increment in pH values in EFB samples throughout the experimental period resulted in reduced fungal growth and diversity. Such phenomenon delayed EFB composting process as revealed by the changes in EFB lignin, hemicellulose, and cellulose contents. The most dominant and resilient fungi (Lichtheimia ramosa and Neurospora crassa) survived up to 16 weeks and were capable of producing various lignocellulolytic enzymes. Further understanding of these factors that would contribute to effective EFB composting could be useful for future industrial applications.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Frutas , Fungos , Malásia , Óleo de Palmeira
4.
Lancet ; 394(10205): 1231-1242, 2019 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease globally. Despite proven benefits, hypertension control is poor. We hypothesised that a comprehensive approach to lowering blood pressure and other risk factors, informed by detailed analysis of local barriers, would be superior to usual care in individuals with poorly controlled or newly diagnosed hypertension. We tested whether a model of care involving non-physician health workers (NPHWs), primary care physicians, family, and the provision of effective medications, could substantially reduce cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: HOPE 4 was an open, community-based, cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 1371 individuals with new or poorly controlled hypertension from 30 communities (defined as townships) in Colombia and Malaysia. 16 communities were randomly assigned to control (usual care, n=727), and 14 (n=644) to the intervention. After community screening, the intervention included treatment of cardiovascular disease risk factors by NPHWs using tablet computer-based simplified management algorithms and counselling programmes; free antihypertensive and statin medications recommended by NPHWs but supervised by physicians; and support from a family member or friend (treatment supporter) to improve adherence to medications and healthy behaviours. The primary outcome was the change in Framingham Risk Score 10-year cardiovascular disease risk estimate at 12 months between intervention and control participants. The HOPE 4 trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01826019. FINDINGS: All communities completed 12-month follow-up (data on 97% of living participants, n=1299). The reduction in Framingham Risk Score for 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was -6·40% (95% CI 8·00 to -4·80) in the control group and -11·17% (-12·88 to -9·47) in the intervention group, with a difference of change of -4·78% (95% CI -7·11 to -2·44, p<0·0001). There was an absolute 11·45 mm Hg (95% CI -14·94 to -7·97) greater reduction in systolic blood pressure, and a 0·41 mmol/L (95% CI -0·60 to -0·23) reduction in LDL with the intervention group (both p<0·0001). Change in blood pressure control status (<140 mm Hg) was 69% in the intervention group versus 30% in the control group (p<0·0001). There were no safety concerns with the intervention. INTERPRETATION: A comprehensive model of care led by NPHWs, involving primary care physicians and family that was informed by local context, substantially improved blood pressure control and cardiovascular disease risk. This strategy is effective, pragmatic, and has the potential to substantially reduce cardiovascular disease compared with current strategies that are typically physician based. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research; Grand Challenges Canada; Ontario SPOR Support Unit and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; Boehringer Ingelheim; Department of Management of Non-Communicable Diseases, WHO; and Population Health Research Institute. VIDEO ABSTRACT.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Hipertensão/complicações , Idoso , Colômbia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/terapia , Malásia , Masculino , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
5.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 53(3): 348-353, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414637

