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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141284, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182170

RESUMO

Regular monitoring of drinking water quality is vital to identify contamination of potable water supplies. Testing for microbial contamination is important to prevent transmission of waterborne disease, but establishing and maintaining a water quality monitoring programme requires sustained labour, consumables and resources. In low resource settings such as developing countries, this can prove difficult, but measuring microbial contamination is listed as a requirement of reaching the UN's Sustainable Development Goal 6 for water and sanitation. A nine-month water quality monitoring programme was conducted in rural Malawi to assess the suitability of tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF), an emerging method for rapidly detecting microbial contamination, as a drinking water quality monitoring tool. TLF data was compared with thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs, E. coli) and inorganic hydrochemical parameters. A large (n = 235) temporal dataset was collected from five groundwater drinking water sources, with samples collected once or twice weekly depending on the season. The results show that TLF can indicate a broader contamination risk but is not as sensitive to short term variability when compared to other faecal indicators. This is likely due to a broad association of TLF with elevated DOC concentrations from a range of different sources. Elevated TLF may indicate preferential conditions for the persistence of TTCs and/or E. coli, but not necessarily a public health risk from microbial contamination. TLF is therefore a more precautionary risk indicator than microbial culturing techniques and could prove useful as a high-level screening tool for initial risk assessment. For widespread use of TLF to be successful, standardisation of TLF values associated with different levels of risk is required, however, this study highlights the difficulties of equating TLF thresholds to TTCs or E. coli data because of the influence of DOC/HLF on the TLF signal.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Fluorescência , Humanos , Malaui , Triptofano , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
2.
J Water Health ; 18(5): 785-797, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095201

RESUMO

Billions of people globally gained access to improved drinking water sources and sanitation in the last decades, following effort towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Global progress remains a general indicator as it is unclear if access is equitable across groups of the population. Agenda 2030 calling for `leaving no one behind', there is a need to focus on the variations of access in different groups of the population, especially in the context of low- and middle-income countries including Malawi. We analyzed data from Demographic Health Survey (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) to describe emerging trends on progress and inequalities in water supply and sanitation services over a 25-year period (1992-2017), as well as to identify the most vulnerable populations in Malawi. Data were disaggregated with geographic and socio-economic characteristics including regions, urban and rural areas, wealth and education level. Analysis of available data revealed progress in access to water and sanitation among all groups of the population. The largest progress was generally observed in the groups that were further behind at the baseline year, which likely reflects good targeting in interventions/improvements to reduce the gap in the population. Overall, results demonstrated that some segments of the population - foremost poorest Southern rural populations - still have limited access to water and are forced to practise open defecation. Finally, we suggest including standardized indicators that address safely managed drinking water and sanitation services in future surveys and studies to increase the accuracy of national estimates.


Assuntos
Saneamento , Água , Humanos , Malaui , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Abastecimento de Água
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 776, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is on the rise. A contributing factor to antibiotic resistance is the misuse of antibiotics in hospitals. The current use of antibiotics in ICUs in Malawi is not well documented and there are no national guidelines for the use of antibiotics in ICUs. The aim of the study was to describe the use of antibiotics in a Malawian ICU. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of all admissions to the main ICU in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi, between January 2017 and April 2019. Data were extracted from the ICU patient register on clinical parameters on admission, diagnoses, demographics and antibiotics both prescribed and given for all patients admitted to the ICU. Usage of antibiotics in the ICU and bacterial culture results from samples taken in the ICU and in the peri-ICU period, (from 5 days before ICU admission to 5 days after ICU discharge), were described. RESULTS: Six hundred-and-forty patients had data available on prescribed and received medications and were included in the analyses. Of these, 577 (90.2%) were prescribed, and 522 (81.6%) received an antibiotic in ICU. The most commonly used antibiotics were ceftriaxone, given to 470 (73.4%) of the patients and metronidazole to 354 (55.3%). Three-hundred-and-thirty-three (52.0%) of the patients received more than one type of antibiotic concurrently - ceftriaxone and metronidazole was the most common combination, given to 317 patients. Forty five patients (7.0%) were given different antibiotics sequentially. One-hundred-and-thirty-seven patients (21.4%) had a blood culture done in the peri-ICU period, of which 70 (11.0% of the patients) were done in the ICU. Twenty-five (18.3%) of the peri-ICU cultures were positive and eleven different types of bacteria were grown in the cultures, of which 17.2% were sensitive to ceftriaxone. CONCLUSION: We have found a substantial usage of antibiotics in an ICU in Malawi. Ceftriaxone, the last-line antibiotic in the national treatment guidelines, is commonly used, and bacteria appear to show high levels of resistance to it, although blood culture testing is infrequently used. Structured antibiotic stewardship programs may be useful in all ICUs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Ceftriaxona , Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Zootaxa ; 4790(1): zootaxa.4790.1.10, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055861

