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1.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1516, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In populations that lack vital registration systems, under-5 mortality (U5M) is commonly estimated using survey-based approaches, including indirect methods. One assumption of indirect methods is that a mother's survival and her children's survival are not correlated, but in populations affected by HIV/AIDS this assumption is violated, and thus indirect estimates are biased. Our goal was to estimate the magnitude of the bias, and to create a predictive model to correct it. METHODS: We used an individual-level, discrete time-step simulation model to measure how the bias in indirect estimates of U5M changes under various fertility rates, mortality rates, HIV/AIDS rates, and levels of antiretroviral therapy. We simulated 4480 populations in total and measured the amount of bias in U5M due to HIV/AIDS. We also developed a generalized linear model via penalized maximum likelihood to correct this bias. RESULTS: We found that indirect methods can underestimate U5M by 0-41% in populations with HIV prevalence of 0-40%. Applying our model to 2010 survey data from Malawi and Tanzania, we show that indirect methods would underestimate U5M by up to 7.7% in those countries at that time. Our best fitting model to correct bias in U5M had a root median square error of 0.0012. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect estimates of U5M can be significantly biased in populations affected by HIV/AIDS. Our predictive model allows scholars and practitioners to correct that bias using commonly measured population characteristics. Policies and programs based on indirect estimates of U5M in populations with generalized HIV epidemics may need to be reevaluated after accounting for estimation bias.


Assuntos
Viés , Mortalidade da Criança , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Mortalidade Infantil , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Causas de Morte , Pré-Escolar , Epidemias , Feminino , HIV , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019039, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623425

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Hitherto regarded as a public health issue of well-heeled nations, overweight and obesity have emerged as a problem of concern in developing nations. Although social and demographic factors are equally important as proximal lifestyle factors affecting health, their role is neither well researched nor well understood. We conducted a novel study to determine the distribution, prevalence, and social and demographic determinants of overweight/obesity in Malawi. METHODS: A population-based, quantitative cross-sectional study using data from the Malawi Demographic and Health Survey (2015-2016) was conducted among non-pregnant women aged 18-49 years. A total of 6,443 women were included in the analysis. Overweight/obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m2 , was the main outcome variable. The analysis was done in SPSS version 20.0; after calculating descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate associations and determine odds. RESULTS: In total, 16.8% and 6.3% of women were overweight and obese, respectively (p<0.001). Overweight and obesity were more prevalent in urban than in rural areas. The BMI distribution among women varied across different background characteristics. Women from the Ngoni ethnicity were more likely to be overweight/obese than others (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 2.08). Socioeconomic status (SES) and the age of the respondent were highly significant determinants that were strongly associated with being overweight/obese. The richest women were 3 times more likely to be overweight/obese than the poorest (aOR, 3.30; 95% CI, 2.46 to 4.43). CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent and significantly associated with increasing SES, age, and being from the Ngoni ethnicity. Holistic interventions should also focus on improving social determinants in order to entirely curb the epidemic.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 838, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helminthic and protozoan infections are common, particularly in low- or middle-income countries. Although an association between parasite carriage and markers of poor growth have been shown in some studies, systematic reviews have suggested only a modest impact of clearing carriage. The prevalence of these pathogens and the effect that they have on growth in preschool children has never been investigated in Malawi. METHODS: One hundred ninety-three children aged 0-72 months were randomly recruited from rural villages in the Mangochi district of Malawi. Formol-ether concentration was performed on stool and the samples examined with a light microscope. Anthropometric data was taken for each child and the haemoglobin measured with a point of care test. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 2 years 4 months. Overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection was 37.3%. Protozoa were found in 28.5% of children, while helminths were found in 8.8%. The most commonly found organisms were Giardia lambia (12.4%), Entamoeba coli (10.4%) and Hookworm species (3.6%). Stunting was seen in 47.8% of children, 12.9% were underweight and 5.0% were wasted. No significant association was found between markers of poor growth and infection with any intestinal parasite. CONCLUSIONS: We found that prevalence of helminth infection was low in preschool children living in the Mangochi district compared to international standards. However a significant proportion of the preschool population are infected with protozoa, particularly Giardia lambia. In this cohort, despite a significant prevalence of stunting, helminth infection was not significantly associated with any markers of poor growth. The significance of protozoal carriage and contribution to growth restriction in this context creates further avenues for future research.