RESUMO

The frequency of travel-related infections in the world has increased due to the easily and widespread use of travel facilities in the 21st century. Vector-borne diseases are an important part of infectious diseases. Dengue fever is one of the travel-related infections that has been reported increasingly in recent years through the development of diagnostic methods. The aim of this report was to present two Dengue fever cases originating from travel. There was a story of mosquito bite during a trip to Sri Lanka travel in our first case. The patient was 30 years old and maculopapular rash appeared on the fifth day of contact. Three days after the onset of the rash, she has admitted to our clinic, complaining with fever and chills. Increased leukopenia and muscle enzymes were detected in the laboratory analysis. Real-time reverse transcriptase polimerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was positive in the serum sample. The patient was followed up with supportive care and discharged by improvement. The second case, a 24-year-old male, had a story of mosquito bite during his trip to Malaysia. After the patient complained of fever, chills, fever, nausea, vomiting and muscle pain, the Dengue virus (DENV) NS1 antigen test performed in this country was found to be positive. In the second case, there was no maculopapular rash and laboratory analysis showed an increase in leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and muscle enzymes. RT-PCR positivity was detected in the serum sample. The patient was followed up with supportive treatment and discharged with cure. DENV infections are caused by DENV which is common in the tropical areas of the world. There are four DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4 serotypes. DENV infections can present different clinical manifestations such as asymptomatic disease, viral syndrome, Dengue haemorrhagic fever, and Dengue shock syndrome. Dengue fever is often accompanied by arthritis, maculopapular rash and high fever. Our cases were defined as Dengue fever according to this definition. In the diagnosis of the disease, it is necessary first to be suspicious of the disease and the travel history must be questioned. In the definitive diagnosis, virus isolation, antigen, nucleic acid detection and serological tests are used. The virus can be isolated from blood, serum, urine and tissues. In the first five days after beginning of the symptoms associated with DENV infections, serum RT-PCR and Dengue NS1 antigen test may be positive.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Adulto , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/patologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Exantema/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Sri Lanka , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Community Dent Health ; 36(3): 229-236, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and severity of dental caries (at dentine and enamel levels of diagnosis) amongst Malaysian children and to investigate determinant factors associated with caries detection at these different thresholds. METHODS: This study involved life-long residents aged 12 years-old in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas in Malaysia (n=595). The survey was carried out in 16 public schools by a calibrated examiner, using ICDAS-II criteria. A questionnaire on socio-demographic and oral hygiene practices was self-administered by parents/guardians. Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U tests and logistic regression. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 74.4%. Caries prevalence at the dentine level or at the dentine and enamel level was significantly (p⟨0.001) higher among children in the non-fluoridated area (D1₋6MFT⟩0 = 82.4%, D4₋6MFT⟩0 = 53.5%) than in the fluoridated area (D1₋6MFT⟩0 = 68.7%, D4₋6MFT⟩0 = 25.5%). Considering only the decayed component of the index, no significant differences were observed between the two areas when the detection threshold was set at enamel caries (D1₋3) (p=0.506). However, when the detection criteria were elevated to the level of caries into dentine (D4₋6) there were clear differences between the fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas (p=0.006). Exposure to fluoridated water proved a significant predictor for lower caries prevalence in the statistical model. Children whose father and mother had a low monthly income had a significantly higher dentine caries prevalence. CONCLUSION: Results confirmed existing evidence of the benefit of water fluoridation in caries prevention. Detection criteria set at caries into dentine shows clear differences between fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas. Exposure to fluoridated water and socio-economic status were associated with caries prevalence.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluoretação , Criança , Índice CPO , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Dentina , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Abastecimento de Água
7.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(8): 871-3, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397134

RESUMO

The acupuncture and moxibustion of TCM was introduced into Malaysia since fourteenth century. After several centuries of precipitation and accumulation, acupuncture and moxibustion showed vigorous vitality in Malaysia. This article provides an overview of the development of acupuncture in Malaysia from a full-time education in acupuncture, association, policy support for acupuncture, clinical application and scientific research, etc. With the frequent exchanges between the traditional medical community in Malaysia and the Chinese medicine community in mainland China, the spread of acupuncture in Malaysia has been greatly promoted.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Moxibustão , China , Malásia
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 233, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing costs of feed has subsequently increased the costs of production of livestock, thereby decreasing the profit margin of this sector. The utilization of agro-industrial by-products has to some extent substitute some of the corn grains and soyabean meal, commonly used in animal feeds. In Malaysia, palm kernel cake (PKC) is a by-product of the oil palm industry and is frequently used to supply both crude protein (14-16% CP) and energy (11 MJ/kg) in ruminants. The energy and protein content are adequate for maintenance in the majority of ruminants. However, highly available energy supplementation is known to improve growth performance and protein deposition. This study was carried out to determine the effect on the quality of meat and fatty acid composition of the semitendinosus (ST), supraspinatus (SS), and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles of Dorper lambs by including corn as an energy source in a basal diet of PKC urea-treated rice straw. RESULTS: The results show that the LL muscle-drip loss was greater in animals supplemented with 5% corn compared to the other groups. Higher pH values of SS and LL muscles were observed in animals supplemented with 5 and 10% corn. Furthermore, the L* value of ST muscle was increased in lambs fed on 5% corn while, reduced in those fed on 0% corn, but the a* and b* values were not significantly different in the treatment groups. The fatty acid composition of the SS muscles showed that lambs fed on 10% corn had higher levels of sum PUFA n-3 compared to those fed on 0% corn. The concentration of C18:1trans11 and CLA c12 t10 in ST muscle from the lambs fed on supplemented diets were higher than those of the controls. CONCLUSION: This study has concluded the supplementation of corn as a source of energy into a PKC urea-treated rice straw-based diet increased the PUFA concentrations of muscles as compared to control groups.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/normas , Músculo Esquelético/química , Oryza/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Malásia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ovinos , Ureia/química
9.
Cancer Invest ; 37(7): 275-287, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307249

