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1.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(6): 935-945, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485025

RESUMO

AIM: The objective of this research is to report the strategies of resilience mobilized by the Hospital of Mali to face Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHOD: The data collected within the hospital covered the first months of the pandemic (April to July 2020). A total of 32 semi-structured interviews and 53 observation sessions were conducted. Data analyses were based on a conceptual framework and were conducted using a deductive approach. RESULTS: The results show that, due to the multiple effects of the COVID-19 such as the aggravation of staff penuries, the high workloads, the need to create dedicated infrastructures, the drastic decrease in revenue due to the drop in hospital's attendance, the hospital and its staff implemented multiple strategies (e.g., reduction or postponement of some expenses, requisition of facilities, recruitment of contractual staff and redeployment of some healthcare workers). Those strategies generally allowed to maintain patients access to care, although there were many restrictions for non-COVID-19 patients. The hospital was able to build absorptive resilience. CONCLUSION: This qualitative research provides a better understanding of hospitals' resilience processes to the COVID-19 pandemic in a hospital setting. Lessons learned from this study should help hospitals managers to design more appropriate and effective responses to future health crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Hospitais , Humanos , Mali/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
2.
Malar J ; 21(1): 110, 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35361195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria in Mali remains a primary cause of morbidity and mortality, with women at high risk during pregnancy for placental malaria (PM). Risk for PM and its association with birth outcomes was evaluated in a rural to urban longitudinal cohort on the Bandiagara Escarpment and the District of Bamako. METHODS: Placental samples (N = 317) were collected from 249 mothers who were participants in a prospective cohort study directed by BIS in the years 2011 to 2019. A placental pathologist and research assistant evaluated the samples by histology in blinded fashion to assess PM infection stage and parasite density. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to model the odds of PM infection. RESULTS: In a multivariable model, pregnancies in Bamako, beyond secondary education, births in the rainy season (instead of the hot dry season), and births to women who had ≥ 3 doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) instead of no doses were associated with reduced odds of experiencing PM (active and past infections combined). Births in later years of the study were strongly associated with reduced odds of PM. Maternal age, which was positively associated with offspring year of birth, was significant as a predictor of PM only if offspring year of birth was omitted from the model. Gravidity was positively associated with both maternal age and offspring year of birth such that if either variable was included in the model, then gravidity was no longer significant. However, if maternal age or year of offspring birth were not adjusted for, then the odds of PM were nearly two-fold higher in primigravida compared to multigravida. Birth outcomes improved (+ 285 g birth weight, + 2 cm birth length, + 75 g placental weight) for women who had ≥ 3 doses of SP compared to no doses, but no difference was detected in birth weight or length for women who had 2 instead of ≥ 3 SP doses. However, at 2 instead of ≥ 3 doses placentas were 36 g lighter and the odds of low birth weight (< 2500 g) were 14% higher. Severe parasite densities (> 10% erythrocytes infected) were significantly associated with decreases in birth weight, birth length, and placental weight, as were chronic PM infections. The women who received no SP during pregnancy (7% of the study total) were younger and lacked primary school education. The women who received ≥ 3 doses of SP came from more affluent families. CONCLUSIONS: Women who received no doses of SP during pregnancy experienced the most disadvantageous birth outcomes in both Bamako and on the Bandiagara Escarpment. Such women tended to be younger and to have had no primary school education. Targeting such women for antenatal care, which is the setting in which SP is most commonly administered in Mali, will have a more positive impact on public health than focusing on the increment from two to three doses of SP, although that increment is also desirable.