Assuntos
Helmintíase/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência
4.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our aim in this observational study was to monitor continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) usage and outcomes in newborn wards at 26 government hospitals in Malawi after the introduction of CPAP as part of a quality-improvement initiative. CPAP was implemented in 3 phases from 2013 through 2015. METHODS: Survival to discharge was analyzed for neonates treated with nasal oxygen and/or CPAP with admission weights of 1 to 2.49 kg at 24 government hospitals with transfer rates <15%. This analysis includes neonates admitted with respiratory illness for 5.5 months before (621 neonates) and 15 months immediately after CPAP implementation (1836 neonates). A follow-up data analysis was completed for neonates treated with CPAP at all hospitals during an additional 11 months (194 neonates). RESULTS: On implementation of CPAP, survival to discharge improved for all neonates admitted with respiratory distress (48.6% vs 54.5%; P = .012) and for those diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome (39.8% vs 48.3%; P = .042). There were no significant differences in outcomes for neonates treated with CPAP during the implementation and follow-up periods. Hypothermia on admission was pervasive and associated with poor outcomes. Neonates with normal mean temperatures during CPAP treatment experienced the highest survival rates (65.7% for all neonates treated with CPAP and 60.0% for those diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome). CONCLUSIONS: A nurse-led CPAP service can improve outcomes for neonates in respiratory distress in low-resource settings. However, the results show that real-world improvements in survival may be limited without access to comprehensive newborn care, especially for small and sick infants.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Temperatura Corporal , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/mortalidade , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipotermia/mortalidade , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Malaui/epidemiologia , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Malar J ; 18(1): 329, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Distribution campaigns for insecticide-treated nets (ITN) have increased the use of ITNs in Malawi, but malaria prevalence remains high even among those using the nets. Previous studies have addressed ITN ownership, insecticide resistance, and frequency of ITN use as possible contributing factors to the high prevalence of malaria infection despite high ITN coverage, but have rarely considered whether the condition of the ITN, or how many people use it, impacts efficacy. This study assessed how ITN integrity, ITN age, and the number of persons sharing a net might mitigate or reduce protective efficacy among self-identified ITN users in Malawi. METHODS: From 2012 to 2014, six cross-sectional surveys were conducted in both the rainy and dry seasons in southern Malawi. Data were collected on ITN use, integrity (number and size of holes), and age. Blood samples for detecting Plasmodium falciparum infection were obtained from reported ITN users over 6 months of age. Generalized linear mixed models were used to account for clustering at the household and community level. The final model controlled for gender, household eaves, and community-level infection prevalence during the rainy season. RESULTS: There were 9646 ITN users with blood samples across six surveys, 15% of whom tested positive for P. falciparum infection. Among children under 5 years old, there was a 50% increased odds of P. falciparum infection among those sleeping under an ITN older than two years, compared to those using an ITN less than 2 years old (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.07-2.08). ITN integrity and number of individuals sharing an ITN were not associated with P. falciparum infection. CONCLUSIONS: Older ITNs were associated with higher rates of P. falciparum in young children, which may indicate that insecticide concentrations play a larger role in infection prevention than the physical barrier of an ITN. ITN use was self-reported and the integrity measures lacked the precision of newer methods, suggesting a need for objective measures of ITN use and more precise assessment of ITN integrity.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Controle de Mosquitos/instrumentação , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
AIDS Behav ; 23(11): 3140-3151, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410618

