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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445541

RESUMO

Mallotus japonicus is a valuable traditional medicinal plant in East Asia for applications as a gastrointestinal drug. However, the molecular components involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites have not yet been explored, primarily due to a lack of omics resources. In this study, we established metabolome and transcriptome resources for M. japonicus to capture the diverse metabolite constituents and active transcripts involved in its biosynthesis and regulation. A combination of untargeted metabolite profiling with data-dependent metabolite fragmentation and metabolite annotation through manual curation and feature-based molecular networking established an overall metabospace of M. japonicus represented by 2129 metabolite features. M. japonicus de novo transcriptome assembly showed 96.9% transcriptome completeness, representing 226,250 active transcripts across seven tissues. We identified specialized metabolites biosynthesis in a tissue-specific manner, with a strong correlation between transcripts expression and metabolite accumulations in M. japonicus. The correlation- and network-based integration of metabolome and transcriptome datasets identified candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of key specialized metabolites of M. japonicus. We further used phylogenetic analysis to identify 13 C-glycosyltransferases and 11 methyltransferases coding candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of medicinally important bergenin. This study provides comprehensive, high-quality multi-omics resources to further investigate biological properties of specialized metabolites biosynthesis in M. japonicus.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mallotus (Planta)/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mallotus (Planta)/genética , Mallotus (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Órgãos , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(18)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899792

RESUMO

Anoctamin1 (ANO1), a calcium-activated chloride channel, is frequently overexpressed in several cancers, including human prostate cancer and oral squamous cell carcinomas. ANO1 plays a critical role in tumor growth and maintenance of these cancers. In this study, we have isolated two new compounds (1 and 2) and four known compounds (3-6) from Mallotus apelta. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on ANO1 channel activity and their cytotoxic effects on PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, compounds 1 and 2 significantly reduced both ANO1 channel activity and cell viability. Electrophysiological study revealed that compound 2 (Ani-D2) is a potent and selective ANO1 inhibitor, with an IC50 value of 2.64 µM. Ani-D2 had minimal effect on cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel activity and intracellular calcium signaling. Notably, Ani-D2 significantly reduced ANO1 protein expression levels and cell viability in an ANO1-dependent manner in PC-3 and oral squamous cell carcinoma CAL-27 cells. In addition, Ani-D2 strongly reduced cell migration and induced activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP in PC-3 and CAL-27 cells. This study revealed that a novel ANO1 inhibitor, Ani-D2, has therapeutic potential for the treatment of several cancers that overexpress ANO1, such as prostate cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma.


Assuntos
Anoctamina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Mallotus (Planta)/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anoctamina-1/metabolismo , Anoctamina-1/fisiologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/fisiologia , Células PC-3 , Ratos
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(5): e1800465, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779297

RESUMO

Five prenylflavonoids, 6-prenylnaringenin (1), 8-prenylnaringenin (2), 7-O-methyl-8-prenylnaringenin (3), 7-O-methyl-6-prenylnaringenin (4), and 4'-O-methyl-6-prenylnaringenin (5), were isolated from the traditional herb Mallotus conspurcatus Croizat (Euphorbiaceae). Compounds 1-5 revealed cytotoxic activity against cervical cancer (HeLa) cells with IC50 values ranging from 10.08 to 60.16 µm by MTT method, and interestingly, these prenylflavonoids were less toxic to normal HL-7702 cells. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 5 could inhibit the c-myc expression and telomerase activity and cause mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings might contribute to a better understanding of the biological activities of prenylflavonoids and lay the foundation for further studies on the cytotoxic activity of natural products isolated from M. conspurcatus.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/química , Mallotus (Planta)/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Flavanonas/química , Flavanonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mallotus (Planta)/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-myc/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Telomerase/metabolismo
4.
Tree Physiol ; 34(9): 1018-29, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25151648