RESUMO

Previous studies found that ethnicity influences oral cancer patients' survival; however, most studies were limited to certain ethnic groups particularly from the West, thus of limited relevance to Asians where the disease is most prevalent. We investigated the relationship between ethnicity and patient survival in multi-racial Malaysia. 5-year survival rate was 40.9%. No statistically significant difference was observed in survival between Malays, Chinese, Indians and Indigenous peoples (45.7%, 44.0%, 41.3%, 27.7% respectively). Increased tumor size, lymph node involvement and advanced tumor were predictive of poor survival. We conclude that ethnicity has no effect on survival or its prognostic indicators.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Bucais/etnologia , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Carga Tumoral
10.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(9): 1997-2004, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273509

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Near work, accommodative inaccuracy and ambient lighting conditions have all been implicated in the development of myopia. However, differences in accommodative responses with age and refractive error under different visual conditions remain unclear. This study explores differences in accommodative ability and refractive error with exposure to differing ambient illumination and visual demands in Malay schoolchildren and adults. METHODS: Sixty young adults (21-25 years) and 60 schoolchildren (8-12 years) were recruited. Accommodative lag and accommodative fluctuations at far (6 m) and near (25 cm) were measured using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 open-field autorefractor. The effects of mesopic room illumination on accommodation were also investigated. RESULTS: Repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that accommodative lag at far and near differed significantly between schoolchildren and young adults [F(1.219, 35.354) = 11.857, p < 0.05]. Post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction showed that at near, there was a greater lag in schoolchildren (0.486 ± 0.181 D) than young adults (0.259 ± 0.209 D, p < 0.05). Repeated-measures ANOVA also revealed that accommodative lag at near demands differed statistically between the non-myopic and myopic groups in young adults and schoolchildren [F(3.107, 31.431) = 12.187, p < 0.05]. Post hoc tests with Bonferroni correction showed that accommodative lag at near was significantly greater in myopic schoolchildren (0.655 ± 0.198 D) than in non-myopic schoolchildren (0.202 ± 0.141 D, p < 0.05) and myopic young adults (0.316 ± 0.172 D, p < 0.05), but no significant difference was found between myopic young adults (0.316 ± 0.172 D) and non-myopic young adults (0.242 ± 0.126 D, p > 0.05). Accommodative lag and fluctuations were greater under mesopic room conditions for all ages [all p < 0.05]. CONCLUSION: Greater accommodative lag was found in myopes than in emmetropes, in schoolchildren than in adults, and under mesopic conditions than under photopic conditions. Accommodative fluctuations were greatest in myopes and in mesopic conditions. These results suggest that differences exist in the amount of blur experienced by myopes and non-myopes at different ages and under different lighting conditions.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Visão de Cores/fisiologia , Emetropia/fisiologia , Iluminação , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Erros de Refração/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(10): 3031-3040, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310190