Assuntos
Malária , Placenta , Estudos de Coortes , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mali/epidemiologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirimetamina , Fatores de Risco , Sulfadoxina
3.
Trials ; 23(1): 259, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spatial repellents have been widely used for the prevention of mosquito bites but their efficacy in reducing mosquito-borne diseases has never been evaluated in Africa. Additionally, spatial repellents have the potential of being critical tools in the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases in contexts where typical vectors control efforts such as insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spray (IRS) are inaccessible or underutilized such as among displaced populations or in emergency relief settings. To address this knowledge gap, Kolondieba District, Sikasso Region, Mali was selected as a site to estimate the impact of the Mosquito Shield™, a spatial repellent that incorporates transfluthrin on a plastic sheet, on malaria-related outcomes. Over the past decade, the Region of Sikasso, Health districts of Kadiolo, Yorosso, and Kolondieba have remained among the most afflicted, characterized by an annual parasite incidence of more than 116 cases per 1000 population [1] and a Plasmodium falciparum prevalence rate of 29.7% [2]. METHODS: Cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial, whereby children ≥ 6 months to < 10 years old will be enrolled and followed to determine the time to malaria infection with monthly blood samples for microscopic diagnosis. A total of 1920 subjects (HHs) will be enrolled in 60 clusters (30 spatial repellent, 30 placebo). Malaria incidence will be estimated and compared to demonstrate and quantify the protective efficacy (PE) of a spatial repellent, in reducing malaria infection. Monthly mosquito collections using CDC light traps will be conducted to determine if there are entomological correlates of spatial repellent efficacy that may be useful for the evaluation of new spatial repellents. Quarterly human landing catches (HLC) will assess the behavioral effects of the intervention. DISCUSSION: Findings will serve as an efficacy trial of spatial repellent products for sub-Saharan Africa. Findings will be submitted to the World Health Organization Vector Control Advisory Group (WHO VCAG) for assessment of whether spatial repellents have "public health value." Entomological outcomes will also be measured as proxies of malaria transmission to help develop guidelines for the evaluation of future spatial repellent products. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04795648 . Registered on March 12, 2021.


Assuntos
Repelentes de Insetos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária , Animais , Criança , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mali/epidemiologia , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 815222, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35419344

RESUMO

Introduction: Community-level mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) was the first type of MHPSS program launched by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) back in 2004. Standardized beneficiary-level monitoring was put in place in late 2018. This is the first study to explore whether this type of program correlates, as intended, with reduced psychological distress and increased daily functioning. Methods: Between December 2018 and June 2020, 6,413 victims of violence received MHPSS through 32 community-level projects in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Mali and Nigeria. Symptoms of psychological distress (IES-R or DASS21) and daily functioning (ICRC scale) were assessed before and after the intervention and logistical regression models were used to identify predictors of these symptoms. Findings: Victims of the violence committed by weapon bearers were more likely to show high levels of anxiety prior to MHPSS (aOR 3.51; p < 0.0001). Also, victims of physical violence were more likely to show high levels of stress (aOR 1.49; p < 0.0001), whereas victims who had witnessed physical violence were more like to report high levels of depression (aOR 2.54; p < 0.0001). The most common perpetrators were weapon bearers (76%) and the most common type of violence was rape (46%). Lack of social support stood out as a predictor of both high anxiety (aOR 2.10; p < 0.0001) and post-traumatic stress (aOR 2.04; p < 0.0001) prior to MHPSS. Following MHPSS, the vast majority of beneficiaries reported a reduction in distress on the DASS21 (96.58%) and the IES-R scales (92.70%) as well as an increase of functioning (82.26%). Adherence to group therapy (seven sessions on average) was stronger than adherence to individual therapy (four sessions on average). A linear trend was found between length of treatment and likelihood of reporting reduced symptoms of depression. Having suffered destruction or loss of property or income predicted less improvement of functioning following MHPSS (aOR 0.90; p = 0.044). Conclusion: Receiving community-level MHPSS is associated with increased wellbeing among the vast majority of beneficiaries. To further enhance the intended health outcomes, it is recommended to increase the length of treatment per beneficiary (30 days minimum) and address, where relevant, the financial consequences of violence. Also, a longitudinal study is recommended to assess longer-term changes in MHPSS symptoms.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Conflitos Armados , Estudos de Coortes , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Mali/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 41: 4, 2022.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35145596

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding is a major healthcare issue. The purpose of this study is to determine the causes of emergency department overcrowding and to evaluate intra-hospital transfer after initial treatment. METHODS: we conducted a 1-year prospective study at the Emergency Reception Service of the Gabriel Touré University Hospital. All patients admitted to the Emergency Reception Service and belonging to classes 3, 4, 5 of the Clinical Classification of Emergency patients (CCEP) and whose length of stay in the department was greater than or equal to 24 hours were included in the study. Patients consulting the Emergency Department and classified as CCMU classes 1, 2, patients without a well-established medical record and patients who died before treatment were excluded by the study. RESULTS: we recorded 19.571 calls to the emergency service, including massive influxes (a remarkable 44 times, 570 patients). Bed occupancy rate was 108.03% in our department; at the same time, the average bed occupancy in the Hospital was 56%. According to the CCEP classification, 83.75% of patients were CCEP3. Patients with neurological disorders were 557. Patients with a trauma accounted for 56.7%, compared with 49.2% of medical disorders encountered. CONCLUSION: the average length of stay was 63.59 hours, with a maximum length of 45 days. More than a quarter of the reasons for delayed intra-hospital transfers were due to the need for specific surveillance or specific treatments that were not feasible in conventional hospitalization.