RESUMO

Recent studies have suggested that the diversity of orthopteran insects in the Eastern African region is largely undersampled and understudied, resulting in numerous new species and genera awaiting discovery, while many species are known from only one or few records, preventing precise assessment of the threat to them. In this paper we describe the new species Pseudolebinthus ntchisi sp. nov. from Central Malawi and present new records about two other Pseudolebinthus species from Malawi, with biological information and illustrations of this genus based on field observations.


Assuntos
Gryllidae , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Malaui
7.
Zootaxa ; 4808(1): zootaxa.4808.1.7, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055993

RESUMO

A new species and a new genus of Rhachiberothidae, Rhachiella malawica gen. nov., spec. nov., are described from Malawi. The new species is characterized by a flat vertex, a long penisfilum in the male, and by a bifurcate pseudohypocauda in the female. This combination of characters requires the description of a new genus, which is the sister taxon of Mucroberotha Tjeder, 1959. This is the first record of Rhachiberothidae in Malawi. The distributions of all 14 species of Rhachiberothidae so far known are shown in three maps.


Assuntos
Holometábolos , Animais , Feminino , Malaui , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238628, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877459

RESUMO

Misoprostol is listed in the WHO essential medicines list and can be used for induction of labour, for prevention and treatment of post-partum haemorrhage, and for abortions. The compound is unstable, and substandard misoprostol preparations have been detected in low- and middle-income countries. We now investigated the stability of misoprostol tablets according to the international guidelines for stability testing of pharmaceutical products. Three brands (four batches) of misoprostol tablets were collected in Malawi and Rwanda: the originator product, a WHO-prequalified product, and a generic product without WHO prequalification. A further batch of the originator product was collected in Germany. To investigate the effect of damage to the primary packaging, additional blister strips of one sample were intentionally damaged with a needle and investigated in parallel. Samples were placed in stability chambers for six months at 40°C/75% relative humidity (RH) and at 25°C/60% RH. After 0, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months, misoprostol content was determined according to the International Pharmacopeia. At 40°C/75% RH, all samples showed a decline of misoprostol content, but four of the batches still remained within the pharmacopeial specifications, while one of the two batches of the generic product without WHO-prequalification showed a final content of 86.2% which is out of specifications. Damage to the primary packaging greatly decreased stability, resulting in a final content of only 48.2% of the declared misoprostol amount. At 25°C/60% RH all samples remained in specifications for six months, even the sample with the damaged blister. Dissolution of misoprostol remained in specifications of the pharmacopoeia for six months for all batches, except for the sample with damaged blisters stored at 40°C/75% RH. This study confirms that the stability of misoprostol tablets must be ensured by intact, good-quality primary packaging. Careful supplier qualification is required in the procurement process.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Medicamentos , Misoprostol/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Umidade , Malaui , Ruanda , Comprimidos , Temperatura
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237139, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite remarkable progress in reducing under five mortalities in Malawi, a relative proportion of under nutrition among children still exist. OBJECTIVES: The study examines dietary consumption factors and their effect on under nutrition outcomes among children under five years' children in rural Malawi. METHODS: Using the 2015-16 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, in which 4,150 children were reported of under nutrition statuses, the study used nested logistic regression models to estimate factors influencing the prevalence of under nutrition among children. RESULTS: Based on the results, exclusive breast feeding among children under five years, after controlling for parental socioeconomic factors, was found to reduce the levels of wasting (ODDS RATIO [OR] = 0.763; p < 0.05), underweight (OR = 0.548; p < 0.001) and stunting (OR = 0.709; p < 0.005). Furthermore, it was found that despite the perceived adequacy among women in accessing fruits and vegetables, carbohydrates and micro-nutrient supplements, their children under five years, still experiences public health challenges and suffers from wasting, underweight and stunting. CONCLUSION: There is need to implement extensive pro-rural under five nutritional and health educational advocacy using community-based approaches, targeting parents, emphasizing the significance of exclusive breast feeding and consistencies in giving dietary foods, if and only if the persistent public health challenges due to under nutrition among children under five years, is to be sustainably dealt with, in Malawi.