RESUMO

Three novel actinobacterial strains, designated as TPS16T, TPS81 and TPS83, were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from Tioman Island, Malaysia. The strains formed abundant branched substrate mycelia without fragmentation along with production of blue spores and blue diffusible pigment on soybean meal agar. The strains could grow at pH ranging from pH 6 to 12 and in 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl. Cell-wall hydrolysis showed the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The strains were closely related to Marinactinospora thermotolerans SCSIO 00652T (97.60 %) and Marinactinospora endophytica YIM 690053T (96.87 %) based on phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Multilocus sequence analysis including gyrB, recA and rpoB genes further confirmed that strain TPS16T represented a distinct branch within the family Nocardiopsaceae. The predominant menaquinones were MK-11(H2), MK-10(H2), MK-11(H4) and MK-10(H4), while the major fatty acids were found to be iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C18 : 1ω9c. Genome sequencing revealed genome sizes of approximately 6 Mb and G+C contents of 73.8 mol%. A new genus, Marinitenerispora gen. nov., is proposed within the family Nocardiopsaceae based on polyphasic data and the type species is Marinitenerispora sediminis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is TPS16T (=DSM 46825T=TBRC 5138T).


Assuntos
Actinomycetales/classificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Actinomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácido Diaminopimélico/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Genes Bacterianos , Ilhas , Malásia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/química
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 494, 2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302794

RESUMO

The upper catchment region of the Baram River in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) is undergoing severe land degradation due to soil erosion. Heavy rainfall with high erosive power has led to a number of soil erosion hotspots. The goal of the present study is to generate an understanding about the spatial characteristics of seasonal and annual rainfall erosivity (R), which not only control sediment delivery from the region but also determine the quantity of material potentially eroded. Mean annual rainfall and rainfall erosivity range from 2170 to 5167 mm and 1632 to 5319 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively. Seasonal rainfall and rainfall erosivity range from 848 to 1872 mm and 558 to 1883 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1 for the southwest (SW) monsoon, 902 to 2200 mm and 664 to 2793 MJ mm ha-1h-1year-1 for the northeast (NE) monsoon and 400 to 933 mm and 331 to 1075 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1 during the inter-monsoon (IM) period. Linear regression, Spearman's Rho and Mann Kendall tests were applied. Considering the regional mean rainfall erosivity in the study area, all the methods show an overall non-significant decreasing trend (- 9.34, - 0.25 and - 0.30 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively for linear regression, Spearman's Rho and Mann Kendall tests). However, during SW monsoon and IM periods, rainfall erosivity showed a non-significant decreasing trend (- 25.45, - 0.52, - 0.40, and - 8.86, - 1.07, - 0.77 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively) whereas in NE, monsoon season erosivity showed a non-significant increasing trend (14.90, 1.59 and 1.60 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 year-1, respectively). The mean erosivity density ranges from 0.77 to 1.38 MJ ha-1 h-1 year-1 and shows decreasing trend. Spatial distribution pattern of erosivity density indicates significantly higher occurrence of erosive rainfall in the lower elevation portion of the study area. The spatial pattern of mean rainfall erosivity trends (linear, Spearman's Rho and Mann Kendall) suggests that the study area can be divided into two zones with increasing rainfall erosivity trends in the northern zone and decreasing trends in the southern zone. These results can be used to plan conservation measures to reduce sediment delivery from localized soil erosion hotspots.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Chuva , Rios/química , Solo/química , Movimentos da Água , Bornéu , Malásia , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 24286-24299, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214886

RESUMO

Malaysia is the second-largest producer and exporter of palm oil amounting to 39% of world palm oil production and 44% of world exports (MPOB, 2014). An enormous amount of palm oil mill effluent is released during palm oil milling, and the effluent causes a major odor problem. Many methods, such as biofiltering, can be adopted to manage the malodor. However, these methods are expensive and require high maintenance. The separation distance method can be used as an alternative due to its low cost and effectiveness. This research was conducted to verify the performance of three different methods, namely, in-field monitoring by using an olfactometer, CALPUFF model, and Gaussian plume model. Given that no research has compared the three methods, this study examined the effectiveness of the methods and determined which among them is suitable for use in Malaysia. The appropriate separation distances were 1.3 km for in-field monitoring, 1.2 km for the CALPUFF model, and 0.5 for the Gaussian plume model. These different values of separation distance were due to the various approaches involved in each method. This research determined an appropriate means to establish a proper separation distance for reducing odor nuisance in areas around palm oil mills.