Assuntos
Ocupação de Leitos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Aglomeração , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Mali/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 117: 204-211, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important global health issue worldwide. Despite this scourge threatening many human lives, especially in developing countries, thus far, no advanced molecular epidemiology study using recent and more accurate tools has been conducted in Mali. Therefore, this study aimed to use variable-number tandem repeats of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU-VNTR) technology coupled with the spoligotyping method to accurately determine the hot spots and establish the epidemiological transmission links of TB in Bamako, Mali. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 245 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) were characterized using spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR, and an epidemiological investigation was conducted. RESULTS: Of the 245 isolates, 184 (75.1%) were formally identified. The most widespread strain was the Cameroon strain (83; 45.1%). Eight major clusters were identified: Ghana (27; 14.7%), West African 2 (22; 12%), Haarlem (13; 7.1%), H37Rv (t) (8; 4.3%), Latin American Mediterranean (8; 4.3%), and Uganda I and II (6; 3.3%). Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between lineages from the respective referral health centers of Bamako, Mali (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study establishes, for the first time, an accurate spatial distribution of circulating MTB strains in Bamako, Mali. The data was used to identify strains and "hot spots" causing TB infection and can also be used for more targeted public health responses, particularly for hot spots of drug-resistant strains.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Estudos Transversais , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Mali/epidemiologia , Repetições Minissatélites , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Encaminhamento e Consulta
7.
Malar J ; 21(1): 65, 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, three strategies have reduced severe malaria cases and deaths in endemic regions of Africa, Asia and the Americas, specifically: (1) artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT); (2) insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs); and, (3) intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in pregnancy (IPTp). The rationale for this study was to examine communities in Dangassa, Mali where, in 2015, two additional control strategies were implemented: ITN universal coverage and seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) among children under 5 years old. METHODS: This was a prospective study based on a rolling longitudinal cohort of 1401 subjects participating in bi-annual smear surveys for the prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection and continuous surveillance for the incidence of human disease (uncomplicated malaria), performed in the years from 2012 to 2020. Entomological collections were performed to examine the intensity of transmission based on pyrethroid spray catches, human landing catches and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing for circumsporozoite antigen. RESULTS: A total of 1401 participants of all ages were enrolled in the study in 2012 after random sampling of households from the community census list. Prevalence of infection was extremely high in Dangassa, varying from 9.5 to 62.8% at the start of the rainy season and from 15.1 to 66.7% at the end of the rainy season. Likewise, the number of vectors per house, biting rates, sporozoites rates, and entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) were substantially greater in Dangassa. DISCUSSION: The findings for this study are consistent with the progressive implementation of effective malaria control strategies in Dangassa. At baseline (2012-2014), prevalence of P. falciparum was above 60% followed by a significant year-to-year decease starting in 2015. Incidence of uncomplicated infection was greater among children < 5 years old, while asymptomatic infection was more frequent among the 5-14 years old. A significant decrease in EIR was also observed from 2015 to 2020. Likewise, vector density, sporozoite rates, and EIRs decreased substantially during the study period. CONCLUSION: Efficient implementation of two main malaria prevention strategies in Dangassa substantially contribute to a reduction of both asymptomatic and symptomatic malaria from 2015 to 2020.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Malária Falciparum , Malária , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Mali/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e057681, 2022 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the national prevalence as well as the individual and contextual factors associated with maternal healthcare utilisation in Mali. SETTING: The study was conducted in Mali. PARTICIPANTS: We analysed data on 6335 women aged 15-49 years from Mali's 2018 Demographic and Health Survey. OUTCOME VARIABLE: Maternal healthcare utilisation comprising antenatal care (ANC) attendant, skilled birth attendant (SBA), and postnatal care (PNC) attendant, was our outcome variable. RESULTS: Prevalence of maternal healthcare utilisation was 45.6% for ANC4+, 74.7% for SBA and 25.5% for PNC. At the individual level, ANC4 + and SBA utilisation increased with increasing maternal age, level of formal education and wealth status. Higher odds of ANC4 + was found among women who are cohabiting (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.25, 95% CI 1.16 to 4.37) and delivered by caesarean section (aOR=2.53, 95% CI 1.72 to 3.73), while women who considered getting money for treatment (aOR=0.72, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.88) and distance to health facility (aOR=0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.90) as a big problem had lower odds. Odds to use PNC was higher for those who were working (aOR=1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.48) and those covered by health insurance (aOR=1.87, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.57). Lower odds of SBA use were associated with having two (aOR=0.48, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.71), three (aOR=0.37, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.58), and four or more (aOR=0.38, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.59) children, and residing in a rural area (aOR=0.35, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.69). Listening to the radio and watching TV were associated with increased maternal healthcare utilisation. CONCLUSION: The government should increase availability, affordability and accessibility to healthcare facilities by investing in health infrastructure and workforce to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 3.4 of reducing maternal morality to less than 70 deaths per 100 000 live births by 2030. It is important to ascertain empirically why PNC levels are astonishingly lower relative to ANC and SBA.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal
9.
Malar J ; 21(1): 59, 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent trial in Burkina Faso and Mali showed that combining seasonal RTS,S/AS01E malaria vaccination with seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) substantially reduced the incidence of uncomplicated and severe malaria in young children compared to either intervention alone. Given the possible negative effect of malaria on nutrition, the study investigated whether these children also experienced lower prevalence of acute and chronic malnutrition. METHODS: In Burkina Faso and Mali 5920 children were randomized to receive either SMC alone, RTS,S/AS01E alone, or SMC combined with RTS,S/AS01E for three malaria transmission seasons (2017-2019). After each transmission season, anthropometric measurements were collected from all study children at a cross-sectional survey and used to derive nutritional status indicators, including the binary variables wasted and stunted (weight-for-height and height-for-age z-scores below - 2, respectively). Binary and continuous outcomes between treatment groups were compared by Poisson and linear regression. RESULTS: In 2017, compared to SMC alone, the combined intervention reduced the prevalence of wasting by approximately 12% [prevalence ratio (PR) = 0.88 (95% CI 0.75, 1.03)], and approximately 21% in 2018 [PR = 0.79 (95% CI 0.62, 1.01)]. Point estimates were similar for comparisons with RTS,S/AS01E, but there was stronger evidence of a difference. There was at least a 30% reduction in the point estimates for the prevalence of severe wasting in the combined group compared to the other two groups in 2017 and 2018. There was no difference in the prevalence of moderate or severe wasting between the groups in 2019. The prevalence of stunting, low-MUAC-for-age or being underweight did not differ between groups for any of the three years. The prevalence of severe stunting was higher in the combined group compared to both other groups in 2018, and compared to RTS,S/AS01E alone in 2017; this observation does not have an obvious explanation and may be a chance finding. Overall, malnutrition was very common in this cohort, but declined over the study as the children became older. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high burden of malnutrition and malaria in the study populations, and a major reduction in the incidence of malaria in children receiving both interventions, this had only a modest impact on nutritional status. Therefore, other interventions are needed to reduce the high burden of malnutrition in these areas. TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03143218 , registered 8th May 2017.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Quimioprevenção , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mali/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Estações do Ano , Vacinação
10.
PLoS Med ; 19(2): e1003902, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition among women of childbearing age is especially prevalent in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa and can be harmful to the fetus during pregnancy. In the most recently available Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), approximately 10% to 20% of pregnant women in India, Pakistan, Mali, and Tanzania were undernourished (body mass index [BMI] <18.5 kg/m2), and according to the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study, approximately 20% of babies were born with low birth weight (LBW; <2,500 g) in India, Pakistan, and Mali and 8% in Tanzania. Supplementing pregnant women with micro and macronutrients during the antenatal period can improve birth outcomes. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) that includes iron and folic acid (IFA) in the context of rigorous research. Additionally, WHO recommends balanced energy protein (BEP) for undernourished populations. However, few studies have compared the cost-effectiveness of different supplementation regimens. We compared the cost-effectiveness of MMS and BEP with IFA to quantify their benefits in 4 countries with considerable prevalence of maternal undernutrition. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using nationally representative estimates from the 2017 GBD study, we conducted an individual-based dynamic microsimulation of population cohorts from birth to 2 years of age in India, Pakistan, Mali, and Tanzania. We modeled the effect of maternal nutritional supplementation on infant birth weight, stunting and wasting using effect sizes from Cochrane systematic reviews and published literature. We used a payer's perspective and obtained costs of supplementation per pregnancy from the published literature. We compared disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) in a baseline scenario with existing antenatal IFA coverage with scenarios where 90% of antenatal care (ANC) attendees receive either universal MMS, universal BEP, or MMS + targeted BEP (women with prepregnancy BMI <18.5 kg/m2 receive BEP containing MMS while women with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2 receive MMS). We obtained 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all outputs to represent parameter and stochastic uncertainty across 100 iterations of model runs. ICERs for all scenarios were lowest in Pakistan and greatest in Tanzania, in line with the baseline trend in prevalence of and attributable burden to LBW. MMS + targeted BEP averts more DALYs than universal MMS alone while remaining cost-effective. ICERs for universal MMS compared to baseline IFA were $52 (95% UI: $28 to $78) for Pakistan, $72 (95% UI: $37 to $118) for Mali, $70 (95% UI: $43 to $104) for India, and $253 (95% UI: $112 to $481) for Tanzania. ICERs for MMS + targeted BEP compared to baseline IFA were $54 (95% UI: $32 to $77) for Pakistan, $73 (95% UI: $40 to $104) for Mali, $83 (95% UI: $58 to $111) for India, and $245 (95% UI: $127 to $405) for Tanzania. Study limitations include generalizing experimental findings from the literature to our populations of interest and using population-level input parameters that may not reflect the heterogeneity of subpopulations. Additionally, our microsimulation fuses multiple sources of data and may be limited by data quality and availability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that MMS + targeted BEP averts more DALYs and remains cost-effective compared to universal MMS. As countries consider using MMS in alignment with recent WHO guidelines, offering targeted BEP is a cost-effective strategy that can be considered concurrently to maximize benefits and synergize program implementation.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício/tendências , Proteínas na Dieta/economia , Ácido Fólico/economia , Ferro/economia , Micronutrientes/economia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados pela Incapacidade/tendências , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/tendências , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Vaccine ; 40(9): 1316-1322, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35101263