RESUMO

We developed and piloted a video-based intervention targeting HIV-positive pregnant women to optimize antiretroviral therapy (ART) retention and adherence by providing a VITAL Start (Video-intervention to Inspire Treatment Adherence for Life) before ART. VITAL Start (VS) was grounded in behavior-determinant models and developed through an iterative multi-stakeholder process. Of 306 pregnant women eligible for ART, 160 were randomized to standard of care (SOC), 146 to VS and followed for one-month. Of those assigned to VS, 100% completed video-viewing; 96.5% reported they would recommend VS. Of 11 health workers interviewed, 82% preferred VS over SOC; 91% found VS more time-efficient. Compared to SOC, VS group had greater change in HIV/ART knowledge (p < 0.01), trend towards being more likely to start ART (p = 0.07), and better self-reported adherence (p = 0.02). There were no significant group differences in 1-month retention and pharmacy pill count. VITAL Start was highly acceptable, feasible, with promising benefits to ART adherence.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Aconselhamento/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Autorrelato , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Gravação em Vídeo
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 533, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In some low-resource settings bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is increasingly used to treat children with pneumonia. However, the time required for healthcare workers (HCWs) to administer bCPAP is unknown and may have implementation implications. This study aims to compare HCW time spent administering bCPAP and low-flow nasal oxygen care at a district hospital in Malawi during CPAP IMPACT (Improving Mortality for Pneumonia in African Children Trial). METHODS: Eligible participants were 1-59 months old with WHO-defined severe pneumonia and HIV-infection, HIV-exposure, severe malnutrition, or hypoxemia and were randomized to either bCPAP or oxygen. We used time motion techniques to observe hospital care in four hour blocks during treatment initiation or follow up (maintenance). HCW mean time per patient at the bedside over the observation period was calculated by study arm. RESULTS: Overall, bCPAP required an average of 34.71 min per patient more than low-flow nasal oxygen to initiate (bCPAP, 118.18 min (standard deviation (SD) 42.73 min); oxygen, 83.47 min (SD, 20.18 min), p < 0.01). During initiation, HCWs spent, on average, 12.45 min longer per patient setting up bCPAP equipment (p < 0.01) and 11.13 min longer per patient setting up the bCPAP nasal interface (p < 0.01), compared to oxygen equipment and nasal cannula set-up. During maintenance care, HCWs spent longer on average per patient adjusting bCPAP, compared to oxygen equipment (bCPAP 4.57 min (SD, 4.78 min); oxygen, 1.52 min (SD, 2.50 min), p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Effective bCPAP implementation in low-resource settings will likely create additional HCW burden relative to usual pneumonia care with oxygen. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02484183 , June 29, 2015.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Pneumonia/terapia , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais de Distrito , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento
9.
N Engl J Med ; 381(5): 407-419, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends not performing transfusions in African children hospitalized for uncomplicated severe anemia (hemoglobin level of 4 to 6 g per deciliter and no signs of clinical severity). However, high mortality and readmission rates suggest that less restrictive transfusion strategies might improve outcomes. METHODS: In this factorial, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with uncomplicated severe anemia to immediate transfusion with 20 ml or 30 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight, as determined in a second simultaneous randomization, or no immediate transfusion (control group), in which transfusion with 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram was triggered by new signs of clinical severity or a drop in hemoglobin to below 4 g per deciliter. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Three other randomizations investigated transfusion volume, postdischarge supplementation with micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. RESULTS: A total of 1565 children (median age, 26 months) underwent randomization, with 778 assigned to the immediate-transfusion group and 787 to the control group; 984 children (62.9%) had malaria. The children were followed for 180 days, and 71 (4.5%) were lost to follow-up. During the primary hospitalization, transfusion was performed in all the children in the immediate-transfusion group and in 386 (49.0%) in the control group (median time to transfusion, 1.3 hours vs. 24.9 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) total blood volume transfused per child was 314±228 ml in the immediate-transfusion group and 142±224 ml in the control group. Death had occurred by 28 days in 7 children (0.9%) in the immediate-transfusion group and in 13 (1.7%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 1.36; P = 0.19) and by 180 days in 35 (4.5%) and 47 (6.0%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.15), without evidence of interaction with other randomizations (P>0.20) or evidence of between-group differences in readmissions, serious adverse events, or hemoglobin recovery at 180 days. The mean length of hospital stay was 0.9 days longer in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of differences in clinical outcomes over 6 months between the children who received immediate transfusion and those who did not. The triggered-transfusion strategy in the control group resulted in lower blood use; however, the length of hospital stay was longer, and this strategy required clinical and hemoglobin monitoring. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and Department for International Development; TRACT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84086586.).