Assuntos
Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Saúde da População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos do Crescimento , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malaui , Mães/educação , População Rural , Magreza , Síndrome de Emaciação
10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 121, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal schistosomiasis was not considered endemic in Lake Malawi until November 2017 when populations of Biomphalaria pfeifferi were first reported; in May 2018, emergence of intestinal schistosomiasis was confirmed. This emergence was in spite of ongoing control of urogenital schistosomiasis by preventive chemotherapy. Our current study sought to ascertain whether intestinal schistosomiasis is transitioning from emergence to outbreak, to judge if stepped-up control interventions are needed. METHODS: During late-May 2019, three cross-sectional surveys of primary school children for schistosomiasis were conducted using a combination of rapid diagnostic tests, parasitological examinations and applied morbidity-markers; 1) schistosomiasis dynamics were assessed at Samama (n = 80) and Mchoka (n = 80) schools, where Schistosoma mansoni was first reported, 2) occurrence of S. mansoni was investigated at two non-sampled schools, Mangochi Orphan Education and Training (MOET) (n = 60) and Koche (n = 60) schools, where B. pfeifferi was nearby, and 3) rapid mapping of schistosomiasis, and B. pfeifferi, conducted across a further 8 shoreline schools (n = 240). After data collection, univariate analyses and Chi-square testing were performed, followed by binary logistic regression using generalized linear models, to investigate epidemiological associations. RESULTS: In total, 520 children from 12 lakeshore primary schools were examined, mean prevalence of S. mansoni by 'positive' urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA)-dipsticks was 31.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 27.5-35.5). Upon comparisons of infection prevalence in May 2018, significant increases at Samama (relative risk [RR] = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.4-2.2) and Mchoka (RR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.7-4.3) schools were observed. Intestinal schistosomiasis was confirmed at MOET (18.3%) and Koche (35.0%) schools, and in all rapid mapping schools, ranging from 10.0 to 56.7%. Several populations of B. pfeifferi were confirmed, with two new eastern shoreline locations noted. Mean prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis was 24.0% (95% CI: 20.3-27.7). CONCLUSIONS: We notify that intestinal schistosomiasis, once considered non-endemic in Lake Malawi, is now transitioning from emergence to outbreak. Once control interventions can resume after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) suspensions, we recommend stepped-up preventive chemotherapy, with increased community-access to treatments, alongside renewed efforts in appropriate environmental control.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/epidemiologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lagos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Morbidade , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose Urinária/complicações , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose mansoni/complicações , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Instituições Acadêmicas
11.
Lancet HIV ; 7(9): e620-e628, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa combined with weak routine virological monitoring has driven increasing HIV drug resistance. We investigated ART failure, drug resistance, and early mortality among patients with HIV admitted to hospital in Malawi. METHODS: This observational cohort study was nested within the rapid urine-based screening for tuberculosis to reduce AIDS-related mortality in hospitalised patients in Africa (STAMP) trial, which recruited unselected (ie, irrespective of clinical presentation) adult (aged ≥18 years) patients with HIV-1 at admission to medical wards. Patients were included in our observational cohort study if they were enrolled at the Malawi site (Zomba Central Hospital) and were taking ART for at least 6 months at admission. Patients who met inclusion criteria had frozen plasma samples tested for HIV-1 viral load. Those with HIV-1 RNA of at least 1000 copies per mL had drug resistance testing by ultra-deep sequencing, with drug resistance defined as intermediate or high-level resistance using the Stanford HIVDR program. Mortality risk was calculated 56 days from enrolment. Patients were censored at death, at 56 days, or at last contact if lost to follow-up. The modelling strategy addressed the causal association between HIV multidrug resistance and mortality, excluding factors on the causal pathway (most notably, CD4 cell count, clinical signs of advanced HIV, and poor functional and nutritional status). FINDINGS: Of 1316 patients with HIV enrolled in the STAMP trial at the Malawi site between Oct 26, 2015, and Sept 19, 2017, 786 had taken ART for at least 6 months. 252 (32%) of 786 patients had virological failure (viral load ≥1000 copies per mL). Mean age was 41·5 years (SD 11·4) and 528 (67%) of 786 were women. Of 237 patients with HIV drug resistance results available, 195 (82%) had resistance to lamivudine, 128 (54%) to tenofovir, and 219 (92%) to efavirenz. Resistance to at least two drugs was common (196, 83%), and this was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1·7, 95% CI 1·2-2·4; p=0·0042). INTERPRETATION: Interventions are urgently needed and should target ART clinic, hospital, and post-hospital care, including differentiated care focusing on patients with advanced HIV, rapid viral load testing, and routine access to drug resistance testing. Prompt diagnosis and switching to alternative ART could reduce early mortality among inpatients with HIV. FUNDING: Joint Global Health Trials Scheme of the Medical Research Council, UK Department for International Development, and Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Viral , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Duração da Terapia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , HIV-1/genética , Hospitalização , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade , RNA Viral , Falha de Tratamento
12.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 858-863, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880268