RESUMO

Measles is endemic in Africa; measles mortality is highest among infants. Infant measles antibody titer at birth is related to maternal immune status. Older mothers are likelier to have had measles infection, which provides higher antibody titers than vaccine-induced immunity. We investigated the relationship between maternal age and measles susceptibility in mother-infant pairs in Mali through six months of infancy. We measured serum measles antibodies in 340 mother-infant pairs by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and calculated the proportion of mothers with protective titers (>120 mIU/mL) at delivery and the proportion of infants with protective titers at birth, and at three and six months of age. We explored associations between maternal age and measles antibodies in mothers and infants at the timepoints noted. Ten percent of Malian newborns were susceptible to measles; by six months nearly all were. Maternal and infant antibody titers were highly correlated. At delivery, 11% of mothers and 10% of newborns were susceptible to measles. By three and six months, infant susceptibility increased to 72% and 98%, respectively. Infants born to younger mothers were most susceptible at birth and three months. Time to susceptibility was 6.6 weeks in infants born to mothers with measles titer >120-<430 mIU/mL versus 15.4 weeks when mothers had titers ≥430 mIU/mL. Maternal and newborn seroprotective status were positively correlated. Improved strategies are needed to protect susceptible infants from measles infection and death. Increasing measles immunization coverage in vaccine eligible populations, including nonimmune reproductive-aged women and older children should be considered.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Sarampo , Sarampo , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Mali/epidemiologia , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vírus do Sarampo
12.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(1): e41-e51, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyronaridine-artesunate is the most recently licensed artemisinin-based combination therapy. WHO has recommended that a single low dose of primaquine could be added to artemisinin-based combination therapies to reduce Plasmodium falciparum transmission in areas aiming for elimination of malaria or areas facing artemisinin resistance. We aimed to determine the efficacy of pyronaridine-artesunate and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine with and without single low-dose primaquine for reducing gametocyte density and transmission to mosquitoes. METHODS: We conducted a four-arm, single-blind, phase 2/3, randomised trial at the Ouélessébougou Clinical Research Unit of the Malaria Research and Training Centre of the University of Bamako (Bamako, Mali). Participants were aged 5-50 years, with asymptomatic P falciparum malaria mono-infection and gametocyte carriage on microscopy, haemoglobin density of 9·5 g/dL or higher, bodyweight less than 80 kg, and no use of antimalarial drugs over the past week. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to one of four treatment groups: pyronaridine-artesunate, pyronaridine-artesunate plus primaquine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine. Treatment allocation was concealed to all study staff other than the trial pharmacist and treating physician. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and pyronaridine-artesunate were administered as per manufacturer guidelines over 3 days; primaquine was administered as a single dose in oral solution according to bodyweight (0·25 mg/kg; in 1 kg bands). The primary endpoint was percentage reduction in mosquito infection rate (percentage of mosquitoes surviving to dissection that were infected with P falciparum) at 48 h after treatment compared with baseline (before treatment) in all treatment groups. Data were analysed per protocol. This trial is now complete, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04049916. FINDINGS: Between Sept 10 and Nov 19, 2019, 1044 patients were assessed for eligibility and 100 were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups (n=25 per group). Before treatment, 66 (66%) of 100 participants were infectious to mosquitoes, with a median of 15·8% (IQR 5·4-31·9) of mosquitoes becoming infected. In individuals who were infectious before treatment, the median percentage reduction in mosquito infection rate 48 h after treatment was 100·0% (IQR 100·0 to 100·0) for individuals treated with pyronaridine-artesunate plus primaquine (n=18; p<0·0001) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine plus primaquine (n=15; p=0·0001), compared with -8·7% (-54·8 to 93·2) with pyronaridine-artesunate (n=17; p=0·88) and 50·4% (13·8 to 70·9) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (n=16; p=0·13). There were no serious adverse events, and there were no significant differences between treatment groups at any point in the frequency of any adverse events (Fisher's exact test p=0·96) or adverse events related to study drugs (p=0·64). The most common adverse events were headaches (40 events in 32 [32%] of 100 participants), rhinitis (31 events in 30 [30%]), and respiratory infection (20 events in 20 [20%]). INTERPRETATION: These data support the use of single low-dose primaquine as an effective supplement to dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and pyronaridine-artesunate for blocking P falciparum transmission. The new pyronaridine-artesunate plus single low-dose primaquine combination is of immediate relevance to regions in which the containment of partial artemisinin and partner-drug resistance is a growing concern and in regions aiming to eliminate malaria. FUNDING: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. TRANSLATIONS: For the French, Spanish and Swahilil translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária Falciparum , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Artesunato/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Mali/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naftiridinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas , Primaquina/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neuroepidemiology ; 56(2): 127-137, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045422