Assuntos
Resíduos Industriais/análise , Odorantes/análise , Óleo de Palmeira , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Malásia , Óleos Vegetais
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 22246-22253, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152421

RESUMO

Sago bark (SB) and empty fruit bunch (EFB) are available abundantly as agricultural waste in Sarawak. This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of SB and EFB as composting materials and used as a plant growth medium. The SB and EFB composts were prepared in a separate container by mixing chicken manure as compost accelerator and wood chips as a bulking agent in dry weight equivalent ratio (1:1:1). The maturity and stability of compost in 60-day composting periods were evaluated via physicochemical characterization of the composts in terms of pH, elemental content, total ash content, moisture content and nutrient analyses. The effect of the compost usage as growth medium was assessed towards water spinach and green mustard via seed germination and pot study. After 2 months, the colour of both composts was dark brown with an earthy smell. The acidic pH of the initial composting stage has changed into alkaline pH after 60 days of composting. Total NPK present in the SB and EFB composts were 0.96% and 1.21%, respectively. The germination index (GI) for the studied vegetables was above 100%, while the pot study showed that vegetables in compost media has higher growth compared to the control, after 14 days. SB and EFB are renewable waste which can be used as an excellent compost and able to improve the quality of the soil.


Assuntos
Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química , Spinacia oleracea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/análise , Agricultura , Cor , Compostagem , Frutas , Malásia , Esterco/análise , Nutrientes , Casca de Planta , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Madeira/química
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 553, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high number of adolescents and young adults harbouring suicidal ideation, as reported by the Ministry of Health Malaysia, is alarming. This cross-sectional study aims to examine the association between social support and spiritual wellbeing in predicting suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. METHODS: A total of 176 adolescents in selected urban areas in the states of Wilayah Persekutuan and Selangor were selected. The Suicide Ideation Scale (SIS) was used to measure the level of severity or tendency of suicidal ideation. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) was used to measure the perceived social support received by the respondent while the Spiritual Wellbeing Scale (SWBS) was used to measure the religious wellbeing (RWB), the existential wellbeing (EWB) and the overall score of spiritual wellbeing (SWB). RESULTS: The study found that both RWB and EWB showed significant negative correlation with suicidal ideation. Similarly, support from family and friends also showed a negative correlation with suicidal ideation. Further analysis using multiple regressions showed that RWB and SWB, and family support predict suicidal ideation in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Spiritual wellbeing in combination with family support plays a major role in predicting suicidal ideation. Therefore, intervention for encompassing spirituality and family support may contribute to a more positive outcome in suicidal adolescents.