RESUMO

As COVID-19 spreads rapidly across Africa, causing havoc to economies and disruption to already fragile healthcare systems, it is becoming clear that despite standardised global health strategies, national and local government responses must be tailored to their individual settings. Some African countries have adopted stringent measures such as national lockdown, quarantine or isolation, in combination with good hand hygiene, mandatory wearing of masks and physical distancing, to prevent an impending healthcare crisis. The impact of stringent measures in low- to middle-income African countries has bought time for healthcare facilities to prepare for the onslaught of COVID-19 cases, but some measures have been challenging to implement. In some settings, public health measures have been associated with serious violations of individual rights owing to abuse of power and gaps in implementation of well-intentioned policy. Collateral damage with regard to non-COVID-19 diseases that were suboptimally managed in pre-pandemic times may mean that lives lost from other diseases could exceed those saved from COVID-19. While individuals complying with lockdown regulations have embraced an acceptance of the concept of the common good, at a broad community level many are finding the transition from individualism to collective thinking required during a pandemic difficult to navigate. In this article, we look at government responses to the pandemic in six African countries (Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Botswana), and highlight ethical concerns arising in these contexts.


Assuntos
Direitos Civis/ética , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Autonomia Pessoal , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública/ética , África , Betacoronavirus , Botsuana , Direitos Civis/legislação & jurisprudência , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Liberdade , Humanos , Malaui , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , África do Sul , Uganda , Zâmbia , Zimbábue
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1700-1710, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840202

RESUMO

Coverage evaluation surveys (CESs) are an important complement to routinely reported drug coverage estimates following mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Although the WHO recommends the routine use of CESs, they are rarely implemented. Reasons for this low uptake are multifaceted; one is uncertainty on the best sampling method. We conducted a multicountry study to compare the statistical characteristics, cost, time, and complexity of three commonly used CES sampling methods: the Expanded Program on Immunization's (EPI's) 30 × 7 cluster survey, a stratified design with systematic sampling within strata to enable lot quality assurance sampling (S-LQAS) decision rules, and probability sampling with segmentation (PSS). The three CES methods were used in Burkina Faso, Honduras, Malawi, and Uganda, and results were compared across the country sites. All three CES methods were found to be feasible. The S-LQAS approach took the least amount of time to complete and, consequently, was the least expensive; however, all three methods cost less than $5,000 per district. The PSS design resulted in an unbiased, equal-probability sample of the target populations. By contrast, the EPI approach had inherent bias related to the selection of households. Because of modifications needed to maintain feasibility, the S-LQAS method also resulted in a non-probability sample with less precision than the other two methods. Given the comparable cost and time of the three sampling methods and the statistical advantages of the PSS method, the PSS method was deemed to be the best for CESs in NTD programs.


Assuntos
Doenças Negligenciadas , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medicina Tropical , Burkina Faso , Custos e Análise de Custo , Honduras , Humanos , Amostragem para Garantia da Qualidade de Lotes , Malaui , Amostragem , Uganda
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 591, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV in Malawi. Early prevention efforts in Malawi have been largely focused on preventing heterosexual and vertical transmission of HIV, and MSM have rarely been the specific benefactors of these efforts, despite facing both higher prevalence of HIV coupled with multiple barriers to prevention and care. To better facilitate the design of culturally relevant HIV prevention programs and prioritize resources among MSM in resource limited settings, the objective of this analysis was to estimate the relationship between social factors and HIV related risk behaviors and mental health. METHODS: 338 MSM were recruited using respondent-driven sampling in Blantyre, Malawi from April 2011 to March 2012. Structural equation models were built to test the association between six latent factors: participation in social activities, social support, stigma and human rights violations, depression symptomatology, condom use, and sexual risk behaviors, including concurrent sexual partnerships and total number of partners. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 25 years old. Almost 50% (158/338) of the participants were unemployed and 11% (37/338) were married or cohabiting with women. More than 30% (120/338) of the participants reported sexual behavior stigma and 30% (102/338) reported depression symptomatology. Almost 50% (153/338) of the participants reported any kind of HIV-related risk behaviors and 30% (110/338) participated in one of the recorded social activities. Significant associations were identified between stigma and risk behaviors (ß = 0.14, p = 0.03); stigma and depression symptomatology (ß = 0.62, p = 0.01); participation in social activities and depression symptomatology (ß = 0.17, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Results suggest MSM reporting stigma are more likely to report sexual risk practices associated with HIV/STI transmission and depressive symptoms, while those reporting participation in social activities related to HIV education are less likely to be depressed. Furthermore, interventions at the community level to support group empowerment and engagement may further reduce risks of HIV transmission and improve mental health outcomes. Taken together, these results suggest the potential additive benefits of mental health services integrated within comprehensive HIV prevention packages to optimize both HIV-related outcomes and general quality of life among MSM in Malawi.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/patologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Depressão/patologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem
16.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 3-7, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733652