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Tempo para o Tratamento , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/economia , Malária/complicações , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
10.
N Engl J Med ; 381(5): 420-431, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anemia (hemoglobin level, <6 g per deciliter) is a leading cause of hospital admission and death in children in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends transfusion of 20 ml of whole-blood equivalent per kilogram of body weight for anemia, regardless of hemoglobin level. METHODS: In this factorial, open-label trial, we randomly assigned Ugandan and Malawian children 2 months to 12 years of age with a hemoglobin level of less than 6 g per deciliter and severity features (e.g., respiratory distress or reduced consciousness) to receive immediate blood transfusion with 20 ml per kilogram or 30 ml per kilogram. Three other randomized analyses investigated immediate as compared with no immediate transfusion, the administration of postdischarge micronutrients, and postdischarge prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 3196 eligible children (median age, 37 months; 2050 [64.1%] with malaria) were assigned to receive a transfusion of 30 ml per kilogram (1598 children) or 20 ml per kilogram (1598 children) and were followed for 180 days. A total of 1592 children (99.6%) in the higher-volume group and 1596 (99.9%) in the lower-volume group started transfusion (median, 1.2 hours after randomization). The mean (±SD) volume of total blood transfused per child was 475±385 ml and 353±348 ml, respectively; 197 children (12.3%) and 300 children (18.8%) in the respective groups received additional transfusions. Overall, 55 children (3.4%) in the higher-volume group and 72 (4.5%) in the lower-volume group died before 28 days (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 1.08; P = 0.12 by log-rank test). This finding masked significant heterogeneity in 28-day mortality according to the presence or absence of fever (>37.5°C) at screening (P=0.001 after Sidak correction). Among the 1943 children (60.8%) without fever, mortality was lower with a transfusion volume of 30 ml per kilogram than with a volume of 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.69). Among the 1253 children (39.2%) with fever, mortality was higher with 30 ml per kilogram than with 20 ml per kilogram (hazard ratio, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04 to 3.49). There was no evidence of differences between the randomized groups in readmissions, serious adverse events, or hemoglobin recovery at 180 days. CONCLUSIONS: Overall mortality did not differ between the two transfusion strategies. (Funded by the Medical Research Council and Department for International Development, United Kingdom; TRACT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN84086586.).


Assuntos
Anemia/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/mortalidade , Transfusão de Sangue/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Seguimentos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/economia , Malária/complicações , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
Glob Heart ; 14(2): 109-118, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324364

RESUMO

Recent studies have found an increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. A compressive search of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, and the World Health Organization Global Health Library databases was undertaken to identify studies reporting on the prevalence, risk factors, and interventions for hypertension and diabetes in Malawi. The findings from 23 included studies revealed a high burden of hypertension and diabetes in Malawi, with estimates ranging from 15.8% to 32.9% and from 2.4% to 5.6%, respectively. Associated risk factors included old age, tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, obesity, physical inactivity, high salt and sugar intake, low fruit and vegetable intake, high body mass index, and high waist-to-hip ratio. Certain antiretroviral therapy regimens were also associated with increased diabetes and hypertension risk in human immunodeficiency virus patient populations. Nationwide, the quality of clinical care was generally limited and demonstrated a need for innovative and targeted interventions to prevent, control, and treat noncommunicable diseases in Malawi.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
12.
Glob Heart ; 14(2): 149-154, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324369

RESUMO

Africa is experiencing an increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCD). However, few reliable data are available on their true burden, main risk factors, and economic impact that are needed to inform implementation of evidence-based interventions in the local context. In Malawi, a number of initiatives have begun addressing the NCD challenge, which have often utilized existing infectious disease infrastructure. It will be crucial to carefully leverage these synergies to maximize their impact. NCD-BRITE (Building Research Capacity, Implementation, and Translation Expertise) is a transdisciplinary consortium that brings together key research institutions, the Ministry of Health, and other stakeholders to build long-term, sustainable, NCD-focused implementation research capacity. Led by University of Malawi-College of Medicine, University of North Carolina, and Dignitas International, NCD-BRITE's specific aims are to conduct detailed assessments of the burden and risk factors of common NCD; assess the research infrastructure needed to inform, implement, and evaluate NCD interventions; create a national implementation research agenda for priority NCD; and develop NCD-focused implementation research capacity through short courses, mentored research awards, and an internship placement program. The capacity-building activities are purposely designed around the University of Malawi-College of Medicine and Ministry of Health to ensure sustainability. The NCD BRITE Consortium was launched in February 2018. In year 1, we have developed NCD-focused implementation research capacity. Needs assessments will follow in years 2 and 3. Finally, in year 4, the generated research capacity, together with findings from the needs assessments, will be used to create a national, actionable, implementation research agenda for NCD prioritized in this consortium, namely cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Morbidade/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
13.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2629-2633, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292826