Assuntos
Marginalização Social/psicologia , Apoio Social , Espiritualidade , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 554, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rural coastal communities in Sabah are still overly represented in the hardcore poor economic status. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia among adults, in relation to economic status. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using stratified random sampling was conducted in seven coastal villages in Semporna, Sabah: Kabogan Laut, Salimbangun, Pekalangan, Pokas, Tampi-Tampi Timbayan, Sum Sum and Selinggit. Socio-demographic data were obtained via interviewer administered questionnaires in Sabah Malay creole. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and blood lipids were obtained. RESULTS: A total of 330 adults (133 males, 197 females) completed the study. Mean age was 43.7 ± 15.8 years. Most participants (87%) were living below the Poverty Line Income. Median per capita household income was RM83.33/month (≈ USD20/month). The number of newly diagnosed cases of hypercholesterolemia was 40.6%, diabetes mellitus was 5.8%, and hypertension was 24.5%. Adults from the hardcore poor economic status (household income ≤RM760/month (≈USD183/month) were the most represented in those who did not have a blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipids check in the 12 months preceding the study (Χ2, p < 0.01). Adults from hardcore poor economic status were also the most represented in undiagnosed hypertension and uncontrolled blood pressure among those diagnosed (Χ2, p = 0.013). Among diabetics from the hardcore poor group, the undiagnosed fasting blood glucose was 11.2 ± 4.5 compared to 5.1 ± 0.6 mmol/L for diagnosed diabetics (p < 0.001). Among hypercholesterolemics from the hardcore poor group, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol values were significantly higher in the undiagnosed group compared to the diagnosed group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Many people in this rural coastal community were unaware that they had high cholesterol level (40.6%) and elevated blood pressure (24.5%). Routine health check is not common among low income adults in rural coastal communities in Semporna. The findings suggest public health initiatives should emphasize access to and the necessity of routine health checks for those aged 40 years.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 529, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is known to be more prevalent among women and is associated with decline in quality of life. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence, risk factors of urinary incontinence and its impact on quality of life among community dwelling older women living in urban and rural populations. METHODS: This study was conducted based on secondary data analysed from the third phase of the longitudinal study "Neuroprotective Model for Health Longevity among Malaysian Elderly" (LRGS TUA). Stratification of urban and rural study areas were in accordance to that determined by the Department of Statistics. A total of 814 community dwelling older women (53% urban, 47% rural), aged 60 years and above, across four states within Peninsular Malaysia were included in this analysis. Interview-based questionnaires were used to obtain respondents' sociodemographic details and clinical characteristics. The Timed Up and Go test and Handgrip Strength tests were used to assess physical function. Urinary incontinence was self-reported, and quality of life of those with incontinence was assessed using the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ). RESULTS: Prevalence of urinary incontinence was 16% and 23% among older women living in urban and rural areas, respectively. Ethnicity was significantly associated with incontinence among older women in both urban and rural population (p < 0.05). Chronic constipation, functional mobility and muscle strength were associated with UI in participants from rural setting (p < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that risk of incontinence is lower among Chinese [OR 0.430, 95% C.I: 0.224-0.825, p = 0.011] compared to Malay older women living in urban population. Within the rural population, respondents with chronic constipation [OR: 3.384, 95% C.I: 1.556-7.360, p = 0.002] were found to be at a higher risk of UI. In terms of quality of life, respondents in rural areas experienced more role, physical, social, emotional limitations and sleep disturbance as compared to their urban counterparts (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: UI is more prevalent and had a more profound impact on quality of health among older women in the rural setting. The risk factors of UI were ethnicity and chronic constipation among urban and rural older women respectively. It is important to provide holistic strategies in the prevention and management of UI among older women especially within the rural population.