RESUMO

Introduction: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the most common systemic fungal infection in patients with HIV infection. Rapid diagnosis and timely initiation of antifungal therapy are key to reducing mortality rate associated with CM. This study aims to evaluate the ability of four different diagnostic tests (Gram stain, India ink, and two types of commercial lateral flow assay [LFA]) to identify CM-positive patients and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of these tests. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study on diagnostic tests accuracy conducted in Northern Malawi. The target population was HIV-infected adult patients presenting with features of meningitis. Four types of diagnostic tests were conducted: India ink, Gram stain, and two types of commercial lateral flow assay (LFA) (Immy, Inc., OK, USA and Dynamiker Biotechnology (Tianjin) Co., Ltd), Singapore). Culture was conducted as the reference standard. Results: A total of 265 samples were collected. The rate of positive CM detection ranged from 6.4% (using India ink) to 14.3% (using LFA). India ink exhibited the lowest sensitivity of 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 36.0%-72.7%), followed by Gram stain (61.3%; 95% CI: 42.2%-78.2%). The Dynamiker LFA exhibited the highest sensitivity of 100.0% (95% CI: 90.0%-100.0%) but a lower specificity (97.0%; 93.9%-98.8%) compared to the Immy LFA (98.3%; 95% CI: 95.7%-99.5%). Conclusion: LFA diagnostic methods have the potential to double the detection rate of CM-positive patients in resource-limited countries such as Malawi. As such, LFAs should be considered to become the main diagnostic tests used for CM diagnostics in these countries. Our data indicate that LFAs may be the best method for diagnosing CM and exhibits the highest diagnostic accuracy as it has shown that it outperforms cell culture, the current gold standard.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Fungos/sangue , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Meningite Criptocócica/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/sangue , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Cryptococcus/imunologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Meningite Criptocócica/sangue , Meningite Criptocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 8-12, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733653

RESUMO

Introduction: Despite increasing life expectancy among people living with HIV (PLWHIV), anti-retroviral therapy (ART) side effects, HIV chronic inflammation and co-morbidities may limit functional abilities and reduced participation in exercises and physical activity (PA). PA improves wellbeing and overall quality of life of PLWHIV. In Malawi, there is paucity of information regarding PA levels among Malawians living with HIV and receiving ART. Therefore, this study aimed at determining PA levels among PLWHIV and receiving ART in Malawi. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional design was employed. Eligible participants were male and female adults aged 18-45 years living with HIV receiving ART for at least 1 year. The participants were recruited from Limbe Health Center, Gateway Health Center and Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to assess the PA levels. A Stadiometer (HS-DBS00361, Model: 1127154) was used to measure weight (kg) and height (cm) of the participants. Results: A total of 213 participants were recruited. There