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In resource-limited countries, epilepsy prevalence is underestimated and little is known about its risk factors. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for epilepsy in six health districts (HDs) in Mali. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional and nested case-control study was conducted in 180 villages with the highest number of suspicious epilepsy cases (SECs) in the six study HDs. The SECs were observed as part of a Phase 1 screening conducted by community health workers. For the nested case-control study, one case was matched with at least one control based on residence and age. A case of epilepsy was a person diagnosed with convulsive epilepsy after clinical assessment by a neurologist. A control was a person diagnosed as normal after neurological assessment by a neurologist. Data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, familial and medical history of epilepsy, consanguinity, place of delivery, preterm birth, length/type of delivery, and history of meningitis and cerebral malaria. A univariate and multivariate binomial logistic regression model was used to analyse factors associated with epilepsy. RESULTS: A total of 1,506 cases of epilepsy and 2,199 controls were enrolled in six HDs. The mean prevalence of epilepsy was 2‰, with the highest in Kenieba (3‰), a previously meso-endemic-onchocerciasis HD, and the lowest in Kadiolo (1.5‰), a hypo-endemic-onchocerciasis HD. Age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.02 [95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.02-1.03]), history of cerebral malaria (aOR = 11.41 [95% CI 8.86-14.85]), history of meningitis (aOR = 1.95 [95% CI 1.16-3.29]), living in the HD of Tominian (aOR = 1.69 [95% CI 1.29-2.22]), delayed delivery (aOR = 3.21 [95% CI 2.07-5.07]), and dystocia (aOR = 3.37 [95% CI 2.03-5.73]) were all significantly associated with epilepsy. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of epilepsy (3‰) in a previously meso-endemic-onchocerciasis HD was much lower than the prevalence (13.35‰) documented in onchocerciasis endemic areas in 2,000. This decrease epilepsy prevalence in the previously meso-endemic region was induced by onchocerciasis, and the reduction was due to an effective community direct treatment with ivermectin programme. Cerebral malaria and obstetrical complications were the main risk factors for epilepsy and interventions improving malaria prevention/treatment and optimizing prenatal and obstetrical care need to be implemented to reduce incidence.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Malária Cerebral , Oncocercose , Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Malária Cerebral/complicações , Mali/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/complicações , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062306