Assuntos
Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/epidemiologia , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Força da Mão , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 462, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Motoric cognitive risk (MCR) syndrome is characterized by slow gait and memory complaints that could be used to predict an increased risk of dementia. This study aims to determine the MCR syndrome and its risk factors among low-income (B40) older adults in Malaysia. METHODS: Data from TUA cohort study involving 1366 older adults (aged 60 years and above) categorized as low-income were analysed, for risk of MCR syndrome based on defined criteria. Chi-square analysis and independent t test were employed to examine differences in socioeconomic, demographic, chronic diseases and lifestyle factors between MCR and non-MCR groups. Risk factors of MCR syndrome were determined using hierarchical logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 3.4% of participants fulfilled the criteria of MCR syndrome. Majority of them were female (74.5%, p = 0.001), single/widow/widower/divorced (55.3%, p = 0.002), living in rural area (72.3%, p = 0.011), older age (72.74 ± 7.08 year old, p <  0.001) and had lower years of education (3.26 ± 2.91 years, p = 0.001) than non-MCR group. After adjustment for age, gender and years of education, participants living in rural area (Adjusted OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.10-4.35, p = 0.026), with obesity (Adjusted OR = 3.82, 95% CI = 1.70-8.57, p = 0.001), diabetes (Adjusted OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.01-4.11, p = 0.046), heart disease (Adjusted OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.00-6.20, p = 0.049) and cancer (Adjusted OR = 6.57, 95% CI = 1.18-36.65, p = 0.032) were associated with increased risk of MCR syndrome. CONCLUSION: Only 3.4% of older adults from low-income group were identified as having MCR syndrome. Women, those living in rural areas, had obesity, diabetes, heart disease and cancer were more likely to have MCR syndrome. Further investigation on MCR as a predementia syndrome will help in development of preventive strategies and interventions to reduce the growing burden of dementia, especially among individuals with low socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Idoso , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 543, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: School children are considered a high-risk group for visual impairment because uncorrected refractive errors and problems such as amblyopia can seriously affect their learning abilities and their physical and mental development. There are many studies reporting the prevalence of refractive errors among school children of different ethnic groups in Malaysia, however, studies concerning the prevalence of refractive errors among indigenous or Orang Asli children are very limited. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and causes of visual impairment among Orang Asli children. METHODS: One hundred ten Orang Asli children aged 7 to 12 years old in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia were selected. 51% of these children were boys while the remainders were girls. They underwent visual acuity test, cover test, Hirschberg's test, ocular external assessment and ophthalmoscopy. Children who failed the vision screening were then referred for further eye examination. RESULTS: Of these 110 Orang Asli children, 46 failed the vision screening and subsequently 45 of them were confirmed to have visual problems (40.9% of the total subjects). The main cause of visual impairment in this study was refractive error (34.5% of the total subjects) where the main refractive error found was hyperopia (28.2%) followed by amblyopia (2.7%), strabismus (1.8%) and ocular abnormalities (1.8%). CONCLUSION: Hence, vision screening and a comprehensive eye examination is very important and needs to be done on all Orang Asli children so that any visual problems can be detect at an early stage to avoid the development of learning difficulties among these already disadvantaged children.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/etnologia , Transtornos da Visão/etnologia , Testes Visuais , Acuidade Visual
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 541, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic factors and nutritional status have been associated with childhood cognitive development. However, previous Malaysian studies had been conducted with small populations and had inconsistent results. Thus, this present study aims to determine the association between socioeconomic and nutritional status with cognitive performance in a nationally representative sample of Malaysian children. METHODS: A total of 2406 Malaysian children aged 5 to 12 years, who had participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS), were included in this study. Cognitive performance [non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)] was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices, while socioeconomic characteristics were determined using parent-report questionnaires. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured weight and height, while BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ) and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) were determined using WHO 2007 growth reference. RESULTS: Overall, about a third (35.0%) of the children had above average non-verbal IQ (high average: 110-119; superior: ≥120 and above), while only 12.2% were categorized as having low/borderline IQ (< 80). Children with severe obesity (BAZ > 3SD), children from very low household income families and children whose parents had only up to primary level education had the highest prevalence of low/borderline non-verbal IQ, compared to their non-obese and higher socioeconomic counterparts. Parental lack of education was associated with low/borderline/below average IQ [paternal, OR = 2.38 (95%CI 1.22, 4.62); maternal, OR = 2.64 (95%CI 1.32, 5.30)]. Children from the lowest income group were twice as likely to have low/borderline/below average IQ [OR = 2.01 (95%CI 1.16, 3.49)]. Children with severe obesity were twice as likely to have poor non-verbal IQ than children with normal BMI [OR = 2.28 (95%CI 1.23, 4.24)]. CONCLUSIONS: Children from disadvantaged backgrounds (that is those from very low income families and those whose parents had primary education or lower) and children with severe obesity are more likely to have poor non-verbal IQ. Further studies to investigate the social and environmental factors linked to cognitive performance will provide deeper insights into the measures that can be taken to improve the cognitive performance of Malaysian children.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Classe Social , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Pais , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
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