were more females than male participants (n=132 females). Overall, the mean age of all participants was 37±6.5 years and they were within normal body weight (BMI=23±4.0). Many participants (n=85, 40%) had low PA levels followed by those who were moderately physically active (n=75, 36%). A larger proportion of the female participants (51%) had low PA levels compared to males (22%). Forty-two percent of participants with 1-3 years of ART had low PA whereas 39% with >3 years ART had low PA. Conclusion: Most PLWHIV and receiving ART in the sample have low PA levels. The study has also revealed that proportionally more females than males had low PA levels.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Exercício Físico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 13-18, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733654

RESUMO

Background: This paper reports on part of a larger study, the aim of which was to develop an intervention to collaboratively develop innovative strategies to promote effective collaborative practices among midwives and medical professionals working in intrapartum care unit. Collaborative practice is a critical marker for success in improving quality of maternity care. To date, there has been limited exploration of collaborative practices between midwives and medical professionals working in intrapartum care from the African perspective. Aim: This paper reports findings of the discovery phase of appreciative inquiry (AI) set out to understand the perspectives of midwives and medical professionals on collaborative practices at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital labour and delivery ward in Malawi. Methods: The study used an exploratory qualitative approach framed in an Appreciative Inquiry theoretical perspective. Appreciative Inquiry consists of four phases :(discovery, dream, design and destiny).The discovery phase consisted of 16 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions among purposively selected midwives (4 nurse midwives, 2 midwifery unit matrons) and medical professionals (2 obstetricians, 4 registrars, 2 intern doctors, 2 clinical officers) working in the labour ward. All interviews and discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Five dominant themes emerged: collaborative breakdown, benefits of collaboration, the importance of positive and respectful attitude, barriers to effective collaborative practices and strategies to improve collaborative practice. Conclusion/Recommendations: Aligning the perspectives of the members of the two disciplines is significant to effective implementation of collaborative intrapartum care. Participants demonstrated that there is increased parallel working of midwives and doctors at QECH. This is not professionally healthy. Therefore, putting together the viewpoints of the professions to create a mutually agreeable professional framework of collaborative intrapartum practice is significant. Additionally, there is an obvious need to address the professional concerns of both disciplines.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Relações Interprofissionais , Serviços de Saúde Materna/organização & administração , Tocologia , Enfermeiras Obstétricas/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Trabalho de Parto , Malaui , Unidade Hospitalar de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
19.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 19-23, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733655