RESUMO

Phloem fibres in Mallotus japonicus Müll. Arg. were found to have a multi-layered structure that is S1 + S2 + n(G + L), where a non-lignified gelatinous layer (G) and a lignified layer (L) are formed alternately and n indicates the number of repetitions of these two layers. The aim of this study was to determine the process of xylan deposition and lignification in the multi-layered cell walls of phloem fibres. The formation process of the multi-layered structure of secondary phloem fibres was examined by light microscopy, ultraviolet microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The distribution of glucuronoxylan was examined by immunoelectron microscopy. The activity of peroxidase was also determined using metal-enhanced diaminobenzidine substrates. Immunolabelling of glucuronoxylan occurred in lignified cell wall layers, except in the compound middle lamella (CML), i.e., the S1, S2 and L layers but not the G layers. Change in immunolabelling density suggests that xylan deposition in these lignified layers occurs appositionally, i.e., xylan is deposited into the lignified layers directly and not by a penetrative mechanism, and deposition does not occur after the layers are fully deposited. Peroxidase activity was found in CML including cell corners during S2 layer formation, then in developing G layers during G layer formation. Peroxidase activity was also found in the thin L layers that formed recently and was not found in the L layers already present. Xylan labelling was not found in the thin L layers that formed recently but did occur in L layers that developed earlier. Lignification of the S1 and S2 layers continued during the formation of the G layers, whereas in the L layers it finished just after deposition of the L layer.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/diagnóstico por imagem , Mallotus (Planta)/metabolismo , Floema/citologia , Xilanos/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Mallotus (Planta)/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Microscopia Imunoeletrônica , Microscopia Ultravioleta , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Floema/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ultrassonografia
5.
Ann Bot ; 106(1): 143-8, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20472698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most studies on plant defence strategies have focused on a particular defence trait, some plant species develop multiple defence traits. To clarify the effects of light on the development of multiple defence traits, the production of direct and indirect defence traits of young plants of Mallotus japonicus were examined experimentally under different light conditions. METHODS: The young plants were cultivated under three light conditions in the experimental field for 3 months from May to July. Numbers of ants and pearl bodies on leaves in July were examined. After cultivation, the plants were collected and the developments of trichomes and pellucid dots, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) on the leaves were examined. On plants without nectar-collecting insects, the size of EFNs and the volume of extrafloral nectar secreted from the EFNs were examined. KEY RESULTS: Densities of trichomes and pellucid dots did not differ significantly among the plants under the different light conditions, suggesting that the chemical and physical defences function under both high and low light availability. The number of EFNs on the leaves did not differ significantly among the plants under the different light conditions, but there appeared to be a trade-off between the size of EFNs and the number of pearl bodies; the largest EFNs and the smallest number of pearl bodies were found under high light availability. EFN size was significantly correlated with the volume of extrafloral nectar secreted for 24 h. The number of ants on the plants was smaller under low light availability than under high and moderate light availability. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that direct defence traits function regardless of light conditions, but light conditions affected the development of indirect defence traits.


Assuntos
Luz , Mallotus (Planta)/parasitologia , Mallotus (Planta)/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Clorofila/metabolismo , Mallotus (Planta)/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação
6.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 50(5): 753-63, 2009 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19586736

RESUMO

Some Mallotus species are used in traditional medicine in Vietnam. To use certain species in Western medicines or as food supplements, they should be identified and quality control should be more strict, for instance, to avoid the erroneous switching of species. In species with interesting activities, the compounds responsible for them should be identified. For these identifications, HPLC fingerprint methodology can be used. In this paper, HPLC fingerprints of different lengths were developed for a number of Mallotus species. Secondly, a multivariate regression model was constructed to model the antioxidant activity of the Mallotus samples from the HPLC fingerprints with the aim to indicate peaks possibly responsible for this activity. For this purpose, after data pretreatment, the calibration technique partial least squares (PLS) was applied.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/instrumentação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Mallotus (Planta)/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Calibragem , Cromatografia/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Radicais Livres , Indicadores e Reagentes/análise , Indicadores e Reagentes/isolamento & purificação , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Multivariada , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Componente Principal , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos
7.
Oecologia ; 157(1): 1-12, 2008 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18481097

RESUMO

It is generally believed that asymmetric competition for light plays a predominant role in determining the course of succession by increasing size inequalities between plants. Size-related growth is the product of size-related light capture and light-use efficiency (LUE). We have used a canopy model to calculate light capture and photosynthetic rates of pioneer species in sequential vegetation stages of a young secondary forest stand. Growth of the same saplings was followed in time as succession proceeded. Photosynthetic rate per unit plant mass (P(mass): mol C g(-1) day(-1)), a proxy for plant growth, was calculated as the product of light capture efficiency [Phi(mass): mol photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) g(-1) day(-1)] and LUE (mol C mol PPFD(-1)). Species showed different morphologies and photosynthetic characteristics, but their light-capturing and light-use efficiencies, and thus P (mass), did not differ much. This was also observed in the field: plant growth was not size-asymmetric. The size hierarchy that was present from the very early beginning of succession remained for at least the first 5 years. We conclude, therefore, that in slow-growing regenerating vegetation stands, the importance of asymmetric competition for light and growth can be much less than is often assumed.


Assuntos
Luz , Fotossíntese , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Euphorbiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Euphorbiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Euphorbiaceae/metabolismo , Gleiquênias/anatomia & histologia , Gleiquênias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gleiquênias/metabolismo , Mallotus (Planta)/anatomia & histologia , Mallotus (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mallotus (Planta)/metabolismo , Melastomataceae/anatomia & histologia , Melastomataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melastomataceae/metabolismo , Poaceae/anatomia & histologia , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poaceae/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Árvores/anatomia & histologia , Árvores/metabolismo , Vietnã
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