RESUMO

To improve outcomes among HIV-positive adolescents, the Malawi Ministry of Health is supporting scale-up of "Teen Clubs," a facility-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) delivery model. Teen Clubs are monthly ART clinics for adolescents (10-19 years old) that provide clinical services and peer psychosocial support. This paper assesses ART adherence among Teen Club attendees in Malawi. We performed a retrospective analysis of medical records and Teen Club attendance data on 589 HIV-positive adolescents at 16 Partners in Hope (PIH)-Extending Quality Improvement for HIV/AIDS in Malawi (EQUIP) supported facilities across Malawi, from January to June of 2017, who attended at least two Teen Club sessions. Multi-level logistic regression models were used to examine the role of gender and age on optimal ART adherence (≥ 95% based on pill count) among HIV-positive adolescents enrolled in Teen Clubs. The median age of adolescents in this sample was 14 years, and 47% were male. Older adolescent males (15-19 years) were 64% more likely to achieve ≥ 95% ART adherence (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.16-2.31, p < 0.01) compared to younger (10-14 years) males. The effect of age on adherence was smaller and not significant among females (aOR 1.36, 95% CI 0.96-1.94, p = 0.08). In the full model including males and females, older adolescence was associated with higher odds of optimal adherence (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.16-1.90, p < 0.01). These results reinforce the need for age-specialized programming for adolescents, and future research should evaluate this in achieving optimal ART adherence.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007539, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314752

RESUMO

Typhoid fever is endemic across sub-Saharan Africa. However, estimates of the burden of typhoid are undermined by insufficient blood volumes and lack of sensitivity of blood culture. Here, we aimed to address this limitation by exploiting pre-enrichment culture followed by PCR, alongside routine blood culture to improve typhoid case detection. We carried out a prospective diagnostic cohort study and enrolled children (aged 0-4 years) with non-specific febrile disease admitted to a tertiary hospital in Blantyre, Malawi from August 2014 to July 2016. Blood was collected for culture (BC) and real-time PCR after a pre-enrichment culture in tryptone soy broth and ox-bile. DNA was subjected to PCR for invA (Pan-Salmonella), staG (S. Typhi), and fliC (S. Typhimurium) genes. A positive PCR was defined as invA plus either staG or fliC (CT<29). IgM and IgG ELISA against four S. Typhi antigens was also performed. In total, 643 children (median age 1.3 years) with nonspecific febrile disease were enrolled; 31 (4.8%) were BC positive for Salmonella (n = 13 S. Typhi, n = 16 S. Typhimurium, and n = 2 S. Enteritidis). Pre-enrichment culture of blood followed by PCR identified a further 8 S. Typhi and 15 S. Typhimurium positive children. IgM and IgG titres to the S. Typhi antigen STY1498 (haemolysin) were significantly higher in children that were PCR positive but blood culture negative compared to febrile children with all other non-typhoid illnesses. The addition of pre-enrichment culture and PCR increased the case ascertainment of invasive Salmonella disease in children by 62-94%. These data support recent burden estimates that highlight the insensitivity of blood cultures and support the targeting of pre-school children for typhoid vaccine prevention in Africa. Blood culture with real-time PCR following pre-enrichment should be used to further refine estimates of vaccine effectiveness in typhoid vaccine trials.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Febre/microbiologia , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Hemocultura , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Salmonella typhi/genética , Febre Tifoide/sangue , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico
15.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010801, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263547