RESUMO

Background: Globally, critical illness causes up to 45 million deaths every year. The burden is highest in low-income countries such as Malawi. Critically ill patients require good quality, essential care in emergency departments and in hospital wards to avoid negative outcomes such as death. Little is known about the quality of care or the availability of necessary resources for emergency and critical care in Malawi. The aim of this study was to assess the availability of resources for emergency and critical care in Malawi using data from the Service Provision Assessment (SPA). Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis of the SPA - a nationwide survey of all health facilities. We assessed the availability of resources for emergency and critical care using previously developed standards for hospitals in low-income countries. Each health facility received an availability score, calculated as the proportion of resources that were present. Resource availability was sub-divided into the seven a-priori defined categories of drugs, equipment, support services, emergency guidelines, infrastructure, training and routines. Results: Of the 254 indicators in the standards necessary for assessing the quality of emergency and critical care, SPA collected data for 102 (40.6%). Hospitals had a median resource availability score of 51.6% IQR (42.2-67.2) and smaller health facilities had a median of 37.5% (IQR 28.1-45.3). For the category of drugs, the hospitals' median score was 62.0% IQR (52.4-81.0), for equipment 51.9% IQR (40.7-66.7), support services 33.3% IQR (22.2-77.8) and emergency guidelines 33.3% IQR (0-66.7). SPA did not collect any data for resources in the categories of infrastructure, training or routines. Conclusion: Hospitals in Malawi lack resources for providing emergency and critical care. Increasing data about the availability of resources for emergency and critical care and improving the hospital systems for the care of critically ill patients in Malawi should be prioritized.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 24-30, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733656

RESUMO

Introduction: Globally, the burden of interpersonal violence and its significant impact on mortality, morbidity and disability makes it a major public health problem which necessitates intervention. This article examines characteristics of victims of interpersonal violence and violent events in Malawi. The focus is on a population that has been traditionally neglected in literature. Methods: Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) maintains a trauma registry with data that is prospectively collected. Patients offered trauma care after interpersonal violence from May 2013 to May 2015 were evaluated. Results: There were 1431 patients with violent events recorded at the Adult Emergency Trauma Centre (AETC) with a male predominance of 79.5%. The dominant age group was young adults between 25-29 years old (22%). Most attacks occurred during cold and dry season (46.9%) and most common location was on the road (37.2%). Alcohol use by victims was recorded in 10.5% of cases. Soft tissue injuries were the most common injuries sustained (74.1%). Most patients were treated as outpatients (80.9%). There were two deaths. At multivariate analysis, women had a lower risk of interpersonal violence as compared to men, (OR 0.82 [0.69-0.98]). Victims' use of alcohol was associated with increased risk of assault (OR 1.63 [1.27-2.10]). As compared to other places, odds of being assaulted were higher at home (OR 1.62 [1.27-2.06]) but lower at work (OR 0.68 [0.52-0.89) and on the road (OR 0.82 [0.65-1.03]). Odds of being assaulted were higher in the cold and dry season as compared to hot and dry season, (OR 1.26 [1.08-1.47]). Conclusion: Young males were most involved in interpersonal violence. Location of injury and seasonal variation were significant factors associated with interpersonal violence and most commonly sustained injuries were soft tissue injuries. These findings will help in identifying targeted interventions for interpersonal violence in Malawi and other low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs).


Assuntos
Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Interpessoais , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Violência/classificação , Adulto Jovem
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