RESUMO

In Mali, a country in West Africa, cumulative confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths among healthcare workers (HCWs) remain enigmatically low, despite a series of waves, circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants, the country's weak healthcare system, and a general lack of adherence to public health mitigation measures. The goal of the study was to determine whether exposure is important by assessing the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in HCWs. The study was conducted between November 2020 and June 2021. HCWs in the major hospitals where COVID-19 cases were being cared for in the capital city, Bamako, Mali, were recruited. During the study period, vaccinations were not yet available. The ELISA of the IgG against the spike protein was optimized and quantitatively measured. A total of 240 HCWs were enrolled in the study, of which seropositivity was observed in 147 cases (61.8%). A continuous increase in the seropositivity was observed, over time, during the study period, from 50% at the beginning to 70% at the end of the study. HCWs who provided direct care to COVID-19 patients and were potentially highly exposed did not have the highest seropositivity rate. Vulnerable HCWs with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and asthma had even higher seropositivity rates at 77.8%, 75.0%, and 66.7%, respectively. Overall, HCWs had high SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, likely reflecting a "herd" immunity level, which could be protective at some degrees. These data suggest that the low number of cases and deaths among HCWs in Mali is not due to a lack of occupational exposure to the virus but rather related to other factors that need to be investigated.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
15.
Sex Transm Infect ; 98(2): 85-94, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753460

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of STI, their access to tailored healthcare services remains limited in West Africa. We assessed the change in STI symptoms incidence over time among MSM enrolled in a quarterly HIV prevention and care programme in four cities in Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Togo. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study in MSM followed up between 2015 and 2019. Men aged over 18 who reported anal sex with another man within the previous 3 months were offered quarterly syndromic diagnosis and treatment for STI, as well as HIV testing, peer-led counselling and support. Condoms and lubricants were also provided. The change in STI symptoms incidence during follow-up was investigated using a non-parametric trend test and mixed-effect Poisson regression models. RESULTS: 816 participants were followed for a total duration of 1479 person-years. 198 participants (24.3%) had at least one STI symptom during follow-up. Overall, STI symptoms incidence was 20.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI 18.4 to 22.6), ranging from 15.3 in Abidjan to 33.1 in Ouagadougou (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 2.39, 95% CI 1.55 to 3.69, p<0.001). STI symptoms incidence was 16.8 and 23.0 per 100 person-years in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants, respectively (aIRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57 to 1.04, p=0.087). STI symptoms incidence decreased significantly from 29.9 per 100 person-years in the first 6 months to 8.6 at 30-35 months of follow-up (aIRR per 6-month increase 0.84, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.92, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: STI symptoms incidence decreased over time but the overall burden of STI appeared to be very high in MSM followed up in West Africa. STI services including counselling, diagnosis and treatment should be reinforced. Laboratory tests that allow accurate diagnosis of STI are required. Strengthening STI services will be critical for controlling the HIV and STI epidemics in this vulnerable population and in the general population. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02626286.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Togo/epidemiologia
16.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 106(2): 648-654, 2021 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781256

RESUMO

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) was adopted in Mali in 2012 for preventing malaria in children younger than 5 years. Although this strategy has been highly effective in reducing childhood malaria, an uptick in malaria occurrence has occurred in children 5 to 15 years of age. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of providing SMC to older children. A cohort of 350 children age 5 to 14 years were monitored during the 2019 transmission season in Dangassa, Mali. The intervention group received five monthly rounds of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine, whereas the control group consisted of untreated children. Community acceptance for extending SMC was assessed during the final round. Logistic regression models were applied to compare the risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection, anemia, and fever between the intervention and control groups. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to compare the time to P. falciparum parasitemia infection between the groups. The community acceptance rate was 96.5% (139 of 144). Significant declines were observed in the prevalence of P. falciparum parasitemia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.11-0.42) and anemia (adjusted odds ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.07-0.28) in the intervention group compared with the control group. The cumulative incidence of P. falciparum infections was significantly greater (75.4%, 104 of 138) in the control group compared with the intervention group (40.7%, 61 of 143, P = 0.001). This study reveals that expanding SMC to older children is likely feasible, has high community acceptance, and is in reducing uncomplicated malaria and anemia in older children.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Quimioprevenção/normas , Malária/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Saúde Pública/métodos , Estações do Ano , Adolescente , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública/normas , Fatores de Risco
17.
Mali Med ; 36(1): 52-57, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732974