RESUMO

Background: In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Rapid Access Expansion (RAcE) programme in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, and Nigeria to increase coverage of diagnostic, treatment, and referral services for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea among children ages 2-59 months. In 2017, a final evaluation of the six RAcE sites was conducted to determine whether the programme goal was reached. A key evaluation objective was to estimate the reduction in childhood mortality and the number of under-five lives saved over the project period in the RAcE project areas. Methods: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) was used to estimate reductions in all-cause child mortality due to changes in coverage of treatment for the integrated community case management (iCCM) illnesses - malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea - while accounting for other changes in maternal and child health interventions in each RAcE project area. Data from RAcE baseline and endline household surveys, Demographic and Health Surveys, and routine health service data were used in each LiST model. The models yielded estimated change in under-five mortality rates, and estimated number of lives saved per year by malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea treatment. We adjusted the results to estimate the number of lives saved by community health worker (CHW)-provided treatment. Results: The LiST model accounts for coverage changes in iCCM intervention coverage and other health trends in each project area to estimate mortality reduction and child lives saved. Under five mortality declined in all six RAcE sites, with an average decline of 10 percent. An estimated 6200 under-five lives were saved by malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea treatment in the DRC, Malawi, Niger, and Nigeria, of which approximately 4940 (75 percent) were saved by treatment provided by CHWs. This total excludes Mozambique, where there were no estimated under-five lives saved likely due to widespread stockouts of key medications. In all other project areas, lives saved by CHW-provided treatment contributed substantially to the estimated decline in under-five mortality. Conclusions: Our results suggest that iCCM is a strategy that can save lives and measurably decrease child mortality in settings where access to health facility services is low and adequate resources for iCCM implementation are provided for CHW services.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Níger/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010805, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263550

RESUMO

Background: Ensuring the quality of health service data is critical for data-driven decision-making. Data quality assessments (DQAs) are used to determine if data are of sufficient quality to support their intended use. However, guidance on how to conduct DQAs specifically for community-based interventions, such as integrated community case management (iCCM) programs, is limited. As part of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Rapid Access Expansion (RAcE) Programme, ICF conducted DQAs in a unique effort to characterize the quality of community health worker-generated data and to use DQA findings to strengthen reporting systems and decision-making. Methods: We present our experience implementing assessments using standardized DQA tools in the six RAcE project sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Niger, and Nigeria. We describe the process used to create the RAcE DQA tools, adapt the tools to country contexts, and develop the iCCM DQA Toolkit, which enables countries to carry out regular and rapid DQAs. We provide examples of how we used results to generate recommendations. Results: The DQA tools were customized for each RAcE project to assess the iCCM data reporting system, trace iCCM indicators through this system, and to ensure that DQAs were efficient and generated useful recommendations. This experience led to creation of an iCCM DQA Toolkit comprised of simplified versions of RAcE DQA tools and a guidance document. It includes system assessment questions that elicit actionable responses and a simplified data tracing tool focused on one treatment indicator for each iCCM focus illness: diarrhea, malaria, and pneumonia. The toolkit is intended for use at the national or sub-national level for periodic data quality checks. Conclusions: The iCCM DQA Toolkit was designed to be easily tailored to different data reporting system structures because iCCM data reporting tools and data flow vary substantially. The toolkit enables countries to identify points in the reporting system where data quality is compromised and areas of the reporting system that require strengthening, so that countries can make informed adjustments that improve data quality, strengthen reporting systems, and inform decision-making.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Níger/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia
17.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010811, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263554

RESUMO

Background: The use of mobile health (mHealth) technology to improve quality of care (QoC) has increased over the last decade; limited evidence exists to espouse mHealth as a decision support tool, especially at the community level. This study presents evaluation findings of using a mobile application for integrated community case management (iCCM) by Malawi's health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in four pilot districts to deliver lifesaving services for children. Methods: A quasi-experimental study design compared adherence to iCCM guidelines between HSAs using mobile application (n = 137) and paper-based tools (n = 113), supplemented with 47 key informant interviews on perceptions about QoC and sustainability of iCCM mobile application. The first four sick children presenting to each HSA for an initial consultation of an illness episode were observed by a Ministry of Health iCCM trainer for assessment, classification, and treatment. Results were compared using logistic regression, controlling for child-, HSA-, and district-level characteristics, with Holm-Bonferroni-adjusted significance levels for multiple comparison. Results: HSAs using the application tended to assess sick children according to iCCM guidelines more often than HSAs using paper-based tools for cough (adjusted proportion, 98% vs 91%; P < 0.01) and five physical danger signs - chest in-drawing; alertness; palmar pallor; malnourishment; oedema (80% vs 62%; P < 0.01), but not for fever (97% vs 93%; P = 0.06), diarrhoea (94% vs 87%; P = 0.03), and three danger signs - not able to eat or drink; vomits everything; has convulsions (88% vs 79%; P = 0.01). Across illnesses and danger signs, 81% of HSAs using the application correctly classified sick children, compared to 58% of HSAs using paper-based tools (P < 0.01). No differences existed for their treatment (P = 0.27). Interview respondents corroborated these findings that using iCCM mobile application ensures protocol adherence. Respondents noted barriers to its consistent and wide use including hardware problems and limited resources. Conclusion: Generally, the mobile application is a promising tool for improving adherence to the iCCM protocol for assessing sick children and classifying illness by HSAs. Limited effects on treatments and inconsistent use suggest the need for more studies on mHealth to improve QoC at community level.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Diarreia/mortalidade , Diarreia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/mortalidade , Malária/terapia , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
EBioMedicine ; 45: 464-472, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More children are now surviving severe acute malnutrition (SAM), but evidence suggests that early-life malnutrition is associated with increased risk of long-term cardio-metabolic disorders. To better understand potential mechanisms, we studied the metabolite profiles of children seven years after treatment for SAM. METHODS: We followed-up children (n = 352) treated for SAM in 2006-2007, at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, in Malawi. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, tandem mass spectrometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured circulating metabolites in fasting blood in a subset of SAM survivors (n = 69, 9·6 ±â€¯1·6 years), siblings (n = 44, 10·5 ±â€¯2·7 years), and age and sex-matched community controls (n = 37, 9·4 ±â€¯1·8 years). Data were analysed using univariate and sparse partial least square (sPLS) methods. Differences associated with SAM survival, oedema status, and anthropometry were tested, adjusting for age, sex, HIV, and wealth index. FINDINGS: Based on 194 measured metabolites, the profiles of SAM survivors were similar to those of siblings and community controls. IGF1, creatinine, and FGF21, had loading values >0·3 and ranked stably in the top 10 distinguishing metabolites, but did not differ between SAM survivors and controls with univariate analysis. Current stunting was associated with IGF1 (ß = 15·2, SE = 3·5, partial R2 = 12%, p < 0·0001) and this relationship could be influenced by early childhood SAM (ß = 17·4, SE = 7·7, partial R2 = 2·8%, p = 0·025). No metabolites were associated with oedema status, duration of hospital stay, anthropometry measured during hospitalization, nor with changes in anthropometry since hospitalization. INTERPRETATION: In this group of survivors, SAM was not associated with longer-term global metabolic changes 7 years after treatment. However, SAM may influence the relationship between current stunting and IGF1. Further risk markers for NCDs in SAM survivors may only be revealed by direct metabolic challenge or later in life.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/sangue , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 375, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262351

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes are at high risk of developing renal insufficiency and chronic kidney disease (CKD). As a result, screening for CKD is essential in diabetic patients as part of their care. This study investigated the prevalence of renal insufficiency, CKD, and correlates of CKD in diabetic patients attending Integrated Chronic Care Clinics in Neno District, Malawi. RESULTS: Of 203 diabetic patients, 148 (73%) were screened for CKD by measurement of serum creatinine and urinary protein between April 2016 and January 2019. 39.2% (n = 58) of the patients had abnormal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as estimated by CKD Epidemiology Collaboration formula and/or ≥ 2+ urine protein. 13.5% (95% CI 8.4-20.0%, 20/148) of the patients had renal insufficiency based on eGFR of less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. 8.8% (95% CI 4.8-14.6%, 13/148) had CKD based on eGFR of less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 measured twice at least 3 months apart. In bivariate analysis, CKD was associated with older age, high systolic blood pressure and lower fasting blood sugar. Despite the low sample size, the study showed a moderately high prevalence of renal insufficiency and CKD in a rural cohort of diabetic patients in Malawi.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Proteinúria/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Creatinina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Proteinúria/sangue , Proteinúria/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , População Rural
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