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mental health is a state of equilibrium and well-being, any alteration of which leads to the appearance of a state of distress and/or mental disorder. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this work was to study familial and environmental factors associated with mental disorders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Psychiatry Department of the Point G University Hospital Center from April 1, 2016 to March 31, 2017 among outpatients with a psychiatric disorder in whom factors associated with psychiatric disorders were studied. RESULTS: We included 288 patients. The median age was 33.0 years. The sex ratio was 1.88 in favor of males. Married patients accounted for 45.5%. First born uterine siblings accounted for 26.7%. Patients born of an inbreeding alliance accounted for 25.7%. Cases with a family history of a psychiatric disorder represented 59.0% and those who spent their childhood with their parents accounted for 64.2%. Cases of psychoactive substance use prior to the onset of the mental disorder accounted for 42.7%. The main psychosocial stress factors that preceded the onset of the mental disorder were grief (46.2%) and family conflict (22.6%). Psychotic disorders accounted for 77.8%. CONCLUSION: Our results show an association of mental disorders with family history of psychiatric disorder among patients followed in psychiatry. Further studies, such as genetic association may prove useful.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos Psicóticos , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6735, 2021 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795213

RESUMO

Serological surveys are essential to quantify immunity in a population but serological cross-reactivity often impairs estimates of the seroprevalence. Here, we show that modeling helps addressing this key challenge by considering the important cross-reactivity between Chikungunya (CHIKV) and O'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) as a case study. We develop a statistical model to assess the epidemiology of these viruses in Mali. We additionally calibrate the model with paired virus neutralization titers in the French West Indies, a region with known CHIKV circulation but no ONNV. In Mali, the model estimate of ONNV and CHIKV prevalence is 30% and 13%, respectively, versus 27% and 2% in non-adjusted estimates. While a CHIKV infection induces an ONNV response in 80% of cases, an ONNV infection leads to a cross-reactive CHIKV response in only 22% of cases. Our study shows the importance of conducting serological assays on multiple cross-reactive pathogens to estimate levels of virus circulation.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Febre de Chikungunya/imunologia , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Vírus O'nyong-nyong/imunologia , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Humanos , Mali/epidemiologia , Martinica/epidemiologia , Vírus O'nyong-nyong/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12): 2001-2009, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: False positivity may hinder the utility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serological tests in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: From 312 Malian samples collected before 2020, we measured antibodies to the commonly tested SARS-CoV-2 antigens and 4 other betacoronaviruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a subset of samples, we assessed antibodies to a panel of Plasmodium falciparum antigens by suspension bead array and functional antiviral activity by SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assay. We then evaluated the performance of an ELISA using SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and receptor-binding domain developed in the United States using Malian positive and negative control samples. To optimize test performance, we compared single- and 2-antigen approaches using existing assay cutoffs and population-specific cutoffs. RESULTS: Background reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 antigens was common in prepandemic Malian samples. The SARS-CoV-2 reactivity varied between communities, increased with age, and correlated negligibly/weakly with other betacoronavirus and P falciparum antibodies. No prepandemic samples demonstrated functional activity. Regardless of the cutoffs applied, test specificity improved using a 2-antigen approach. Test performance was optimal using a 2-antigen assay with population-specific cutoffs (sensitivity, 73.9% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 51.6-89.8]; specificity, 99.4% [95% CI, 97.7-99.9]). CONCLUSIONS: We have addressed the problem of SARS-CoV-2 seroassay performance in Africa by using a 2-antigen assay with cutoffs defined by performance in the target population.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , COVID-19/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Mali/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 196-201, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2004, Mali implemented mass drug administration (MDA) aimed at controlling schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths. Despite several rounds of MDA, the health district of Bankass reported low coverage (64.8%) for praziquantel and albendazole in 2017, meaning that this district was still facing challenges in accomplishing the targeted 75% coverage. This study aimed to explore the barriers and gaps that hindered MDA implementation in Bankass. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed. Questionnaires were administrated to all school-aged children in randomly selected villages. Technical directors of community health centers and community drug distributors in the selected villages were included in the interviews. RESULTS: A total of 2128 children and 52 health workers were interviewed. Coverage rates were 93.51% (1990/2128) for praziquantel and 95.25% (2027/2128) for albendazole. Among the untreated children, 31.63% (31/98) reported being unaware of the campaign and 26.53% (26/98) were unable to reach the distribution points. Most of the health workers suggested increasing incentives. CONCLUSION: The data showed satisfactory coverage >90%, in contrast with lower rates initially reported by the district health information system. These results raise concerns about the reliability of programmatic data and highlight the importance of population-based surveys for the evaluation of control interventions.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos , Helmintíase , Helmintos , Esquistossomose , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mali/epidemiologia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Prevalência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Solo
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